Slovenia, as the first member of the EU among the countries of former Yugoslavia, has established a consistent system of training of civil servants that serves as a support to all the processes of the Public Administration reform and modernization. Therefore our experience was interesting for other countries in the region. Many study visits have hence taken place in the past few years:
UNDP – Kosovo authorities (May 2003),
Government of Serbia (June 2003),
Montenegro Ministry of Justice (March 2004),
Bosnia and Herzegovina (October 2004),
Macedonia (November 2004),
Serbia (December 2004).
To all parts of the Slovenian Public Administration system including the recently adopted legislation has been presented, with a particular attention to the Civil Servants Act and accompanying by-laws. Connected to that, the Academy informed the ministries about the system of training in public administration together with organization and activities of the Academy. To some ministries the Academy staff presented the insights of the annual training programme, the system of proficiency exams, the trainers' recruitment system, and the procedure of training needs analysis and evaluation of training.
There have been many closer contacts established, resulted to exchange of information and opinions between some ministries' members and the Academy staff on a daily basis.
For the moment, the Administration Academy is working on the agreement on closer cooperation with the Civil Servants Agency of Republic of Macedonia in the field of training of civil servants. We plan to develop joint projects, training programmes, internships and to contribute to enhancement of contacts between other organizations of public administrations of both sides. By establishing this kind of cooperation, we expect to benefit from the experience of our partner institution and from all kind of synergies this cooperation should bring.
SPAIN: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (INAP)
With other training providers, the INAP has concluded various collaboration agreements with some of the most prestigious universities and business schools in the country. This partnership is particularly intense in the field of leadership training.
Both parties can benefit from this intense collaboration: INAP and public officials to update policies and management strategies on the basis of input provided by research activities, academia is engaged in issues of particular concern for the Administration and involved in the whole modernisation debate. Those agreements allow civil servants to earn a Master degree on issues of paramount importance for the public service and in their units.
In this regard, we would like to highlight the following collaboration agreements:
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid: Master on public policies management and analysis addressed to public leaders and it is focused on the new approaches on public policies analysis and management, the new challenges that public leaders face today acting in very complex environments.
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED): Master on quality management of training addressed to civil servants leading training policies.
Universidad de Alcalá: Master on Public Administration and Management addressed to international students.
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid: Master on Information and communications technologies. A new agreement for establishing a Phd on computer language and software engineering is due to be signed in the next future.
On-line training offer: INAP has signed a collaboration agreement with CEDDET-World Bank to provide training on local budget management, human resources, communication skills and on-line training methods to Latin American civil servants.
With international training institutions: INAP has signed an agreement with the Fulbright Commission in order to establish a grant programme to allow Spanish civil servants to follow postgraduate studies at US Universities. This programme has been very successful and we are currently studying the possibility of extending this experience to other universities abroad.
With the regional and local authorities: Spanish Autonomous Communities are responsible for recruitment, organization and training of their civil service and all Autonomous Communities have created a civil service training institution
International cooperation: a cooperation agreement with the Portuguese Institute of Administration and the French École Nationale d´Administration. We collaborate with the European Institute of Public Administration and encourage Spanish participation in their activities. INAP is interested in increasing joint activities with our European counterparts.
In addition, the Latin American Network of Schools and Institutes has recently been created in order to deepen mutual relations and promote benchmarking and quality management in training and recruitment activities. This instrument allows us to develop a constant network and exchanges between our civil services through joint activities, stages and common research projects and publications.
SWEDEN: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT OFFICE
is that a collaborative and co-creative activity with a duration of a couple of years/ long term and also mutual beneficial to all partners?
With such a definition a number of different cases of partnership can be exemplified.
1. The example given with NSG and Henley (and also other universities were given) shows a trend in civil service training – partnership with universities. Our programs are accepted as academic courses through the university, which is responsible for accreditation and academic examination.
In our case such collaborations exist around specific programs especially programs including legal training where the legal components are delivered through partnerships with Law Schools
- EU-legal system
- Environmental Law
We also have a partnership when it comes to an academic program about The EU-system in general.
Comments: It is technically easy to get partnership with universities as long as they operate as a part of the state administration as you don’t need to go to a full tender procedure between state authorities.
The importance here is then to develop a partnership based on mutual trust and where the different roles a well defined.
2. Partnership with private consultants
What about a long-term relationship with a consultancy organization?
Contracts are usually based on tender with a time-frame of 2+1 year. But in fact a number of consultancy organizations have gained contracts for two or even three periods. In such cases it is possible to develop collaborative long-term relation.
But you can also have specific projects with private consultancy where the aim of the project is to co-create development programs. In a second stage the delivery of the program might take place either with the consultancy (through tender) or by your own staff.
We have used this type of partnership in a number of cases;
- EU-decision-making processes
- leadership especially communication
We also have a long-term relation with a consultancy on negotiations, conflict resolution and mediation? The complexity of the tasks and the necessity to meet the specific demands, i.e co-creation in development and training, makes the relation very collaborative. Developing new cases, feeding new experience into the training activities, combining resources.
The same goes for some of our consultants/trainers in leadership development. In these cases co-creation as well as joint-evaluations take place. In a way the partnership could be seen more as a contract where we hire the consultant as a part-time teacher. This type of partnership develops over time and is very often the result of working together for some years than developing that co-operation into collaboration and co-creation.
3. Partnership with other agencies
This type of partnership was rather common in EU-training during 1995-2000. The partnership consisted of a number of parties, the Government Office (Forum Europa), a ministry and the executive agencies linked to the ministry. The partnership covered the whole spectrum of training and development activities.
The type of partnership varies. Sometimes you have a bilateral partnership for a special problem or issue. Example Sweden and Finland on training for the EU presidency
(collaboration and co-creation), exchange agreements between EU-members (collaboration).
Other types of partnership are more multilateral with varying degrees of cooperation, collaboration and co-creation. Presently we are active in a handful of such partnerships.
SWITZERLAND: IDHEAP – Institut de Hautes etudes en Administration Publique
Strategic partnerships :
- Ecole nationale d’administration publique (ENAP) in Québec, Canada
- Deutsche Hochschule für Verwaltungswissenschaft (HFV Speyer) in Speyer, Germany
- Instituto Nacional de Admintração (INA) in Lisbon, Portugal
- European Institute in Public Administration (EIPA) in Maastricht, The Netherlands
- Sun Yat Sen (Zhongshan) University in Canton, China
Ukraine: National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA)
The Heads of Schools Forum is highly relevant for our country at this particular time, when the new Government of Ukraine has a clearly course towards European integration and the adaptation of public administration system to European standards.
The entire history of our institution has been built on strategic partnership, mostly international. It started in 1992 with the establishment of the Institute of Public Administration and Local Self-Government. The first Ukrainian MPA programme was established from scratch, based on best international practice and models. Initial strategic partnerships were established with the University of North London (now London Metropolitan University), NYU Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service, a number of leading Canadian universities and government institutions through long-term and large scale CIDA funded projects managed by the Canadian Bureau of International Education, as well as with a number of other countries’ institutions and international organisations.
The benefits of those initial partnerships to our institution were invaluable – they led to:
building institutional capacity for training public servants;
recognition of the full-time MPA programme internationally and nationally ;
training and professional development of our faculty;
provision and development of learning resources;
creating a cohort of reform-minded public servants.
With the establishment of the Ukrainian Academy of Public Administration in 1995 on the basis of IPALG we continued to maintain and develop cooperation with our traditional international partners and established new partnerships, mainly with Central European and Baltic countries. The focus of partnership at this stage shifted from building institutional capacity overall to building and strengthening capacity in very particular areas:
improving the content and quality of training programmes and building public policy analysis capacity;
introducing e-learning into Academy’s programmes;
developing research and consultancy expertise.
This period – starting from 1995 on – was the time of real mutual partnership: Academy’s staff and faculty brought into it such qualities as ability to identify the needs and priorities for cooperation, good administrative and managerial skills, adaptability and resourcefulness, whereas our partners developed good understanding of how to work in transitional economies, flexibility in addressing current needs and forecasting future ones. Cooperation with institutions and individual experts from such countries as Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia proved to be highly relevant due to their recent experience in reforming public administration and civil service systems, understanding the challenges that Ukraine faced and willingness to share their success stories and lessons learned.
The Academy became a nationally recognised leading institution in the system of training public servants and local government officials. NAPA’s network comprises the Institute of In-Service Training for Senior Civil Servants and four Regional Institutes of Public Administration. It offers full-time, part-time and distance learning MPA programmes, in-service training courses, advanced degree programmes to obtain Candidate of Science and Doctor of Science Degrees in Public Administration, carries out extensive research and publication programmes.
These long-term partnerships resulted in such major outcomes as international recognition of our full-time MPA programme – in 2004 it became an EAPAA Accredited Public Administration Programme in the category of master programmes; introduction of new specialisations such as Public Policy Analysis and European Integration; establishment of Distance Learning Centre which was the first and now recognised as one of the best GDLN centres in Europe and Central Asia Region, and just recently – creation of Ukrainian Interregional Distance Learning Network.
The benefits were significant and they had a critical impact on our long-term strategy:
while preparing for European accreditation we went through a good self-evaluation exercise that helped us – in short, to think and plan strategically;
developed capacity to transfer knowledge and expertise to partner institutions;
improved research and consultancy skills of our faculty and staff and developed capacity to identify priorities for institutional development and modernisation and improvement of training programmes and process.
Ukraine faces the challenging agenda of reforming its public sector in view of adaptation to European administration space, European principles and standards of public service, and introducing new dimensions into training of public servants in line with Bologna Declaration on creating European educational space. Academy worked out its own development and modernisation strategy and identified the following priority areas where it requires international assistance and partnership in the first place:
development of new training capacity – trainers, programmes, methodology – especially for training senior civil servants (in-service, on-the-job training), based on best international practice and models;
improvement of MPA programmes to better balance theoretical and practical aspects and emphasise on building leadership competency and management skills;
introduction of quality management system, improvement of performance assessment and student achievements evaluation procedures and standards;
development of comprehensive national programme of training civil servants for European integration.
We start working in this direction with a number of partners, including National School of Government (UK), National School of Public Administration (Poland), Lithuanian Institute of Public Administration, London Metropolitan University and others. We are open to establish new partnership relations that would help us implement rather challenging reform agenda, and we would like to build long-term and indeed strategic partnerships to this end.
UK: NATIONAL SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT
The National School of Government will be the centre of excellence for learning and development in support of the strategic business priorities of government.
Strategic Relationship Management
The National School is developing its strategic relationship management capacity in order to:
engage strategically with key clients and stakeholders in departments
ensure that the National School can understand the requirements for developing people to meet departmental business objectives and also to work with departments to meet their policy objectives.
Developing Strategic Partnerships
The National School will act as honest broker, working in partnership with other public service academies, professional institutes, business schools, universities and schools of public administration in order to identify, design, deliver and evaluate individual and organisational development interventions. These partnerships will also:
increase capacity for effective and responsive delivery from the best available
provide professional accreditation
build the National School as a centre of excellence; the voice of public service development both nationally and internationally
Domestically, the National School is currently working with Warwick Business School, Ashridge, Henley Management College, Oxford University, and Birmingham University. It has also been brought in as a partner to the LSE on the PATENT project which is aiming to develop a European curriculum for national senior civil servants. Also, the National School continues to play an active part in the European Reciprocal Training Programme.
International partnerships include membership of project consortiums in Macedonia (with the British Council), Kosovo (NICO in Belfast, the German Dbb Akademie and the Kosovo Foundation for Open Society) and Ukraine (working with a Polish delivery team based around the National School of Public Administration). The National School has led two successive phases of an EU-funded Twinning project for the Polish Office of the Civil Service, working with Danish and Spanish partners.
Strengthening capacity to follow up on the Tomorrow’s Leaders Group working with other public sector academies (National Health Service Institute, Defence Academy) to deliver key corporate programmes for the senior civil service:
Senior civil service induction on appointment/promotion
New Senior Leadership programme 2 years into senior civil service career
New Leadership Development portfolio for senior civil service staff with potential
Fostering the senior civil service leadership community
Working with the Prime Minister’s Office (No10) and the Delivery Unit on ministerial development
Intellectual capacity building of the National School has included the development of the Sunningdale Institute, an association of leading academics appointed as Fellows of the National School of Government. Fellows will be a resource to the public service in a number of ways:
Input into permanent secretary development
Think-tank style discussions and analysis of major issues
Contribution to early thinking on policy areas
Seminars and presentations for the senior civil service and other key groups.