2010 vcu open Saturday: Round 11


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2010 VCU Open Saturday: Round 11

Questions by VCU, Michigan, and UCSD


  1. This country’s independence movement was led by a man who enacted the Liberal Revolution and issued the “Plan for the Fatherland,” Justo Rufino Barrios. A group of “October Revolutionaries” in this country overthrew the dictator Jorge Ubico and sparked the “Ten Years of Spring” by stepping aside and opening an election in which the former professor José Arévalo was elected. The Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchu wrote an account of a civil war in this country, which included the burning of the Spanish embassy and was the longest civil war in Latin American history, running from 1960 to 1996. Manuel Estrada attempted to start a Cult of Minerva in this country, and one of its leaders was overthrown in the US backed Operation PBSUCCESS. That coup overthrew Jacobo Arbenz and was lobbied for by the United Fruit Company. For 10 points, name this Latin-American country.
    ANSWER: Guatemala

  1. One of this man’s buildings is connected by “the Node” to an Exhibition Wing added in 1999 by Kisho Kurokawa. Because of the long black board that makes up both its support and its back, this architect’s Berlin Chair is often called the “plank chair,” and both that chair and his Steltman Chair are asymmetrical and produced with right and left hand versions. This architect of Amsterdam’s Van Gogh Museum connected four boards to form his “Zig-Zag” chair. His namesake joint consists of three battens overlapping in three directions, and he used this construction in his “Red and Blue Chair.” One of this man’s buildings includes several partitions which can be open or closed to customize the living experience. That house is located in Utrecht and has been called “a cardboard Mondrian,” as it exemplifies De Stijl architecture. For 10 points, name this designer of the Schroder House.

    ANSWER: Gerrit Rietveld

  1. At the end of this play, the title character resides “in a vault up to the knees in water” according to his guards, Matrevis and Gurney. Earlier, the wife of the title character is called a “French strumpet,” despite her not cheating on him with Mortimer until later in the play. After a letter that could either say to kill the protagonist or not to kill him due to the placement of the comma is sent, Lightborn kills the title character, who is the brother of the Earl of Kent. The title character proclaims that before the Earl of Cornwell will part from him “this isle shall fleet upon the ocean.” However, after Cornwell dies, the title character bestows his favor upon Spencer. The intrigues of Queen Isabella with Mortimer lead to the fall of Spencer and the death of the title character by a hot poker, but she is herself defeated by her son. Featuring Piers Gaveston, for 10 points, name this play by Christopher Marlowe.
    ANSWER: Edward II

  1. According to some Song historians, the advent of jinshi examinations expanded this practice from exclusively elites to include lower class families. In Islam, sigheh, one form of this practice, involves specifying an amount of time in exchange for an amount of money, but more generally this is known as nikah. In Hinduism, Saptapadi ends the ceremony associated with this practice as its participants walk around a fire seven times, but that ceremony begins when one person arrives on a white horse. In Judaism, ketubeh precedes this while Catholics believe that Jesus, at Cana, established this practice as one of the Seven Sacraments. In Eastern Orthodoxy, priests can partake in this practice before their ordination, but not after. For 10 point, name this practice generally ended by legal separation and a divorce.

    ANSWER: marriage [accept wedding; accept equivalents]

  1. With Richard Feynman, this man helped popularize and discover the VA theory of weak interactions. With Nishijima, this man names a formula relating electric charge to isospin plus hypercharge and they also proposed hadrons as a class of particles. Along with Yuval Ne’eman, this man predicted the existence of the omega minus particle with his Baryon decuplet and Eightfold Way. In studying kaons, he proposed the strangeness quantum number. This man’s namesake matrices are representations of the SU(3) group and are used in QCD, while he also created the color quantum number. Independently of George Zweig, this man posited the existence of quarks. For 10 points, name this winner of the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics.
    ANSWER: Murray Gell-Mann

  1. The title character of this novel is often called a “wayfarer” and lives in the residences of 13th Street and 1314 Lorrie Street in different cities. One character grows obese and plays roulette late in life after losing it all in a real estate deal prompted by his brother’s maneuvering of a carriage corporation. To absolve Sebastian of any punishment for stealing coal, his sister agrees to sleep with Senator Brander. The protagonist dons the name Mrs. Stover and adopts two orphans after losing her daughter Vesta to typhoid fever. On his deathbed, the primary male character explains that he should never have left the title character for Letty Pace. The German Lutheran parents of the title character correctly suspect that her relationship with Lester Kane is illicit. For 10 points, identify this novel by Theodore Dreiser.
    ANSWER: Jennie Gerhardt

  1. This leader established a military power base in Cheshire under Sir Thomas Molineux de Cuerdale to counteract his rivals, and he may have had homosexual relations with the man he made Duke of Ireland, Robert de Vere. This husband of Anne of Bohemia had rivals who convened the Wonderful Parliament and the Merciless Parliament, which killed or exiled important supporters of this man. His fall came after he killed Thomas of Woodstock, the Duke of Gloucester. He advocated peace with France, leading to the marriage to Isabella of Valois, the daughter of Charles VI. That policy had earlier led to the formation of the Lords Appellant. After the death of his uncle John of Gaunt, this man prevented his cousin Henry of Bolingbroke from inheriting John’s lands, leading to an invasion. For 10 points, name this unfortunate king, the son of Edward the Black Prince who was succeeded by Henry IV.

ANSWER: Richard II [accept Richard of Bordeaux]

  1. Mutations of this protein include a TCD version that resisted gene silencing and a redox variant that contains reversible disulfide cross-links. A 2010 study introduced azatryptophan into this molecule to study effects of protein folding. Alba was the name of a controversial rabbit that was supposedly infused with this protein. It has a beta-barrel shape, in the middle of which is a serine-tyrosine-glycine sequence that gives this protein its function. It has been extracted from the sea pansy, as well as from Aequorea victoria, a jellyfish. Roger Tsien created San Diego beach landscapes using, for 10 points, what protein that won its discoverers the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which fluoresces at 509 nanometers?
    ANSWER: Green Fluorescent Protein

  1. One section of this text examines the use of an "index word" to convey various scenarios, such as "collid[ing] with the police car," "warming myself before the fire," and "ca[tching] myself beginning to dream." That section equates introspection with retrospection, describes "higher-order actions" criticizing "lower-action" ones, and concludes that "No metaphysical Iron Curtain exists compelling us to be forever absolute strangers to one another." In line with that thought, its author earlier discusses "disposition" and "occurrence" words and later dismisses imagination as simply playing in a theater box. It opens with the claim that to confuse the discourse of bodies and the discourse of the title entities is to imagine the title entity as a "ghost in the machine." For 10 points, identify this work of metaphysical philosophy by Gilbert Ryle.

    ANSWER: The Concept of Mind

  1. This monarch attempted to abolish a Barrier Treaty that restricted the shipping privileges of his Flemish subjects. Using the alias of Count Falkenstein, he visited Marie Antoinette, where he predicted the situation in France to be tumultuous. He provoked the formation of the Furstenbund when he attempted to gain control of Bavaria, while his clerical reforms invoked the wrath of Pius VI. Because of his unsuccessful marriages to Isabella of Parma and Maria Josepha of Bavaria, he was succeeded by his brother Leopold II after his death. During his last year, sickness caused much of his power to be in the hands of Kaunitz. His alliance with Russia against the Ottomans culminated in a humiliating retreat at the Battle of Karansebes. For 10 points, name this man known for his abolition of serfdom, an enlightened ruler and son of Maria Theresa.
    ANSWER: Joseph II

  1. This function provides the theoretical justification of "zeration" and it also demonstrates the existence of an infinite series of hyperoperations through its recurrence relation. Any sequence of m union-find operations on a set of size n takes m times alpha of n time, where alpha is the inverse of this function. This function is the diagonalization of the Grzegorczyk (zuh-gor-cich) hierarchy and is the most famous function that cannot be implemented using only do loops. Its most well known form was developed by Rozsa Peter and Raphael Robinson and is known as the two-variable version. For 10 points, name this simplest example of a well-defined total function that is Turing computable but not primitive recursive, often shown as A of m comma n.
    ANSWER: Ackermann function

  1. After this figure died, his body was taken to a gigantic mill around whose axis the universe revolved. Among his children are an unnamed couple born from his armpits and a six-headed son born from this figure’s legs. His son Thrudgelmir would later father Bergelmir, who used a hollowed-out tree to escape the deluge of blood that flowed from this figure after he was killed by the sons of Borr. Four dwarves that represent the cardinal directions hold up this figure’s skull, and before his death he fed on four rivers of milk from the cow Audumla, who lived with him in the void Ginnungagap. Later, his bones became mountains and his body was used to create Midgard. For 10 points, name this primordial being who founded the race of giants and whose body was used by Villi, Ve, and Odin to create the Norse universe.

    ANSWER: Ymir

  1. This composer wrote an overture for a piece in which the main character watches a performance of Faust, del Campo’s The Creole Faust, and he adapted his second string quartet into a concerto for orchestra premiered by the Philadelphia Orchestra. This man’s guitar sonata includes snapping the strings against the fingerboard and strumming very close to the tuning pegs. His Opus 2 is a collection of dances for piano including ones “of the Old Herdsman” and “of the Intrepid Cowboy.” He wrote three Pampeanas of which only the third is for a full orchestra, but he is better known for a suite which includes a movement based on criollo song and concludes with the Danza Final: Malambo. For 10 points, name this composer whose Estancia was inspired by the ranches of his homeland, Argentina.
    ANSWER: Alberto Ginastera

  1. One character mentioned in this novel was killed by a poisoned rosary, while another celebrated his own funeral every day of his reign. Another character refused to be touched by anyone other than her husband, which led to losing all of her limbs from lying outside after her husband died. Numerous characters appear in unusual circumstances with six toes on each foot and a red cross on their backs, including one baptized Iohannes Agrippa by Pollo on the instructions of a letter from Ludovico and Celestina. The first section of this novel describes El Senor’s construction of a tomb for his ancestors and eventually himself, the last of his line. In the middle section, a young man goes on a voyage to the west with Pedro and is recognized as a god returning from his exile across the ocean by a people analogous to the Aztecs. For 10 points, name this novel which describes a parallel to the world’s history, centered on Spain and Mexico and written by Carlos Fuentes.

    ANSWER: Terra Nostra

  1. One island located in this body of water contains a number of rare bird breeding sites atop the Plateau des Tourbieres where Mont de la Dives is the highest point. The Kerguelen-Heard oceanic plateau lies underneath this body of water while another island in this body of water contains the Piton des Neiges. Another country located in this body of water has the lowest "high point" in the world on Villingili island. An island in this body of water contains the Haghier Mountains as well as several species of "dragon blood" trees, and another contains Mawson Peak, the highest mountain controlled by Australia, which also owns the immigration flashpoint of Christmas Island in this body of water. For 10 points, identify this body of water, home to the Cocos Islands, Socotra, Reunion, and the Maldives.
    ANSWER: Indian Ocean

  1. This treaty's fifth article created a Disputed Territory Fund and mandated one side to make payments of three hundred thousand dollars to two of its subdivisions to accept the territorial agreements that it stipulated. Its eighth article, which was stipulated to last for five years, dealt with the suppression of the slave trade through the stationing of ships on the coast of Africa. One border dispute that it resolved involved the construction of the appropriately named Fort Blunder inside foreign territory. It also outlined a border through Minnesota and the Great Lakes, cementing the Northwest Angle. Closer to the theatre of combat, it made the St. John River freely navigable and established that waterway as the border between Maine and New Brunswick. Named after a secretary of state and a privy councilor, for 10 points, name this treaty that ended the Aristook War.

    ANSWER: Webster-Ashburton Treaty

  1. This painting shows Baburen’s The Procuress hanging in the right background, which differentiates it from a similar work that depicts a mirror above a young woman’s head. A cittern lays on top of several oriental rugs on a table on the left, while its right side shows a woman in a blue dress holding a piece of paper and singing. On March 18, 1990, two men dressed as Boston Police officers entered the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and stole this painting estimated to be worth over 200 million dollars, making it the most valuable painting currently stolen. Set inside a room with a black and white-tiled floor, it also depicts a man sitting in a chair while a young girl facing the right plays the clavecin. Showing several similarities to its creator’s The Music Lesson, this is, for 10 points, what painting by Johannes Vermeer?
    ANSWER: The Concert [or Het concert]

  1. The first time that one protagonist of this novel addresses the other as “priceless,” he replies to an accusation of ill conduct by the latter and sends a short message, as he must head to the office. That character earlier complains that certain walls are “so greasy that your hand sticks when you lean on them” and presents another character with the terrible writings of a public relations officer. Another character drops a trail of books in the mud, which lead to the cemetery where the son of the elder Pokrovski lay. After the central male character is brought home by the police for getting drunk, he is invited to live with Theodor and the central female, who plans to marry Bwikov and sends the protagonist on many petty errands. This epistolary novel is about a poor government clerk’s love for the daughter of the steward of the Prince of Tula. For 10 points, identify this novel about Makar, Barbara, and their destitute friends, a work by Dostoevsky.

    ANSWER: Poor Folk [or Bednye lyudi]

  1. This compound can be used in rocket propellants, and corrosion of metal by it can be inhibited by phosphorous pentafluoride or a small amount of hydrogen fluoride. Another early process to produce this compound involved blowing air through an arc furnace at temperatures greater than 3000 °C, cooling the products, and bringing them into contact with water, and was developed by Birkeland and Eyde. It is commonly added to solutions to remove unwanted ions which react with silver nitrate in a test for halide ions. It has two “fuming” forms; it appears white when highly concentrated, and red when an additional precursor is added to the solution. For 10 points, name this strong acid which is formed in the Ostwald Process and can be used with sulfuric acid to add an NO2 group to an aromatic ring.
    ANSWER: nitric acid

  1. This psychologist argued that practicing circumcision arose due to an envy of female puberty rites in his book Symbolic Wounds; that book is based on his experiences as director of the University of Chicago’s Orthogenic School, where he established the use of milieu therapy. He described a boy who believed he was a robot in the article “Joey: A ‘Mechanical Boy’,” while such books as The Empty Fortress discuss his belief in the “refrigerator mother” theory of autism. The eleven months he was imprisoned in Buchenwald and Dachau served as an inspiration to his first major piece of writing, which rivals in popularity a book that analyzed the effect “Little Red Riding Hood” and other fairy tales had on child development. For 10 points, name this Austrian-American psychologist, the author of “Individual and Mass Behavior in Extreme Situations” and The Uses of Enchantment.

    ANSWER: Bruno Bettelheim

  1. The protagonist of this novel decides not to break up with her lover after learning he was only gambling to help some friends avoid bankruptcy. At his death, the father of the protagonist instructs her to burns some letters, but she keeps a miniature portrait that turns out to depict Lady Laurentini. One character in this work discovers she has an aunt named Madame Cheron and is relentlessly pursued by Count Morano. After surviving a shipwreck with her servants Annette and Ludovico, the protagonist of this novel is housed by the Villefort family at Chateau-le-Blanc, which appears to be haunted because the bandits who live there are trying to scare people away. Eventually the protagonist marries Valancourt after being imprisoned in the title castle by Signor Montoni. For 10 points, name this novel about Emily St. Aubert by Anne Radcliffe.
    ANSWER: The Mysteries of Udolpho

  1. This century featured an account of Byzantium complaining about its brackish water, despite the fact that its author, Liutprand of Cremona, was a guest of the Emperor. Liutprand also wrote about Marozia, who married Sergius III and put John XI in the papacy. In the Sixteenth century, Cardinal Baronius dubbed this century the Iron or Leaden century and it also saw the existence of the Saeculum obscurum or the Pornocracy. Poland under Mieszko I converted to Christianity, and Kievan Rus followed shortly after. Seeing the foundation of Cluny and the forced marriage of Adelaide of Italy lead to an invasion by a man who would spawn a namesake renaissance, this century also saw the end of the Carolingian dynasty. For 10 points, name this century that was the darkest of the Dark Ages, which saw the establishment of the Ottonian and Capetian dynasties, and preceded the century that saw the First Crusade and the Norman invasion of England.

    ANSWER: 10th century [accept Iron or Leaden century before mention; accept 900s; prompt on Pornocracy or Saeculum obscurum before mention; accept reasonable equivalents]


  1. He examined the increase in the economic limitations on warfare in his paper “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime,” and coined the term “contentious politics” to describe the influential nature of social movements. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this Columbia sociologist and author of Why? who divided the claims pressed by social movements into identity, standing, and program brackets.
    ANSWER: Charles Tilly
    [10] This anthropologist wrote about “The Cattle Complex in East Africa” for his degree from Columbia and stressed the influence of history on modern African-American life in Man and His Works and The Myth of the Negro Past.
    ANSWER: Melville Herskovits
    [10] This Columbia linguist and anthropologist worked with the Geological Survey of Canada and formulated a namesake hypothesis of linguistic relativity with Benjamin Whorf.
    ANSWER: Edward Sapir

  1. Collision Theory explains why this number differs for different reactions. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this term defined to be the slope of the concentration-time plot for a chemical species divided by the stoichiometric coefficient of that species, or less formally, the speed at which reactants are converted to products.

    ANSWER: rate of reaction [accept in any order]

    [10] This method in kinetic analysis sets the rate of change of any unstable intermediates present in low concentrations in a complex reaction to zero, which allows the reaction rate to be expressed as a function of the concentration of chemical species present in macroscopic amounts.
    ANSWER: steady state approximation [or stationary state approximation]
    [10] This dimensionless term is the ratio of the reaction rate in the absence of mass transfer limitation to the rate of diffusion through the particle and is used to design porous, solid catalyzed processes. It is named for one of the men who created a diagram for solving binary distillation problems.
    ANSWER: Thiele modulus

  1. This writer coined the earliest version of the phrase “Absence makes the heart grow fonder” and called the first of his four books of elegies the Monobiblos. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this Latin poet who addressed his elegies to Cynthia.
    ANSWER: Sextus Propertius
    [10] This 20th century poet was attacked for not attempting a close translation in his Homage to Sextus Propertius. He completed the “Pisan” sections of his Cantos while imprisoned in Italy.
    ANSWER: Ezra Pound
    [10] This German author may have been inspired by Propertius to write his Roman Elegies. He wrote about Eduard and Charlotte in Elective Affinities and about the title iron handed general in Goetz von Berlichingen.
    ANSWER: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

  1. This room is located next to the Corsini Chapel in the Santa Maria del Carmine, and it includes portraits of Alberti and Brunelleschi in its depiction of the Resurrection of the Son of Theophilus. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this building which also includes a fresco of a red robed angel wielding a black sword in its The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
    ANSWER: Brancacci chapel
    [10] The Brancacci chapel frescos were begun as a collaboration between Masolino and this artist, who depicted Peter finding a coin in the mouth of a fish in his most famous painting.
    ANSWER: Masaccio
    [10] The Brancacci chapel frescoes were completed by this artist, whose most popular painting was a depiction of the title monastic sitting next to a pile of books called The Vision of St. Bernard.
    ANSWER: Filippino Lippi [prompt on Lippi, do not accept “Fra Filippo Lippi”]

  1. This mineral vein is still not fully explored, due to an 1882 flood which made its lower levels inaccessible despite previous attempts to pump water out of it, such as the Sutro Tunnel. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this silver deposit, whose discovery led to the establishment of such current ghost towns as Gold Hill and Virginia City.
    ANSWER: Comstock Lode
    [10] An Alfred Mullett-designed building, now the Nevada State Museum, housed this institution from 1870 to 1893. Established to process some products of the Comstock Lode, it is now of interest to numismatists.
    ANSWER: the Carson City United States Mint

    [10] Within five years of the Comstock Lode's busting, another important mining area was discovered in the United States. Named from the Ojibwa for "giant," this Minnesota mineral belt was discovered by Leonidas Merritt and currently supplies three quarters of domestically produced iron in the U.S.

    ANSWER: Mesabi Range

  1. This former president of Texas A&M has declared that "The gusher has been turned off, and will stay off for a good period of time" with regards to Defense spending. For 10 points each:
    [10] Identify this George W. Bush-appointed, Obama-retained Secretary of Defense who has ended orders for new F-22 raptors, allowed women to serve in submarines, and helped get Stanley McChrystal appointed to command in Afghanistan.
    ANSWER: Bob Gates
    [10] Previous Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney attempted four times to cut funding for this expensive Marine helicopter/plane hybrid that ended up killing over 30 people on test runs; the Marines ended up using them anyways and last year the Air Force began sending them overseas.
    ANSWER: MV-22 Osprey
    [10] Angry at cost overruns and slow delivery of the new F-35 joint strike aircraft, Gates withheld hundreds of millions in bonuses and payments from this major defense contractor, known for its production of aircraft and spacecraft.
    ANSWER: Lockheed Martin

  1. A woman of letters named Lydia is confronted with low self-esteem after the end of a relationship with a man who frequently humiliated her in one story from this collection. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this collection that includes "Dulse" as well as "Accident," in which Frances discovers that her life stories are not nearly as exciting as she thought they were.
    ANSWER: The Moons of Jupiter

    [10] This Canadian author of The Moons of Jupiter and recent winner of the Booker Prize has also penned such collections as The View from Castle Rock and The Progress of Love.

    ANSWER: Alice Munro
    [10] This 2009 Munro collection contains such stories as "Wenlock Edge," "Breathless," and "Child's Play."
    ANSWER: Too Much Happiness

  1. The metallophone in this piece is used to signal pattern changes to the other performers, including the piano-maracas player and the marimba-xylophone player. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this 1976 minimalist composition, consisting of an eleven-chord cycle in which most of the players will double instruments in a literal performance.
    ANSWER: Music for 18 Musicians
    [10] Music for 18 Musicians is a work by this composer of Different Trains and Clapping Music, who set William Carlos Williams's "The Desert Music" in 1984.
    ANSWER: Stephen Michael “Steve” Reich
    [10] This other contemporary composer has written such vocal works as the Milosz Songs, Mottetti di Montale, and the motet The Flight Into Egypt, though he may be best known for his 1999 operatic adaptation of The Great Gatsby.
    ANSWER: John Harbison

  1. Homer often refers to this man as "the Gerenian horseman,” and this owner of a gold shield gives advice that helps his son Antilochus place second in the chariot race at the funeral games of Patroclus. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this really old king who gives a lot of advice, the ruler of “sandy Pylos.”
    ANSWER: Nestor
    [10] This other figure lived in Pylos before ruling Argos. He escaped from a jail collapse by listening to some termites after gaining the ability to speak to animals from some snakes he saved.
    ANSWER: Melampus
    [10] Melampus used his talent to help his brother Bias win Pero, the wife of this man. This twin brother of Pelias and father of Nestor is sometimes named as the founder of Pylos, and was killed by Heracles after refusing to purify him.
    ANSWER: Neleus

  1. One method to approximate the number of stages needed for it is the McCabe-Thiele method. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this process in which chemicals with different volatilities are separated by contact between vapor and liquid phases.
    ANSWER: Distillation
    [10] The McCabe Thiele method includes drawing steps between the operating line and this line, which shows the concentrations of a compound in the vapor and liquid phases if allowed to reach a state in which there is no net change in the concentrations.
    ANSWER: Equilibrium line
    [10] If a tower is designed improperly and has too high a vapor flow rate, this condition may occur, in which the liquid cannot properly move down the tower. It is the opposite of weeping and dumping.
    ANSWER: Flooding

  1. While serving as Minister of Education, he participated in an anti-Vietnam War protest with Nguyen Tho Chan. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this socialist-inclined world leader who soured relations with the U.S. for a second time when he made a speech comparing the bombings of Hanoi to that of Guernica.

    ANSWER: Olof Palme
    [10] Olaf Palme's two terms as prime minister of this nation came between those of Thorbjorn Falldin.
    ANSWER: Sweden
    [10] This man who succeeded Palme after his assassination as the head of Sweden's Social Democratic Party had earlier served as Minister of Education and Minister of Housing.
    ANSWER: Ingvar Carlsson

  1. This philosopher’s readings of St. Augustine helped shape his conception of the “vision in God” that we see external truths via ideas in God. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this French Cartesian philosopher who wrote The Search After Truth.
    ANSWER: Nicolas Malebranche
    [10] Malebranche advocated this philosophical position identifying God as the only causal agent and claiming that other beings are simply a means through which divine action can occur.
    ANSWER: Occasionalism
    [10] Malebranche was praised by this contemporary who used the parable of Martin Guerre to argue for religious toleration and wrote the influential Historical and Critical Dictionary.
    ANSWER: Pierre Bayle

  1. Answer the following about the immune system, for 10 points each:
    [10] This drug, also called sirolimus, inhibits the immune system's response to IL-2. That action makes it useful as an immunosuppressant for organ transplants, and may also allow for its use as an anti-cancer drug.

    ANSWER: rapamycin

    [10] Along with dendritic cells, these white blood cells arise from the differentiation of monocytes. They remove debris in the lungs and engulf pathogens within the body.
    ANSWER: macrophages
    [10] These other lymphocytes, which in humans express the CD56 marker, use perforins and granzymes to destroy cells that are infected with viruses.
    ANSWER: natural killer cells

  1. This man was sent to help quell a helot revolt on Mt. Ithome, but the Spartans distrusted his intentions and sent his contingent home. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this king whose austerity helped him defend himself from charges of accepting bribes from Alexander I of Macedon.
    ANSWER: Cimon [or Kimon]
    [10] The main source for the details of Cimon’s extraordinary defeat of the Persians at Eurymedon River is this most popular work of the author of the Moralia and the Life of Alexander.

ANSWER: Parallel Lives

[10] Cimon was the son of this man who, according to Herodotus, gained control of the Athenian army after watching the Persian army for some number of days and proceeded to order the Athenians to charge across Marathon Plain.

ANSWER: Miltiades the Younger

  1. In this novel, Pirate lives with his five dogs in a chicken coop and saves his money to buy St. Francis a candlestick. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this novel in which Danny inherits two houses from his grandfather and drunkenly falls to his death after his friends throw him a massive party.

    ANSWER: Tortilla Flat
    [10] Tortilla Flat was written by this author who frequently wrote about California’s Salinas Valley and documented the travails of the Joad family in another novel.
    ANSWER: John Steinbeck
    [10] This Steinbeck novella concerns Joe Saul, an old man unable to conceive a child with his wife Mordeen. Its title is inspired by Blake and it attempts to confine the genres of drama and fiction in what Steinbeck called a “play-novelette.”
    ANSWER: Burning Bright

  1. Its namesake limit sets a limit on the storage density of hard drives using longitudinal recording, and ferrofluids are often described as this due to their large magnetic susceptibility. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this type of magnetism that can be found in magnetic nanoparticles of small enough size.
    ANSWER: superparamagnetism [accept word forms, prompt on paramagnetism]
    [10] This man names the time between two flips in magnetization due to temperature in superparamagnetic materials, his relaxation time. He also names a temperature above which antiferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic.
    ANSWER: Louis Neel
    [10] A lithium gas cooled to near absolute zero exhibits this type of magnetism. This type of magnetism is named for an element and in this type of magnetism, dipoles tend to align spontaneously.
    ANSWER: ferromagnetism [accept word forms]

  1. He supported himself by making tents and took many journeys with Barnabas. For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this man from Tarsus who changed his name after being blinded on the road to Damascus.

    ANSWER: Paul [or Saul]
    [10] According to Galatians, Paul and Peter engaged in a debate over whether gentiles should be required to follow Jewish laws known as the “Incident at” this city. Its namesake school championed a more literal reading of the bible than the Alexandria School.
    ANSWER: Antioch
    [10] First Timothy, Second Timothy, and Titus form this group of Pauline epistles, which are thought to have been written after his death.
    ANSWER: pastoral epistles

  1. It centers on the title group of outlaws in Francelia, led by Tamoren, who have a good time with their pranks, jokes, and unruliness. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this Caroline-era comedy that borrowed a courtship scene from The Tempest in the story of Orsabrin and Reginella.
    ANSWER: The Goblins
    [10] The Goblins was written by this Cavalier poet whose other dramas include Brennoralt and The Sad One.
    ANSWER: John Suckling
    [10] This Suckling drama is famous for the line "Why so pale and wan, fond lover?" and sees the title character sought after by Prince Thersames as well as his father, the king of Persia.
    ANSWER: Aglaura

  1. This pianist played with Miles Davis on the album Bags’ Groove, and he experimented with semitones in his songs “Epistrophy” and “Well, You Needn’t.” For 10 points each:

    [10] Name this jazz pianist who also introduced the standards “Round Midnight” and “Straight, No Chaser.”
    ANSWER: Thelonious Monk
    [10] This great jazz keyboardist recently released a Joni Mitchell tribute album titled River. He worked with Miles Davis in the so-called “second great quintet” and popularized the songs “Watermelon Man,” “Rockit,” “Maiden Voyage,” and “Cantaloupe Island.”
    ANSWER: Herbie Hancock
    [10] This virtuosic pianist arranged classical pieces like Dvorak’s seventh Humoresque. This nearly blind musician is best remembered for “Tea For Two” and “Tiger Rag.”
    ANSWER: Art Tatum

  1. It proclaimed Catholicism as its nation's official religion, set up a republican system of government, and provided for an eleven member Supreme Court. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this document that came out of negotiations between the Federalists and the Centralists.
    ANSWER: Mexican Constitution of 1824 [or Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824]
    [10] That 1824 constitution came after the overthrow of this first Mexican emperor who negotiated for the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Cordoba during Mexico's War of Independence.
    ANSWER: Agustin de Iturbide [accept either name]

    [10] This man was proclaimed the first president of Mexico via the constitution. He dealt with a revolt by his vice president, Nicolas Bravo, and presided over the official abolition of slavery in Mexico.

    ANSWER: Guadalupe Victoria [or Jose Ramon Adaucto Fernandez y Felix]

  1. Measuring 22 meters long and 11 meters high, this sculpture is unique for being made entirely of red sandstone and for being carved into the side of a small mountain. For 10 points each:
    [10] Name this sculpture that was created in order to honor the resistance forces of a French city during the Franco-Prussian war.
    ANSWER: Lion of Belfort
    [10] The Lion of Belfort was sculpted by this Frenchman best known for his work on the Statue of Liberty.
    ANSWER: Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
    [10] Another Bartholdi sculpture associated with the Franco-Prussian war is this one, which depicts a man with wings and a woman holding a shield protecting a woman in the middle.
    ANSWER: Switzerland Succoring Strasbourg [or Switzerland Comforting the Anguish of Strasbourg]


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