In this instructional module, the students will learn how to examine both literary and informational texts that reflect the politics, culture, and society of the 1920s Boom Time era. Essentially, the students will analyze literature through the lens of information obtained through a close reading of informational texts provided in the learning module - the “New Woman,” “Prohibition,” “The Jazz Age,” and “Mass Culture and Consumerism.” After analyzing the informational and literary texts (F. Scott Fitzgerald’s “Head and Shoulders” and Langston Hughes’s “Spanish Blood”), the students’ final task is to make an argument about the literary texts based on their knowledge of the era. The focus here is how the motifs heavily influenced 1920s society and ideology, as evidenced by the literature.
Dr. Lucilla Esham, Ms Eden Hade, Ms Lindsay Danz
Sussex Technical High School
Dr. Bonnie Albertson, University of Delaware
Ms Theresa Bennett, Delaware Department of Education
Acquisition Lesson Plan #1
Concept: Active Reading - Reading Informational Texts with Purpose Estimated Time: 1-2 days
Prerequisites: Students should have received prior instruction in the following:
knowledge of the 1920’s era (American History connection). A power point and related notes are included for potential use as a review
the characteristics and purposes of non-narrative/informational text
CCSS Reading Standards for 9th and 10th grade, including knowledge of the differences between central ideas and key details and summarizing.
active reading strategies, including note-taking and highlighting pertinent information.
MLA/APA formatting, especially proper citing of direct quotes, and experience with paraphrasing.
Thematic EQ: How did Prohibition, the New Woman, Mass Consumerism, and Jazz reflect the economic, political, and social ideas of the 1920s Boom Time?
Skill EQ: How do readers extract relevant information from informational texts for a given purpose.
Assessment Prompt #1: Identify and paraphrase main/central ideas.
Assessment Prompt #2: Select text-based evidence and accurately cite quotes that illustrate central ideas.
Assessment Prompt #3: Summarize central ideas, integrating quotes.
Standards: CCSS literacy standard
12.RIT.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
12. RIT.2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
12.RIT.3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
12.RIT.10 By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Warm-up: The teacher will write the four 1920s-related topics on the board: “The New Woman,” “Prohibition,” “Mass Culture /Consumerism,” and “Jazz.” Students will be assigned to work in pairs or groups. Each pair or group will be assigned one of the motifs. In partners, they are to activate prior knowledge of the 1920s era by listing at least two ideas associated with the assigned topic. (Example: The student-generated example for jazz could be “Harlem Renaissance” and “Louis Armstrong”). The students will write their student-generated examples on the board. Then, the teacher will lead the class in adding any additional ideas, clarifying (via student discussion) definitions, and then sorting/classifying each example into three categories: economic, social, and political (some ideas might reflect more than one motif). This activity helps segue students to the thematic Essential Question.
materialism, consumerism, class warfare, economics, mass (or national) culture, social tension, sexism, feminism, taboo, gender roles, big business, laissez-faire, liberal, conservative
Instructional Plan: Reading informational texts for a given purpose.
Debriefing Activating Strategy: Teacher gives overview of the module by explaining that students will be reading about the four ideas (New Woman, Prohibition, Mass Consumerism, and Jazz) and applying these ideas to one (or two) short stories from the 1920s. Teacher reviews the characteristics of informational texts and explains to students that their job will be to analyze these short stories from the era through the lens of four topics covered in informational texts to answer the thematic Essential Question.
Instructional Sequence # 1 (Identifying relevant information from Informational Texts)
Introduce the Essential Question: Teacher dialogue: “We will be reading and taking notes on four informational texts throughout the 1920s BOOM TIME Unit. Our goal is to read the informational and literary texts in order to answer essential question: How are the economic, political, and social ideas of the 1920s Boom Time era reflected in literature of that time period? Information gained from the four informational texts will be used throughout the unit and you will apply this knowledge to the short stories from the time period. ”
Introduce Informational Texts and Note Taking Sheet(Attachments A-E)
Identifying Central Ideas:
Using “The Devil’s Music: 1920s Jazz” (Attachment A, or teacher choice, Attachment B, C &D) the teacher begins to read the text aloud and model how to identify the central information by highlighting and taking notes on a copy of the text (either on paper copy, document camera, or on electronic copy via Smart Board). The teacher will pause periodically, using a think-aloud (verbal modeling) to emphasize certain passages or quotations. For example, modeling with the first 7 paragraphs of the text, the teacher might ask him/herself what ideas are repeated throughout that section, emphasizing that repeated words/phrases is one good way of identifying central ideas. (S)He might identify (and highlight) the words/phrases that are repeated yet stand in opposition such as the negative words that refer to jazz (barbaric, immoral, rule-breaking, unacceptable, censor, offensive, trash, dangerous, etc.) versus the words/phrases that express the opposition to jazz (conventional white sensibilities, ‘proper’ establishments, etc.). The teacher uses these contrasts to generate a central idea statement such as “When jazz first surfaced, it was scorned by traditional, mainstream white society.”
The teacher emphasizes the importance of using his/her own words (rather than repeating, for example, the first sentence in the text, which does capture the central idea).
The teacher also models distinguishing between key details (such as New Orleans was the first center of jazz, etc.).
After reading the text aloud and modeling note-taking/highlighting. The teacher then solicits ideas from students as to a second central idea from the same 7 paragraphs (ideas could include that jazz originated in the south but spread to the north).
Finally, teacher invites students to work with a partner (or small group) to generate a third central idea from the same section (ideas might include that despite efforts from conservative groups, whites soon gravitated to jazz). Teacher Note re: Attachment E - Research Organizer asks for “three” main ideas as a way to get the students to glean what they consider to be the most important from the text, or from a section of text. This can be changed according to students’ needs/experiences. Attachment E can be further differentiated by scaffolding (e.g., partially completed sentences) for students who need additional support.
Assessment Prompt #1: Identify central/main ideas in informational text and paraphrase - Teacher checks third support for 1) accuracy and for 2) students’ ability to paraphrase the idea. Re-teach as necessary
Differentiationfor Instructional Sequence #1 – teachers can teach (guided release of responsibility) identifying central/main ideas first, and then teach paraphrasing separately if appropriate. If so, teacher would have 2 separate assessment prompts: 1 for identifying central/main idea and one for paraphrasing.
Supporting evidence – quotes: Teacher models identifying supporting text-evidence/quotes that exemplify the central idea. For example, teacher can identify the first sentence in paragraph 2 as evidence, and then models effectively quoting the information (“Jazz music had to evolve ‘from a radically new and socially unacceptable musical genre’”). Using the gradual release of responsibility used in 3 (above), students collaborate to identify a supporting quote for central idea 2, and then work with a partner to identify a supporting quote for central idea 3. Teacher Note: It will be necessary to model the use of citations and to emphasize the importance of citing an author’s work to avoid plagiarism. The teacher will then ask for 2-3 volunteers to read aloud their summaries and 2-3 volunteers to share their direct quotes. The teacher will provide feedback and suggestions as necessary.
Assessment Prompt 2: Students collaborate to identify a supporting quote for central idea 3, and then work with a partner to identify a supporting quote for central idea. Teacher checks relevance and accuracy of supporting quote for central/main idea #3. Re-teach as necessary.
Modeling Summarizing: The teacher defines summary (includes all important information, no extraneous details) and models, seeking student input in constructing a summary based on identified central ideas. The students will then fill out the “Summary” sections on their own. Teacher Note: Summaries should focus on central/main ideas, not details, and this should be reinforced with examples/non-examples.
Independent Practice – completing “The Devil’s Music: 1920s Jazz”: Have students finish reading the text, identifying additional central/main ideas with supporting quotes. Students then combine their newly identified central ideas with those from the teacher modeling (# 2 and 3 above), and crafting a summary for the whole text.
Assessment Prompt 3: Students summarize central ideas, integrating quotes. Teacher checks final summaries for accuracy (inclusion of central ideas, excluding details.
Self-Directed Learning Application:
Analyzing Informational Texts: In small groups (no more than four), students will be assigned one of three remaining instructional texts: Attachments B, C, &D: “Prohibition: Unintended Consequences;”“The New Woman;”“The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture.” (*Teacher Note/Suggestion. The students should complete the first of the three remaining informational texts in a small group, the second with a partner, and the final text independently. As they read the informational texts, they will fill out a research organizer for each. Differentiation might include reading with an assigned reading partner or reading the text using text-to-speech software. Teacher dialogue: “You will be expected to read through the informational text, highlighting and notating on the text as you read. Please fill out the Research Organizer (Attachment E) for each informational text. When finished with your first informational text, you can begin reading the next text with your assigned partner. The remaining text will be read independently. By our next class, please read, notate and highlight, and complete a Research Organizer for each instructional text, including “Jazz”, which we completed together as a class.”
Assignment(s): Assign the remaining texts to be read, highlighted, and notated. Students will finish for homework (if appropriate).
Attachment A: The Devil’s Music
The Devil’s Music: 1920s Jazz When the new sound of jazz first spread across America in the early twentieth-century, it left delight and controversy in its wake. The more popular it became, the more the liberating and sensuous music was criticized by everyone and everything from carmaker Henry Ford to publications like the Ladies Home Journal and The New York Times. Yet jazz survived.
Dubbed by conservatives as “the devil’s music,” the 1920s era can be examined to determine the evolution of jazz music from a radically new and socially unacceptable musical genre to its current status as a great American art form. What was it about the music that offended so many people-and how did jazz finally gain widespread acceptance? Does this struggle for respect resonate with modern musical artists like the creators of rap?
Jazz was different because it broke the rules -- musical and social. It featured improvisation over traditional structure, performer over composer, and black American experience over conventional white sensibilities. Undercurrents of racism bore strongly upon the opposition to jazz, which was seen as barbaric and immoral. Before jazz emerged, many music educators -- worried that jazz would destroy young people's interest in classical music -- tried to convince the public that European classical music was the only "good music." Jazz musician Marian McPartland recalls the stigma of the jazz sound by illustrating how the genre was originally not socially acceptable, nor allowed in the conservative school system of the 1920s: "One day I was in a practice room supposedly practicing classical music, but I was playing some jazz and, I guess my professor heard me because he opened the door and looked in and said, 'stop playing that trash.'"
But the music played on. New Orleans became the first center of jazz, with honky-tonk clubs popping up all over Storyville, the city's red-light district. Because black musicians were not allowed to play in "proper" establishments like their white counterparts, jazz became associated with brothels and other less reputable venues. In 1917, when the US Navy, fearing for the health and safety of sailors who frequented the jazz clubs, shut down these jazz venues, throwing the composers, singers, and musicians out into the streets. However, in the same year, the Original Dixieland Jazz Band -- an all white group from New Orleans -- cut the first jazz record, bringing the music to a national audience and opening the door for sound-alike white bands to cash in on the jazz scene.
As jazz's popularity grew, so did campaigns to censor "the devil's music." Early detractors like Thomas Edison, inventor of the phonograph, ridiculed jazz, saying it sounded better played backwards. A Cincinnati home for expectant mothers won an injunction to prevent construction of a neighboring theater where jazz would be played, convincing a court that the music was dangerous to fetuses. By the end of the 1920s, at least sixty communities across the nation had enacted laws prohibiting jazz in public dance halls.
While the critics and the courts failed to silence jazz, the growing demand for labor following World War I managed to expand its influence. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans fled the South to find work in industrial cities to the north during the teens and early twenties. Artists need an audience, so musicians from New Orleans and other Southern cities flocked north as well, bringing jazz with them. Chicago became the new center of jazz with more than 100 clubs dotting the city's South Side. "Midnight was like day," wrote poet Langston Hughes, referring to the city's music-filled nightlife.
The advent of Prohibition in 1920 brought jazz into gangster-run nightclubs -- the only venues that served alcohol and hired black musicians. Whites and blacks began mixing socially for the first time in the Black and Tan clubs of Chicago. White youth from all social classes were drawn to jazz and the seductive new dances that went along with it. With the help of the monkey glide, the turkey trot, and the Charleston, they were moved by the music, figuratively and literally. This newfound physical freedom, combined with the illicit mix of races and the widespread belief that jazz stimulated sexual activity, caused critics of jazz to step up their efforts. "Jazz was originally the accompaniment of the voodoo dance, stimulating half-crazed barbarians to the vilest of deeds," proclaimed Ann Shaw Faulkner, president of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, a powerful alliance of women's social and reform groups that launched a crusade against jazz in 1921.
But the reformers couldn't fight progress. Jazz recordings allowed the music to reach beyond the nightclubs. New York radio and recording companies began to dominate the music industry, replacing Chicago as the center of jazz. In the 1920s, the black arts movement known as the Harlem Renaissance began, solidifying the city's position at the epicenter of African American culture. Although jazz was an important part of this movement, not all blacks were fans of the music, including W. E. B. DuBois, a leader of the Harlem Renaissance, who was said to prefer Beethoven and "Negro" spirituals to jazz. "There is no question that black people themselves were the ones saying we have to uphold the standards of European culture," explains scholar and cultural critic Michael Eric Dyson. "Upper-class Negroes were, you know, inveighing [angrily critiquing] against the vicious nature of that gutter, ghetto Negro music."
The 1920s also marked the self-coronation of the "King of Jazz," a white bandleader named Paul Whiteman. Although many blacks and whites criticized Whiteman for co-opting and sanitizing jazz, his recordings, which linked his syncopated sound to European symphonic music, sold millions. While Whiteman was getting rich, Louis Armstrong -- the true jazz genius -- arrived in New York City, where he played to a smaller, but loyal audience of fans and fellow musicians who understood that they were witnessing a new revolution in jazz. Armstrong soon emerged as a star attraction, achieving popular success on the New York stage. Although his fan base was well established by the end of the decade, Armstrong's record company suggested he change suggestive lyrics to avoid offending his white audiences.
The Devil's Music features another jazz great of the century, composer and bandleader Duke Ellington, who created a sensation when he toured England in 1933. By the time Ellington hit the scene, classical musicians and music critics alike were analyzing jazz and declaring it a serious art form.
But even today, the controversy over gangster rap and explicit song lyrics suggests that concern still exists over the effect that some African American popular music may have on its listeners. "Unless we speak against this [rap music], it will creep continually into our society and destroy the morals of our young people," declares Reverend Calvin Butts. William Bennett of Empower America says, "I think that nothing less is at stake than preservation of civilization. This stuff by itself won't bring down civilization but it doesn't help." "It's controversial because it provides something different," sums up rap artist Chuck D. "It's a different point of view."
__________________________________________________________________________________ Carter, Maria Agui, and Calvin A. Lindsay, Jr. "The Devil's Music: 1920s Jazz." Public Broadcasting Service. WGBH Educational Foundation, 2011. Web. 08 Nov. 2012.
Source Website: www.pbs.org
Attachment B: Prohibition
Attachment B - Prohibition: Unintended Consequences
Prohibition: Unintended Consequences
When the Mayor of Berlin, Gustav Boess, visited New York City in the fall of 1929, one of the questions he had for his host, Mayor James J. Walker, was when Prohibition was to go into effect. The problem was that Prohibition has already been the law of the United States for nearly a decade. That Boess had to ask tells you plenty about how well it was working.
The Noble Experiment
When the Prohibition era in the United States began on January 19, 1920, a few sage observers predicted it would not go well. Certainly, previous attempts to outlaw the use of alcohol in American history had fared poorly. When a Massachusetts town banned the sale of alcohol in 1844, an enterprising tavern owner took to charging patrons for the price of seeing a striped pig—the drinks came free with the price of admission. When Maine passed a strict prohibition law in 1851, the result was not temperance, but resentment among the city's working class and Irish immigrant population. A deadly riot in Portland in 1855 lead to the law's repeal. Now, Prohibition was being implemented on a national scale, and being enshrined in the Constitution no less. What followed was a litany of unintended consequences.
This should have come as no surprise with a venture as experimental as Prohibition. It is no mistake that President Herbert Hoover's 1928 description of Prohibition as "a great social and economic experiment, noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose" entered the popular lexicon as "the noble experiment." It was unfortunate for the entire nation that the experiment failed as miserably as it did.
Economics of Prohibition
Prohibition's supporters were initially surprised by what did not come to pass during the dry era. When the law went into effect, they expected sales of clothing and household goods to skyrocket. Real estate developers and landlords expected rents to rise as saloons closed and neighborhoods improved. Chewing gum, grape juice, and soft drink companies all expected growth. Theater producers expected new crowds as Americans looked for new ways to entertain themselves without alcohol. None of it came to pass.
Instead, the unintended consequences proved to be a decline in amusement and entertainment industries across the board. Restaurants failed, as they could no longer make a profit without legal liquor sales. Theater revenues declined rather than increase, and few of the other economic benefits that had been predicted came to pass.
On the whole, the initial economic effects of Prohibition were largely negative. The closing of breweries, distilleries and saloons led to the elimination of thousands of jobs, and in turn thousands more jobs were eliminated for barrel makers, truckers, waiters, and other related trades.
The unintended economic consequences of Prohibition didn't stop there. One of the most profound effects of Prohibition was on government tax revenues. Before Prohibition, many states relied heavily on excise taxes in liquor sales to fund their budgets. In New York, almost 75% of the state's revenue was derived from liquor taxes. With Prohibition in effect, that revenue was immediately lost. At the national level, Prohibition cost the federal government a total of $11 billion in lost tax revenue, while costing over $300 million to enforce. The most lasting consequence was that many states and the federal government would come to rely on income tax revenue to fund their budgets going forward.
IRS Treasury official with confiscated still, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
"Cat and Mouse"
Prohibition led to many more unintended consequences because of the cat and mouse nature of Prohibition enforcement. While the Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and transportation of intoxicating beverages, it did not outlaw the possession or consumption of alcohol in the United States. The Volstead Act, the federal law that provided for the enforcement of Prohibition, also left enough loopholes and quirks that it opened the door to myriad schemes to evade the dry mandate.
One of the legal exceptions to the Prohibition law was that pharmacists were allowed to dispense whiskey by prescription for any number of ailments, ranging from anxiety to influenza. Bootleggers quickly discovered that running a pharmacy was a perfect front for their trade. As a result, the number of registered pharmacists in New York State tripled during the Prohibition era.
Because Americans were also allowed to obtain wine for religious purposes, enrollments rose at churches and synagogues, and cities saw a large increase in the number of self-professed rabbis who could obtain wine for their congregations.
The law was unclear when it came to Americans making wine at home. With a wink and a nod, the American grape industry began selling kits of juice concentrate with warnings not to leave them sitting too long or else they could ferment and turn into wine. Home stills were technically illegal, but Americans found they could purchase them at many hardware stores, while instructions for distilling could be found in public libraries in pamphlets issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The law that was meant to stop Americans from drinking was instead turning many of them into experts on how to make it.
The trade in unregulated alcohol had serious consequences for public health. As the trade in illegal alcohol became more lucrative, the quality of alcohol on the black market declined. On average, 1000 Americans died every year during the Prohibition from the effects of drinking tainted liquor.
The Greatest Consequence
The effects of Prohibition on law enforcement were also negative. The sums of money being exchanged during the dry era proved a corrupting influence in both the federal Bureau of Prohibition and at the state and local level. Police officers and Prohibition agents alike were frequently tempted by bribes or the lucrative opportunity to go into bootlegging themselves. Many stayed honest, but enough succumbed to the temptation that the stereotype of the corrupt Prohibition agent or local cop undermined public trust in law enforcement for the duration of the era.
The growth of the illegal liquor trade under Prohibition made criminals of millions of Americans. As the decade progressed, court rooms and jails overflowed, and the legal system failed to keep up. Many defendants in prohibition cases waited over a year to be brought to trial. As the backlog of cases increased, the judicial system turned to the "plea bargain" to clear hundreds of cases at a time, making a it common practice in American jurisprudence for the first time.
The greatest unintended consequence of Prohibition however, was the plainest to see. For over a decade, the law that was meant to foster temperance instead fostered intemperance and excess. The solution the United States had devised to address the problem of alcohol abuse had instead made the problem even worse. The statistics of the period are notoriously unreliable, but it is very clear that in many parts of the United States more people were drinking, and people were drinking more.
There is little doubt that Prohibition failed to achieve what it set out to do, and that its unintended consequences were far more far reaching than its few benefits. The ultimate lesson is two-fold. Watch out for solutions that end up worse than the problems they set out to solve, and remember that the Constitution is no place for experiments, noble or otherwise.
Women's lives at the end of the nineteenth century were changing dramatically on various fronts, most visibly so for daughters middle and upper classes. Female education was expanding, with the secondary school system growing rapidly. From 1890 to 1920, women comprised 55% all high school students and 60% all high school graduates. By 1900, all but three state universities admitted women on same terms as men (Virginia, Georgia and Louisiana)… Going to college was a badge of class privilege but for some women, it was also a badge of aspiration signifying goals beyond the ordinary horizons of most women. Acquiring higher education signified that a woman was busy with worldly and not just domestic occupations. White, native-born women were joining white foreign-born and black women in the labor force for first time and despite exploitative conditions under which they sometimes labored. These women were increasingly to be found in the previously male domains of business and the professions. The percentage of female professionals reached an historic peak in the early twentieth century while new and highly visible white collar occupations provided work for secretaries and salesgirls.
Gainfully employed and educated "new women" represented to themselves and to society a kind of vanguard of social usefulness and personal autonomy--independent womanhood. Women determined to extend boundaries and raise stakes woman movement.
Here, among the new women were the new feminists, described by Randolph Bourne, progressive intellectual at Columbia University:
"They are all social workers, or magazine writers in a small way. They are decidedly emancipated and advanced, and so thoroughly healthy and zestful, or at least it seems so to my unsophisticated masculine sense. They shock you constantly...They have an amazing combination of wisdom and youthfulness, of humor and ability, and innocence and self-reliance, which absolutely belies everything you will read in the story-books or any other description of womankind. They are of course all self-supporting and independent, and they enjoy the adventure of life; the full, reliant, audacious way in which they go about makes you wonder if the new woman isn't to be a very splendid sort of person."
The Emergence of the New Feminism
Feminism was part of a free-ranging spirit of rebellion at the turn of the century. It severed the woman's movement from Christianity and conventional respectability. It was part of the broader "revolt against formalism" in American culture--refusal to heed the abstraction of womanhood, the calcified definitions of female character and nature handed down to them by previous generations. These new feminists were determined to "realize personality," to achieve self-determination through life, growth, and experience. As Charlotte Perkins Gilman described her: "Here she comes, running, out of prison and off the pedestal; chains off, crown off, halo off, just a live woman."
Feminism sought to change human consciousness about male dominance. To do so, they had to create a community of women in struggle against patriarchy. They found such a community in the suffrage movement. But suffragism and feminism were separable, though overlapping and reciprocally influential, movements. Feminists' presence in the suffrage movement broadened the margins of the movement, bringing in working women, leftists, and pacifists, while the suffrage campaign gave feminists a platform. Yet feminists differed from suffragists in terms of style and attitude. They reacted against the emphasis in the woman movement on female nurturance, selfless service, and moral uplift. Feminists would brag that they were doing the world some good but that it was just as important that they were also having a better time than any woman in world before. (Emma Goldman was well-known for having supposedly said, when criticized by a colleague for dancing when there was still human suffering in the world, "If I can't dance, it's not my revolution.")
The Woman movement stressed woman's duties while feminists reinvigorated demands for woman's rights. It demanded the removal of social, political and economic discrimination based on sex and sought rights and duties on the basis of individual capacity alone.
Key Tenets of the New Feminism: Economic and Sexual Freedom
New feminists deemed an independent livelihood a necessity. The new feminism had ideologically grown out of the left of the political spectrum; it was first espoused by women who were familiar with socialism and who had advantage of bourgeois backgrounds but identified with working classes and hoped for the elimination of class oppression. These new feminists tended to romanticize working-class woman who they saw as economically independent and self-reliant. Their critique of the American gender system was embedded in their critique of its social and economic system. Feminism appealed to them because they saw an analogy between feminism's and socialism's analyses of group oppression--meaning they saw the patterns of class oppression as parallel to gender oppression--and they saw in the proposals of one to transform society the potential to transform both.
The freedom to choose work regardless of one's sex and marital status was a central belief of New Feminists. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (an influential feminist) critiqued what she called the sexuo-economic relation that bound men and women, molding women to exaggerate certain sex-specific characteristics in order to attract men upon whom they relied as economic providers. The major themes of the time were the economic subordination of women, a belief in human changeability and the inevitability of progress (she was devoted to evolutionary theory); a belief in human reason and rationality; opposition to behavior or ideas based on unexamined authority or blind obedience; and the need to replace male power with what she called the female principle of nurturance and cooperation. Gilman urged women to leave what she saw as their ancient and unspecialized occupation as homemakers and to follow the modern path stretched out by industry and the professions…Gilman proposed the socialization of home employments such as cooking and laundry. She argued that housecleaning and childcare were better performed by specialized, paid employees than by untrained housewives and mothers not necessarily suited for and certainly not paid to do these tasks.
In the 1920s, twentieth-century feminism parted company with the nineteenth-century; the Victorian idea of women's moral superiority to men as being rooted in their passionlessness (for more on this, see the True Womanhood page). New feminists celebrated female sexuality and asserted women's "sex rights." Sex outside marriage was a kind of behavioral outlawry that appealed to new feminists' desires to overturn conventionality.. Generally, feminists critiqued bourgeois marriage as predictable, emotionally barren, and subject to male tyranny. But their purpose seemed less to destroy monogamy than to restore it to value, based on a new egalitarian companionability and mutual desire on the part of men and women. They cared little whether these relations were blessed by state and church or not.
It is interesting that most feminists found the theory of non-marital sex easier to swallow than the continued practice of it. Feminists did marry, divorce, and remarry, often keeping their maiden names and trying to establish egalitarian relationships. Mary Heaton Vorse put her compromise this way: "I am trying for nothing so hard in my own personal life as how not to be respectable when married."
This was difficult. Early twentieth-century feminists assigned considerable value to sexual freedom and assumed that free women could meet men as equals on the terrain of sexual desire just like that of political representation or professional expertise. It was not easy for them to acknowledge the potential for a woman to submerge her individuality and personality in her heterosexual love relationships. They saw the potential for domination in loving men. Nor could they publicly discuss the potential in these relationships for men's sexual exploitation of women who broke the bounds of conventional sexual restraint. In private, however, they acknowledged these problems. Doris Stevens, California suffragist imprisoned and force-fed for her heroic actions on behalf of suffrage, wrote, "I am sure the emancipated man is a myth sprung from our hope and eternal aspiration." On the other hand, other new feminists argued that females were bound to nurturance and to maternity. They often argued that women should be free to form love relationships whenever so moved and should be able to end marriages which did not bring them sexual satisfaction.
The Paradox of the New Feminism
Feminism in 1910s pursued two interconnected but theoretically antagonistic kinds freedom. New feminists sought the emancipation of woman as a human being and as "sex-being," creature of her special nature. Feminists wanted to have it both ways--to like men and in some respects to be like men, while loyal politically and ideologically to their own sex; and to expand the concept of womanhood while proclaiming the variability of individuals within a sex. Feminism was full of double aims: it joined the concept of women's equality with men to the concept of sexual difference; it joined the aim of individual release of personality with that of concerted social action; it joined the endorsement of what was human to the development of political solidarity among women.
Attachment D: The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture
The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture
Many of the defining features of modern American culture emerged during the 1920s. The record chart, the book club, the radio, the talking picture, and spectator sports all became popular forms of mass entertainment. But the 1920s primarily stand out as one of the most important periods in American cultural history because the decade produced a generation of artists, musicians, and writers who were among the most innovative and creative in the country's history.
The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment
By the end of the 1920s, Americans were overwhelmed by the rise of a modern consumer culture. In response, many of the bitter cultural tensions that had divided Americans had begun to subside. The growth of exciting new opportunities to buy cars, appliances, and stylish clothing made the country's cultural conflicts seem less significant. The collapse of the new economy at the decade's end would generate economic debates as intense as the cultural conflicts of the early and mid-1920s.
Americans in the 1920s were the first to wear ready-made, exact-size clothing. They were the first to play electric phonographs, to use electric vacuum cleaners, to listen to commercial radio broadcasts, and to drink fresh orange juice year round. In countless ways, large and small, American life was transformed during the 1920s, at least in urban areas. Cigarettes, cosmetics, and synthetic fabrics such as rayon became staples of American life. Newspaper gossip columns, illuminated billboards, and commercial airplane flights were novelties during the 1920s. The United States became a consumer society.
Cars were the symbol of the new consumer society that emerged in the 1920s. In 1919, there were just 6.7 million cars on American roads. By 1929, there were more than 27 million cars--or nearly one car for every household in the United States. In that year, one American out of every five owned a car, compared to one out of every 37 English and one out of every 40 French car owners. Car manufacturers and banks encouraged the public to buy the car of their dreams on credit. Thus, the American love affair with the car began. In 1929, a quarter of all American families purchased a car. About 60 percent bought cars on credit, often paying interest rates of 30 percent or higher.
Cars revolutionized the American way of life. Enthusiasts claimed that the automobile promoted family togetherness through evening rides, picnics, and weekend excursions. Critics decried squabbles between parents and teenagers over use of the automobile and an apparent decline in church attendance resulting from Sunday outings. Worst of all, charged critics, automobiles gave young people freedom and privacy, serving as "portable bedrooms" that couples could take anywhere.
The automobile also transformed the American landscape, quickly obliterating all traces of the horse and buggy past. During the 1920s, the country doubled its system of roads and highways. The nation spent over $2 billion annually building and maintaining roads. By 1929, there were 852,000 miles of roads in the United States, compared to just 369,000 miles in 1920. The car also brought pollution, congestion, and nearly 30,000 traffic deaths a year… The automobile industry provided an enormous stimulus for the national economy. By 1929, the industry produced 12.7 percent of all manufacturing output, and employed one out of every 12 workers. Automobiles, in turn, stimulated the growth of steel, glass, and rubber industries, along with the gasoline stations, motor lodges, campgrounds, and hot dog stands that do**tted the nation's roadways.
Alongside the automobile, the telephone and electricity also became emblems of the consumer economy. By 1930, two-thirds of all American households had electricity, and half of American households had telephones. As more and more of America's homes received electricity, new appliances followed: refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and toasters quickly took hold. Advertisers claimed that "labor saving" appliances would ease the sheer physical drudgery of housework, but they did not shorten the average housewife's work week. Women had to do more because standards of cleanliness kept rising. Sheets had to be changed weekly. The house had to be vacuumed daily. In short, social pressure expanded household chores to keep pace with the new technology. Far from liberating women, appliances imposed new standards of cleanliness.
Ready-to-wear clothing was another important innovation in America's expanding consumer economy. During World War I, the federal government defined standard clothing sizes to help the nation's garment industry meet the demand for military uniforms. Standard sizes meant that it was now possible to mass produce ready-to-wear clothing. Since there was no copyright on clothing designs until the 1950s, garment manufacturers could pirate European fashions and reproduce them using less expensive fabrics.
Even the public's eating habits underwent far-reaching shifts. Americans began to consume fewer starches (like bread and potatoes) and to consume more fruit and sugar. But the most striking development was the shift toward processed foods. Instead of preparing food from scratch at home (plucking chickens, roasting nuts, or grinding coffee beans), an increasing number of Americans purchased foods that were ready-to-cook. Important innovations in food processing occurred during World War I as manufacturers learned how to efficiently produce canned and frozen foods. Processed foods saved homemakers enormous amounts of time in peeling, grinding, and cutting.
Installment credit soared during the 1920s. Banks offered the country's first home mortgages. Manufacturers of everything--from cars to irons--allowed consumers to pay "on time." About 60 percent of all furniture and 75 percent of all radios were purchased on installment plans. In contrast to a Victorian society that had placed a high premium on thrift and saving, the new consumer society emphasized spending and borrowing.
A fundamental shift took place in the American economy during the 1920s. The nation's families spent a declining proportion of their income on necessities (food, clothing, and utilities) and an increasing share on appliances, recreation, and a host of new consumer products. As a result, older industries, such as textiles, railroads, and steel, declined, while newer industries, such as appliances, automobiles, aviation, chemicals, entertainment, and processed foods, surged ahead rapidly.
Of all the new appliances to enter the nation's homes during the 1920s, none had a more revolutionary impact than the radio. Sales of radios soared from $60 million in 1922 to $426 million in 1929. The first commercial radio station began broadcasting in 1919, and during the 1920s, the nation's airwaves were filled with musical variety shows and comedies.
Radio drew the nation together by bringing news, entertainment, and advertisements to more than 10 million households by 1929. Radio blunted regional differences and imposed similar tastes and lifestyles. No other media had the power to create heroes and villains so quickly. When Charles Lindbergh became the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic from New York to Paris in 1928, the radio brought this incredible feat into American homes, transforming him into a celebrity overnight.
Radio also disseminated racial and cultural caricatures and derogatory stereotypes. The nation's most popular radio show, "Amos 'n Andy," which first aired in 1926 on Chicago's WMAQ, spread vicious racial stereotypes into homes whose white occupants knew little about African Americans. Other minorities fared no better. The Italian gangster and the tightfisted Jew became stock characters in radio programming.
The phonograph was not far behind the radio in importance. The 1920s saw the record player enter American life in full force. Piano sales sagged as phonograph production rose from just 190,000 in 1923 to 5 million in 1929. The popularity of jazz, blues, and "hillbilly" music fueled the phonograph boom. The novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald called the 1920s the "Jazz Age"--and the decade was truly jazz's golden age. Duke Ellington wrote the first extended jazz compositions; Louis Armstrong popularized "scat" (singing of nonsense syllables); Fletcher Henderson pioneered big band jazz; and trumpeter Jimmy McPartland and clarinetist Benny Goodman popularized the Chicago school of improvisation.
The popularity of the movies soared as films increasingly featured glamour, sophistication, and sex appeal. New kinds of movie stars appeared: the mysterious sex goddess, personified by Greta Garbo; the passionate hot-blooded lover, epitomized by Rudolph Valentino; and the flapper, with her bobbed hair and skimpy skirts. New film genres also debuted, including swashbuckling adventures, sophisticated sex comedies, and tales of flaming youth and their new sexual freedom… Like radio, movies created a new popular culture with common speech, dress, behavior, and heroes. Like radio, Hollywood did its share to reinforce racial stereotypes by denigrating minority groups. The radio, the electric phonograph, and the silver screen both molded and mirrored mass culture.
Spectator sports attracted vast audiences in the 1920s. The country yearned for heroes in an increasingly impersonal, bureaucratic society, and sports provided them. Prize fighters like Jack Dempsey became national idols. Team sports flourished, however, Americans focused on individual superstars, people whose talents or personalities made them appear larger than life. Knute Rockne and his "Four Horsemen" at Notre Dame spurred interest in college football. Professional football began during the 1920s. In 1925, Harold "Red" Grange, the "Galloping Ghost" halfback for the University of Illinois, attracted 68,000 fans to a professional football game at Brooklyn's Polo Grounds.
Baseball drew even bigger crowds than football. The decade began, however, with the sport mired in scandal. In 1920, three members of the Chicago White Sox told a grand jury that they and five other players had thrown the 1919 World Series. As a result of the "Black Sox" scandal, eight players were banished from the sport. But baseball soon regained its popularity, thanks to George Herman ("Babe") Ruth, the sport's undisputed superstar. Up until the 1920s, Ty Cobb's defensive brand of baseball, with its emphasis on base hits and stolen bases, had dominated the sport. Ruth transformed baseball into the game of the home-run hitter. In 1921, the New York Yankee slugger hit 59 home runs--more than any other team. In 1927, the "Sultan of Swat" hit 60 home runs.
Website Title: The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture
Publisher: Digital History
Source Website: www.digitalhistory.uh.edu
Attachment E: Research Organizer
Introduction: The 1920s were an age of dramatic social and political change. For the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms. The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929, and this economic growth swept many Americans into an affluent but unfamiliar “consumer society.” People from coast to coast bought the same goods (thanks to nationwide advertising and the spread of chain stores), listened to the same music, did the same dances and even used the same slang! Many Americans were uncomfortable with this new, urban, sometimes racy “mass culture”; in fact, for many–even most–people in the United States, the 1920s brought more conflict than celebration. However, for a small handful of young people in the nation’s big cities, the 1920s were roaring indeed.
1. Individually, you are going to choose a topic of interest from the 1920s Boom Time era and read the research given on the chosen topic.
2. Then, you are going to meet with group members to compare your research with theirs. You will add any new information you receive from your group members to your own collected research.
3. You are then to meet with your other classmates concerning their own researched topics. As a group, you will answer the following questions:
As you read, think about the essential question for this lesson: How did Prohibition, the New Woman, Mass Consumerism, and Jazz reflect the economic, political, and social ideas of the 1920s Boom Time?
How does our social history (our freedoms, our ideals, our demographics and diversity, our consumerism, etc.) affect the political and economic landscape?Additionally, theorize why the era of the 1920s is considered to be the birth of modern culture.