26 June 2003 Training Multimedia Courseware Development Guide



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Department of the Army *TRADOC Pamphlet 350-70-2

Headquarters, United States Army

Training and Doctrine Command

Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1047
26 June 2003
Training

Multimedia Courseware Development Guide

_____________________________________________________________________________



Summary. This pamphlet gives guidance on producing multimedia courseware. The decision to use multimedia courseware, and the type to produce, normally occurs during the design phase of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process.
Applicability. This pamphlet applies to Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (HQ TRADOC), and all subordinate organizations responsible for managing or performing training development (TD), or TD-related functions, including evaluation and quality assurance of the training, products, and institutions that present the training. It also applies to non-TRADOC agencies and organizations having Memorandums of Understanding (MOU), Memorandums of Agreement (MOA), and contracts.
Suggested improvements. Proponent for this pamphlet is the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training (DCSOPS&T). Send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) through channels to Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center (ATSC), ATTN: ATIC-ITSS-I, Bldg 2791, Harrison Loop, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5166. Suggested improvements may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program (AIEP) Proposal). Use of FormFlow to send comments electronically is authorized.

Availability. This publication is available on the TRADOC Homepage at http://www.tradoc.army.mil/.

_____________________________________________________________________________


Contents
Paragraph Page

Chapter 1

Introduction

Purpose 1-1 4

References 1-2 5

Explanation of abbreviations and terms 1-3 5

Interrelationship of IMI to the Army Training System (TATS) and DL 1-4 5

Types of IMI 1-5 6

Types of storage mediums and systems for IMI 1-6 7

__________________



*This pamphlet supersedes TRADOC Pamphlet 350-70-2 dated 10 July 2001.

Contents (cont)
Paragraph Page

Chapter 2

Plan IMI Development Projects

Developing a plan 2-1 8


Section I. Project Requirements and Scope

Identify project requirements 2-2 10

Review outputs from the SAT process 2-3 11

Locate and review existing training materials 2-4 13

Determine development actions and process 2-5 14

Determine validation requirements 2-6 19

Develop validation plan 2-7 20

Section II. Project Manager and Team

Establish project manager and team leader duties 2-8 21

Establish IMI development team composition 2-9 22

Train the project team 2-10 26

Section III. Development Time

Determine development time 2-11 27


Section IV. Management and Organizational Support

Determine management and organizational support 2-12 34


Section V. Quality Control and Milestone Planning

Establish quality control procedures 2-13 36

Evaluate the quality of any IMI product 2-14 38

Develop IMI project milestones 2-15 38


Chapter 3

Prepare IMI Approval Documents

Submission of approval package 3-1 40

Review inventory (DAVIS/DITIS) 3-2 42

Conduct a DAVIS/DITIS search 3-3 42

Prepare DD Form 1995 (videotape only) 3-4 43

Prepare DD Form 2568 3-5 44

Prepare the Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP) 3-6 44
Chapter 4

Designing the Course

Interactive courseware 4-1 46

Interactive courseware design concept 4-2 46

General ICW design procedures 4-3 48

Interactive courseware design requirements 4-4 52

Presentation requirements 4-5 52



Contents (cont)
Paragraph Page

Learning activities 4-6 54

Methods of instruction 4-7 59

Identify adjunctive materials 4-8 60

Interactive courseware design components 4-9 60

Interactive courseware design considerations 4-10 62

Designing in interactivity 4-11 63

Designing in branching 4-12 71

Designing in controls 4-13 74

Providing feedback 4-14 75

Presentation of materials 4-15 77

Interactive courseware structuring and sequencing 4-16 79

Establish training content 4-17 83

Establish instructional treatment and practice requirements 4-18 83

Interactive courseware component use guidance 4-19 84

Design standards, conventions, and template requirements 4-20 96

Chapter 5

Design, Develop, and Validate IMI Tests

Test methods 5-1 101

Test development 5-2 102

Test selection 5-3 102

Test preparation 5-4 103

Test delivery 5-5 104

Interactive multimedia instruction test validation 5-6 104

Test grading 5-7 105

Test feedback and remediation 5-8 105
Chapter 6

Interactive Courseware Design Documents and Media Production

Overview 6-1 106

Design documentation 6-2 106

Instructional Media Design Package 6-3 106

Design document from Designer’s Edge 6-4 109

Develop storyboards 6-5 109

Develop audio scripts 6-6 112

Develop video descriptions 6-7 114

Develop graphic and animation descriptions 6-8 116

Develop text 6-9 118

Develop programming and branching information 6-10 119

Produce media 6-11 119

Produce computer graphics and animations 6-12 120

Produce AV/video for IMI 6-13 121

Develop stand-alone videotapes (AV products) 6-14 124


Contents (cont)
Paragraph Page
Write a product treatment 6-15 125

Write a script 6-16 125

Write a storyboard 6-17 127

Prepare storyboard videotape and AV products 6-18 128

Develop the courseware prototype 6-19 128
Chapter 7

Author, Validate, and Complete IMI

Introduction 7-1 131

Author IMI 7-2 131

Add computer-managed instructions requirements 7-3 136

Prepare adjunctive materials 7-4 139

Debug, review, and test courseware 7-5 140

Validate the courseware 7-6 142

Develop a multimedia master material label package 7-7 143

Submit IMI master materials 7-8 143

Maintain the IMI 7-9 144

Appendixes

A. References 144

B. IMI Source Materials Software and Equipment Requirement 148

C. Web-based and Hybrid Disc Delivery of IMI 166

D. Instructional Media Design Documents 172

E. Intellectual Property 174

F. Technical Specifications for Television Videotapes and IMI Products 179

G. Considerations for Producing a CD-ROM 186

H. CD-ROM Labels and Television Videotape Jacket Insert Specifications 193

I. Individual Trial Validation 202

J. Validate Tests 215

K. Checklists and Decision Aids 217

Glossary 230

_____________________________________________________________________________


Chapter 1

Introduction
1-1. Purpose.
a. This pamphlet provides guidance for producing Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI). It describes how to plan, design, develop, and validate multimedia courseware approved as a part of a training course or program. TRADOC is currently undergoing a massive effort to standardize Army distributed learning (DL) architecture, equipment, facilities, and training products to ensure their interoperability with sister services and Federal agencies.
b. When developing IMI, it is essential to conform to all IMI Implementing Instructions. This will ensure digital exchange of training data across user platforms, and interoperability with the General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library (RDL), for usability of courseware by the Army. Ensure the courseware being developed integrates the DL program courseware design norms approved by Headquarters (HQ) TRADOC. See DCST memorandum ATTG-CG, subject: Norms for the Army Distance Learning Program (TADLP) Courseware Design.
c. The Army Training Support Center (ATSC) will revise and update this pamphlet, as needed, so that it reflects current and up-to-date procedures in keeping with technological advances.
1-2. References. Required and related publications are in appendix A.
1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms. Terms and abbreviations used in this pamphlet are found in the glossary.

1-4. Interrelationship of IMI to the Army Training System (TATS) and DL.

a. TRADOC’s primary mission is to provide seamless training that enhances the combat capabilities of the Force—the Active Component and the Reserve Component, to include the Army National Guard. A basic tenet of this training integration effort is the leveraging of emerging technology to produce a single Army standard, the Army Training System (TATS). At the center of these emerging technologies stands an entire array of IMI initiatives—applying new training approaches, reducing training time, improving readiness, and offering a variety of delivery systems.
b. Interactive Multimedia Instruction technology is loosely defined as computer-based technology, integrating a combination of, but not limited to, text, graphics, animation, sound, and video. The interactive courseware (ICW) component of IMI has been embraced in training environments, because it combines the interactivity and management features of computer-based training, with the benefits of realistic audio and video. Interactive Multimedia Instruction training applications are developed in many forms, including tutorials, simulations, virtual reality, expert systems, as well as “just-in-time” training embedded in performance support systems.
c. The TATS course development procedures ensure standardization, by training all course critical tasks to task performance standard. However, different sites may conduct training; use different multimedia instructional/training technologies; involve various phases, modules, and/or lessons; and include a variety of delivery systems. Using the TATS course development requirements as the minimum standard will help meet and achieve this challenge.

d. Distributed learning, in concert with TATS, is a holistic approach to training soldiers that will require a variety of individual and collective skills throughout their careers. A major aspect of TATS focuses on designing and revising courses to this single Army standard, using DL delivery systems—including, but not limited to, video teletraining (VTT), compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), and the internet. In the event that digital versatile disk (DVD) overtakes CD-ROM technology, add procedures for changes from CD-ROM procedures via a job aid. On-line access to digitized TATS courses, and a variety of individual and collective training products, will provide training opportunities that are flexible, current, and focused on mission needs.

e. This pamphlet provides the structured, coherent guidance and procedures for redesigning and developing IMI soldier and leader training, supporting the TATS courseware development standard, while applying DL concepts.
1-5. Types of IMI.
a. As a general term, IMI refers to course materials that use multiple requirements for student responses as a primary means of facilitating instruction and learning. Interactive Multimedia Instruction is a stand-alone program, suitable for use as part of a normal course of instruction, or distribution to operational activities. Interactive Multimedia Instruction uses may also include a program that supports—
(1) A presentation by an instructor.
(2) Formal on-the-job-training.
(3) Personnel performance.
(4) Courseware management.
b. Interactive Multimedia Instruction can link a combination of media to include, but not limited to, programmed instruction, videotapes, slides, film, text, graphics, digital audio, animation, and up to full motion video, to enhance the learning process. As commonly used, “ICW,” “computer-based instruction (CBI),” “computer-based training (CBT)” are synonymous, interchangeable, and the predominant type of IMI covered by this policy.

c. Per Military Handbook (MIL-HDBK) 29612-4A, DoD Instruction 1322.20, and TRADOC Regulation 350-70, Interactive Multimedia Instruction is a term applied to a group of predominantly interactive, electronically delivered training and training support products. Interactive Multimedia Instruction products include instructional software, and software management tools used in support of instructional programs. Interactive Multimedia Instruction products are teaching and management tools—use them in combination, or individually. Used individually, not all IMI products are considered interactive, multimedia, or instructional. However, IMI products, when used in combination with one another, are interactive, multimedia, and instructional.

d. General purpose data processing hardware (e.g., servers and personal computers), software (e.g., operating systems, word processors, internet browsers), and data networking devices (e.g., switches, routers, and security devices), even when used in combination with IMI, are not themselves IMI. Such general-purpose information systems are subject to the requirements approval and acquisition procedures of TRADOC Pam 25-72.
e. Interactive Multimedia Instruction components. Figure 1-1 shows the types of interactive multimedia courseware.

Figure 1-1. Types of interactive multimedia courseware
1-6. Types of storage mediums and systems for IMI. The large data files created for IMI projects require additional mediums for storing and transporting the IMI data. As a training designer/developer, it is important to determine what storage mediums the target audience has prior to initiation of media development. The various types of storage are:
a. Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. A CD-ROM drive is used to store IMI project data. Based on the file size of the project, determine which type of disc to use. A CD-ROM stores about 650 megabytes (MB) of data.

b. Interactive Video Disc (IVD). Interactive Video Disc is an information storage medium used with computers to support programs requiring a very large quantity of visuals (e.g., long, full-motion video sequences, or a very large library of complex graphics). Interactive Video Disc uses text, graphics, full motion analog video, and audio. It is always delivered on a videodisc-based system. Although there are products currently in this storage media, no future development is planned for IVD delivery.

c. Digitized Training Access Center (DTAC). The DTAC is a central repository of digital training materials. It provides training services and file storage to an installation, its tenant activities, and schools. A DTAC capability will link the training development suite, the DL Classrooms and the RDL. It will contain the appropriate hardware and software to store and distribute training materials, manage and control student activities, administer the local area network (LAN), provide dial-in and other remote access capabilities, and interface with other training management systems. The configuration, locations, and required number of DTACs, or equivalent capability, are currently under development, based on the best technical approach.
d. General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library. The RDL is the official repository of approved Army doctrine, as described in TRADOC Reg 350-70, the information foundation, and single, common component of the Warfighter XXI, Warrior XXI, and Warnet XXI campaign plans of the Force XXI training strategy. The RDL will provide a worldwide audience transparent access to a distributed, digital repository of accurate and timely training knowledge sets, and interactive applications, to support training of individuals and units.

____________________________________________________________________________


Chapter 2

Plan IMI Development Projects
2-1. Developing a plan.

a. Detailed planning is critical to a successful IMI development project. Most IMI development projects involve:

(1) Expensive development costs.
(2) Considerable time to develop.
(3) Specialized hardware and software packages.
(4) Cost analysis, if course materials change frequently.
(5) Selection of the correct type of IMI delivery system—CD-ROM or World Wide Web (WWW). See appendix G for information on producing a CD-ROM.
b. It is necessary to develop a project management plan, to identify how the IMI development project will progress, from the start of the IMI effort, until the IMI is fielded. Project plans generally focus on managing time, money, people, and materiel. When developing the plan, consider:
(1) Technical requirements of the project.
(2) Resources available to accomplish the project.
(3) Abilities of personnel available to work on the project.
c. Prepare the project plan based on information obtained, and decisions made, in Sections I-V of this chapter.
(1) Current long- and short-range training development project plans.
(2) Level of uncertainty for planning.
(3) Management and organizational support.
(4) Capabilities of the IMI team members.
d. Include the following areas in the plan:
(1) Project requirements.
(2) Resource requirements.
(3) Software and hardware requirements.
(4) Facility requirements.
(5) Training requirements for team and contractor personnel.
(6) Temporary duty requirements.
(7) Contract requirements.
(8) Duties and responsibilities of team members.
(9) Support from other organizations.
(10) Development process.
(11) Project milestones.
(12) Project deliverables.
(13) Quality Control Process.
(14) Validation plan.

(15) Implementation plan.

e. Follow the steps below to develop a plan for the IMI development project. (See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter II-2-6 for additional information.)
(1) Identify the project requirements (see para 2-2).
(2) Review outputs from the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process (see para 2-3).
(3) Locate and review existing training materials (see para 2-4).
(4) Determine development actions and process (see para 2-5).
(5) Determine validation requirements (see para 2-6).
(6) Develop validation plan (see para 2-7).
(7) Establish project manager and team leader duties (see para 2-8).
(8) Establish IMI development team composition (see para 2-9).
(9) Train the project team (see para 2-10).
(10) Determining development time (see para 2-11).
(11) Determine management and organizational support (see para 2-12).
(12) Establish quality control (QC) procedures (see para 2-13).
(13) Evaluate the quality of any IMI product (see para 2-14).
(14) Develop IMI project milestones (see para 2-15).




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