3 Key Characteristics of Good Vocabulary Instruction


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Roots Vocabulary Strategies


Mary Barrett

Mayo High School

1420 SE 11th Ave.

Rochester, MN 55904


3 Key Characteristics of Good Vocabulary Instruction

  1. Integration

Vocabulary instruction is part of your everyday lesson, not an add-on that separates the vocabulary from the text.

  1. Repetition

Students need to have multiple encounters with a word before it enters their speaking, listening, and writing vocabulary. Students need to see the words in varied contexts.

  1. Meaningful Use

Multiple and meaningful exposures to words might occur when the teacher

      • describes words;

      • supports words with visuals;

      • connects words to students’ lives;

      • extends words with anecdotes;

      • makes associations;

      • gives definitions;

      • compares and contrasts;

      • questions;

      • charts characteristics;

      • rephrases sentences;

      • analyzes word structure;

      • provides tactile examples; and/or

      • gives examples of correct and incorrect usage.

DO NOT simply give students word lists and tell them to look up words in the dictionary. Definitions may not have enough information, may not make sense if applied literally, or may be inappropriate for idiomatic usage.

Word Parts

by studying

--come at beginning of word

--change meaning of word

--are used with word or roots

--can appear in multiples

such as

--carry main word meaning

--can appear in multiples

--combine with prefix/suffix

--come at end of word

--change part of speech

--can appear in multiples

by studying

such as

such as

Context Clues

such as

Using Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes
Description: Can you figure out what this word means?
If you use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes, you could break it down into the following parts:
pneumo (air, wind)

ultra (beyond the normal)

micro (small)

scopic (to see)

silico (hard stone)

volcano (fire)

coni (dust)

osis (disease)

You read Latin from right to left, so literally this word means the dust from burning a hard stone and that is too small to see in the air.

This is the longest word in the dictionary, and it is a term for black lung disease. (Miners breathed in a very fine coal dust that coated their lungs and made it difficult for the miners to breathe. Many coal miners died of black lung disease.)

Not only could you figure out this word if you had some knowledge of Greek and Latin prefixes, roots, and suffixes, you could also pronounce it! A college dictionary will give you the etymology of the word, including its roots and their meanings.

Why 99% Accuracy?
The man leaned against the current as he waded, waist-deep, upstream. His hands steadied either end of the FURNWUNCH balanced across his shoulders. He had moved about 90 yards from the DNUP where he had entered the stream. A few yards ahead, a part of the wooded bank had been replaced by an ACNRID FRUD. He came abreast of it, and with effort, pressed the FURNWUNCH up and over his head, and then set it on top of the FRUD. He placed his hands on his hips, pulled his elbows back, and arched his back in an attempt to stretch out muscles that were knotted from long exertion.

He relaxed somewhat and began a visual inspection of the FRUD. He moved closer to it and reached under the water to explore its surface. Moving slowly, he started the search from the downstream end. At about the RONDTIP he stopped and probed one area intently. Satisfied that he had located a GRUNDLE, he continued to the upstream end. There was only one GRUNDLE to contend with. He retrieved the FURNWUNCH and cradled the heavy implement as he made his way back to the RONDTIP. He gingerly lowered the FURNWUNCH, holding it perpendicular to the FRUD. When it reached the GRUNDLE, he slid it in its full length. He held it in place with one hand and turned the expansion lock handle until the instrument was seated tightly in place. His mission accomplished, he was clearly relieved. He waded easily downstream to the DNUP.

From: Harris, C. H. Curriculum Based Assessment: A Primer

297 Words/ 6.4 GE Flesch-Kincaid

Why 99% accuracy? This passage has 16 occurrences of six unknown words, or 93% known words, making it impossible to comprehend. Pre-teach vocabulary words that are essential to comprehension before students read!

Roots and Spelling

Words that are formed around roots are generally very predictable for spelling. Why? Because you only need to place the word parts next to each other in order to spell the world. As a rule, you don’t add any letters or leave any letters out.

Here is an example:

dis- – prefix meaning apart

simil – root meaning same, alike

-ar – adjective suffix

dis + simil + ar = dissimilar
Here is another example:

fin - root meaning end

-al – adjective suffix

-ly – adverb suffix

fin + al + ly = finally

Here is a third example:

re- - prefix meaning back, again

com- - prefix meaning with, together

mend – root meaning mind/remember

-ation – noun suffix

re + com + mend + ation = recommendation

Here is an example of a prefix combining with a word:

mis- - prefix meaning incorrect, bad

spell – word

mis + spell = misspell
If we are using a root as a word, we do have to make it conform to our phonics system for pronunciation, usually by adding an “e” at the end.


Target Word in Context:
My friend has become such an EGOMANIAC since he won the contest that I have trouble getting along with him.

Word part(s) I recognize:

Meaning(s) of word part(s):


I, self


crazy for, mad for

Other words I know with the word part(s):

maniac, egotist

Definition by analysis:

EGOMANIAC must mean someone who is crazy about himself, self-centered

Now you try:

Target Word in Context:

Word part(s) I recognize:

Meaning(s) of word part(s):

Other words I know with the word part(s):

Definition by analysis:


When you study the etymology of a word, you are studying its history. Collegiate dictionaries often have the etymology of the word at the end of an entry. When you look at the etymology, you can see which roots originally made up the word as well as what each of the roots mean. You will also see which language first coined the word – L would mean Latin; G would mean Greek, OE would mean Old English, etc. Some dictionaries (such as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) give a quote, source, and author showing the first time a new word was known to be used in print.

Here is a sample dictionary entry:

re-duce (rĭ-dōōs′, -dyōōs’) v. –duced, -ducing, -duces. – tr. 1. To lessen in extent, amount, number, degree, price, or other quality; diminish. 2. To gain control of, conquer. 3. To put in order or arrange systematically. 4. To separate into orderly components by analysis. 5. To bring to a certain state or condition 6. To powder or pulverize. 7. To tint (paint) with a solvent

8. Chemistry a. To decrease the valence of (an atom) by adding electrons. b. To deoxidize. c. To add hydrogen to. d. To change to a metallic state by removing nonmetallic constituents; to smelt.

9. Mathematics. To change the form of (an expression) without changing the value. 10. Photography. To remove some of the silver from (an emulsion) forming a photographic image. 11. Surgery. To restore (a fractured or displaced body part) to a normal condition. –intr. 1. To become diminished. 2. To lose weight, as by dieting. – (See Synonyms at decrease. [Middle English reducen, bring back, from Latin redicere: re- back, again + ducere, to lead (see deuk- in Appendix*).] -re duc’er n. re duc’i’bil’ i’t y n. -re duc’ i ble adj. re duc’ i bly adv.


We will reduce the amount of toxic waste produced by the

Silver Lake power plant.

Hatred and discrimination reduce all humanity.

Making New Words

As you have learned, different combinations of prefixes, roots or words, and suffixes can create different words. When you can make several words based on one root, you can recognize WORD FAMILIES. Remember that the prefix will change the meaning of a word.

Common Prefixes:

sub- under ob- against

in- ; im- in, into, not pro-- for, before, forward

counter- against, opposite re- back, again

inter- between de- away, down

infra- against ex- out, away, from

circum- around con- with, together

post- after pre- before

ad, ac- to, toward, near
Some prefixes change to match the consonant that follows. Here are some examples:
ad- (to, toward, near) can become: sub- (under, beneath) can become:

addict suffrage

accent succulent

affirm suggest

assent support

aggravate surrender

con- (with, together) can become:




Here is a practice just using prefixes.

How many prefixes can you add to the root DICT to make new words?

Prefix Pail

Look at the root in the center of the page. Try to think of as many words as you can that would use that root. Now see how many of those words contain prefixes! Put your list of prefixes in the pail on the left; write the words using prefixes in the pail on the left.

















Prefix Pail

Look at the root in the center of the page. Try to think of as many words as you can that would use that root. Now see how many of those words contain prefixes! Put your list of prefixes in the pail on the left; write the words using prefixes in the pail on the left.





















Prefix Pail

Look at the root in the center of the page. Try to think of as many words as you can that would use that root. Now see how many of those words contain prefixes! Put your list of prefixes in the pail on the left; write the words using prefixes in the pail on the left.



Word Families

A single root can be the foundation of multiple words. Words are constructed in different ways:

  1. Sometimes a word is made up of multiple roots



Write your own example here:

  1. Some words consist of a root that is preceded by a prefix and followed by a suffix.



Write your own example here:

  1. Sometimes roots are combined with words.

Write your own example here:

  1. Occasionally a root can stand as a word all on its own.

SCRIBE = Writer
Write your own example here:



Scavenger Hunt: Word Families for Content Areas

TEAM NAME: Date: Hour:

The Challenge: Find as many words as you can that use the following root. Identify in which content area you are most likely to encounter the word. Then give the word’s meaning. Your team has 1 day to try and find the most words using:



Content Area

Word Meaning

Flashcard Review Game

1. Divide one set of flash cards into two equal stacks. Each player takes one stack.

2. Player A deals out 12 (or 4 or 8 if fewer roots cards are involved) with either the roots face up or meanings face up, but with all flash cards showing the same side.
3. Player B then says what is on the face-down side of the card. For example, if "aqua" is showing, Player B will say "water." If "life" is showing, Player B will say "bio."
If Player B correctly identifies the flip side of the card, he adds the card to his points pile. Player B continues naming the flip side of each card until he cannot go on or until all cards have been collected.
If Player B leaves any cards unidentified, Player A can then name what is on the flip side of the card. If Player A correctly names the flip side, he can add the card to his points pile. If neither player can claim the card, the card remains in place until the end of one round.
4. Play then moves to Player A as described in step 3.
5. If cards remain face down at the end of one round (each player has had a chance to add to his points pile), then the remaining cards will be turned over, studied, divided evenly, and returned to the bottom of the player's stacks.
6. Play rotates until all cards have been claimed. When all the flashcards have been dealt and claimed, each player will tally his points pile and record a score with the teacher.
7. If time remains, players will then find new partners and repeat the game.

Roots Review


In each of the following sections, you will use the root labeling the section to create a word for each blank in each sentence. Sometimes the word will begin with the root; sometimes you will need to add a prefix or another root. In order to receive credit, your word will need to be spelled correctly and be a real word. No word may be used more than one time.


1. The policeman called for a(n) as soon as he arrived at the scene of the accident.

2. The nanny put the baby in the and took the baby to the park.
3. The authors of the Declaration of Independence wrote a(n) to introduce the body of their document.
4. The doctor told the patient he could go home as soon as he was and no longer needed the walker.
5. On a sunny day, it is better to than to power-walk.

6. Most people have contributed to a(n) so they have an income after they retire.

7. America celebrated its in 1976.
8. I like to plant because they come up year after year.
9. The Third Reich under Hitler was supposed to last a(n) .
10. Have you made an appointment for you physical?

11. We plan to use the Greek column as the for our column.

12. Indiana Jones' character did a lot to glamorize .
13. The bishop of Winona received an appointment to .
14. To do primary source research, you will need materials from the
15. Queen Elizabeth has been the in England since 1952.

16. Some scientists believe that a(n) crashing into Earth caused climate changes that resulted in the deaths of the dinosaurs.

17. literally means "naming the stars."
18. You will sometimes see a(n) in the text rather than a number referring you to a footnote.
19. Following the of the flood, the people of North Dakota were understandably leery about the coming winter.

Roots Quizes

Name: Date: Hour:

Write a real English word, spelled correctly, that uses the two roots whose meanings are given. The roots are given in the order that they appear in the word. You may need to add prefixes or suffixes.

2 Roots Meanings

Derivation Using Both Roots

EX: water + origin


EX: eight + origin


1. color + measure

2. many + colors

3. earth + heat

4. heat + measure

5. thick + skin

6. origin + study

7. write + study of

8. sound + study

9. eye + measure

10. disease + study of

11. many + governments

12. good + race

13. self + government

14. time + measure

15. water + study of

16. mind + disease

WORD WALLS – Prefixes, Roots, Suffixes

J. Green
The most important thing about a word wall seems to be to keep the walls accessible and organized!

  1. Cut out headings for your columns (prefixes, roots, suffixes). You can also create word walls by using themes or concepts. For example, you might label one science, one math, one social studies, etc.

  2. Separate columns with narrow strips of construction paper on which students can write words.

  3. Put new vocabulary on the wall (initially by the teacher, ultimately by the students) as students hear words in their other content classes that contain the prefixes, roots, ad suffixes they are studying.

  4. When the wall gets too full, move the older words into a word jar.

Encourage student use of the word wall.

    • Require word use in student writing.

    • Give extra credit for student use of words in writing.

    • Play a game with a koosh ball in which the person throwing the ball has to ask a question about words or word parts. The person catching the ball has to answer the question and then generate the next question or task as s/he throws the Nerf ball.

    • Have “Word Bees” with meanings or words that contain the roots and affixes..

Roots I found in Other Classes


  • biology

  • pathology
  • gene therapy

  • thermometer

  • optical

  • epidermis

Social Studies

  • geography

  • hydrology

  • thermal energy

  • epicenter

  • telegram


  • metric

  • graph

  • polygon

  • hypothesis


Allen and Gonzalez 1998

The purpose here is to get students to pay attention to words that they have read, seen, or heard.

  1. On slips of paper, students write down a word and indicate where they read/saw/heard the word.

  2. The slips of paper go into a large jar (such as a pickle jar from the cafeteria.

  3. Each day, the teacher pulls a word or two from the word jar and reviews with the koosh ball.

  4. The class discusses the meaning of the word and how it was used.


    • Create several word jars that represent categories from a novel or poem, historical era, math concept, etc.

    • Have one jar for prefixes, one for roots, one for suffxes

    • Collect words in each category.

    • Put the words into categories on the Word Wall when it is time to discuss them.

    • Have students use the words in writing about the topic.

LA Ex: Words that describe a character Soc. St. Ex: Words related to war

Words that expressed a character’s emotions Words related to peace

Words that describe the setting Words related to battles

Words that evoke sensory images Words related to soldiers

Words that represent themes in the novel or poem Words related to weapons

Roots Bingo

The web sites listed below will allow you to create games and worksheets using the prefixes and roots you are studying. With the bingo cards, you can tell the program to shuffle, and it will re-order the roots. To promote fluency and flexibility of thinking, sometimes you will want to put roots or prefixes on a card and then call out the meanings during the bingo game. At other times, you will want to put the meanings on the bingo cards and call out the roots or prefixes.

These sites are free (unless you want to save your work; then you have to pay a fee) and easily accessible on the web.
An alternative to using the web is to give the students a blank 5 X 5 card and have them select the prefixes and roots they want to include from the lessons you have already studied. You can direct them to write in the root or the meaning. This would create a truly randomized bingo game.



Sample bingo card:































Vocabulary Extensions Menu

**Keep this in your English folder for the entire school year!**

From Tammy Mammel, Willow Creek Middle School – Rochester, MN.

Vocabulary Calendar

Use a sheet of white construction paper folded in half to design a calendar for this month. Choose any ten vocabulary words and use them in creating ten special days to celebrate during the month. On the calendar cover, draw a thematic picture that represents the month.

Creative Writing Story

Write a story and include at least ten of your vocabulary words in it. Highlight each vocabulary word when you finish. Read the story to the class, asking the students to write each vocabulary word as they hear it.

Vocabulary Word TV Ad

Use at lest ten of your vocabulary words to write a television commercial for a product that will help students to remember the meanings and/or spellings of these words. Perform the commercial for the class.

Vocabulary Word Scrapbook

Use old newspapers and magazines to make a scrapbook for at least ten of your vocabulary words. Find a picture that illustrates or defines each word, and paste it on one page of the scrapbook. Write the word one or more times on the page. Make a scrapbook and include your name as the author.


Use your own idea that demonstrates your understanding of at least ten vocabulary words.
**You must get approval from your teacher before you begin this project!**

Vocabulary Song
Make up a song that includes at least ten of your vocabulary words. Share the song with the class.

Vocabulary Word Classification

Group at least ten of your vocabulary words using your own classification system. (You may NOT simply group by root words!) Include a minimum of three words in each group. Write a sentence under each group explaining what those words have in common.

Concentration Game

Using at least ten vocabulary words, create a concentration card game. Write each word on an index card. Then make a separate matching card for each with a picture clue, definition, or an idea clue on it. Prepare to share the game with your classmates.

Vocabulary Crossword

Design a crossword puzzle that uses at least ten of your vocabulary words. For crossword clues, use a fill-in-the-blank method rather than simply writing the definitions as clues. This will require your classmates to use the words in context to solve puzzles.

Vocabulary Frames

Vocabulary frames are useful tools for learning content-vocabulary that is roots-based.





Look backwards Look forward,


Dictator Napoleon looked

ahead by gazing into a

crystal ball.






loveable offensive, distasteful,


The thought of eating another

meal of spinach was both offensive and repulsive!





Latin Lang families Romance Languages Number One

--Latin unus

--Italian uno

--Spanish uno

--France un

--Portuguese um

--Romanian un

Numbers -10 almost identical

Rome invades Britain originally spoken by Romans

--developed from Latin of the Holy Roman Empire

--Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C.E. and 54 B.C.E.

EX: Caesar = Kaiser = Czar
--Romans introduced towns, laws, roads

--Romans stayed in Britain until the 5th century C.E.

--Latin was the language of the Christian church and Latin spread as Christianity spread
Anglo Saxon --words in our language today from the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) are often kinship terms (modor = mother) or words for basic functions and emotions (drincan = drink; saed = sad)

--Saxons, Jutes, and Angles invaded in 5th-6th century C.E.

--Anglo-Saxon languagebecame leading everyday language of Britain
Latin --Latin was the language of religion, diplomacy, business, trade
Norman Invasion --Normans invaded Britain in 1066 (C.E.)

--French became language of court, government, schools, nobility

--Latin was the language of international communications

Greek and Latin Roots Lecture 2

Latin influences --10,000 Latinate words

--75% of these words are still in use
Renaissance --during the Renaissance (1500-1650 C.E.) new flood of Roman words entered the language as Roman civilization was rediscovered

--Latin language of the educated

--Latin international language
dictionary --1755 Samuel Johnson pub. English Dictionary

--standardized spelling

--standardized meanings

Structure of Words

prefix PREFIX

--come at the beginning of the word or before the root

--change the meaning of the entire word

--have variant spellings because of pronunciation

ex. a-, ac-, ad-, af-, ag-, an-, ar-, as-, at- meaning " to or toward"

--may exist in multiples (un inter rupted) in a word

--may affect the spelling of the word

root ROOTS

--carries the primary meaning of the word

--may appear in multiples (metro nome, manu script))

--may change slightly in mng today from orig. mng

--may have variant spellings

--are affected by prefixes and suffixes


--come at the end of the word

--do not change the word mng

--determine the POS of the word

--may appear in multiples (re spect ful ly)

--may affect the spelling of a word

Greek and Latin Roots Lecture 3

GREEK --as late as 700 B.C.E., the Greeks did not have a written lang.

--poets like Homer had to keep poetry in their heads

--Phoenician alphabet adapted by Greeks
--influence on English entirely through books, not speaking

--300-600 B. C. E. books of history, poetry, plays, philosophy, geometry, and studies of nature

--major influence beg. 200 C. E. with dev't of parchment books
knowledge --Grks first div knowledge in dif categories

--Eng wds are derived from special skill or study

ex: history, arithmetic, mathematics, physics, music, drama
Sample Greek wds --telephone, telegram, telegraph, telescope, telepathy, telephoto

arts --theatre, architecture

Med terms --diagnosis, hypodermic, epidemic
abbrev --i.e. id est = 'that is'

--e.g. exemplis gratia = 'for example'

--etc et cetera = ' and others'

--a.m. ante meridian = before noon

--p.m. post meridiem = after noon

--P.S. post scriptum = 'written later'

--v. versus = 'against'

Open Notes Quiz

Our Latin and Greek Roots Lecture
1. were the early inhabitants of the British Isles.
2. The power which dominated the region with its language and culture from 43 (C.E.) to 400 (C.E.) was .

3. Later, Germanic tribes including the and the brought their additions to the language.

4. With the invasion of William the conqueror in 1066, was added to the language of politics and the courts.
5. With the coming of the Renaissance and the printing press, Latin became the language of and .
6. Eighteenth century advances in science and technology led to many in Latin.
7. Greek words in the language relate primarily to the in knowledge.

Word Games in the Classroom1

Thanks to Jane McAndrews for this list!


Produced by Gameworks Creations, Inc. through Western Publishing Company, Inc., Racine, WI 53404. distributed by Games Gang Ltd., New York, NY 10010
Played like the parlor game dictionary. Players create phony but believable definitions for given words and earn points for selecting the correct definition or if their “bluff” definition is selected. Great for assessing suffix, prefix, and root word knowledge.
A roots variation on this would be to have students combine prefix(es), root(s), and suffix(es) and create a “word.” Classmates would have to decide whether the “word” was real.

Bingo is one of the most popular of all games. It can be used on a regular basis to reinforce both sight-word identification and phonic analysis. Bingo can also be used to reinforce the specialized vocabulary contained in the various content fields. It is a very relaxing, "fun" activity for students and gives them a change of pace.

Bingo Card Maker – You can insert words, roots, definitions – whatever – and then shuffle them to create random patterns. Unless you are a member, you cannot save, but you can print out the bingo cards you’ve created. http://teachers.teach-nology.com/web_tools/materials/bingo/


Produced by Parker Brothers, P.O. Box 1012, Beverly, MA 01915
The “three-minute word game” in which players decipher words from a sixteen-letter cube tray, spelling any word diagonally, horizontally, vertically, or snakily formed in the tray. If the letters are connected, they will spell a word—longer words are rewarded with more points. This game has the advantage of being quick and allowing everyone to play at once.
Rather than words, you could have the students draw prefixes, roots, and suffixes flashcards from the pile and try to create as many words as possible.
KOOSH Ball Game

(Miller, Wilma H. (1997), Ready-Use Activities & Materials for Improving Content Reading Skills)

Throwing and catching a koosh ball for lots of different purposes is a popular classroom game. Teachers might use it on a regular basis with their students to reinforce the specialized vocabulary contained in the various content fields or words from stories they have read in class. It is a quick, fun activity for students which can be played during short down-times before, during, and after break or when students are waiting to be called to lunch or to an assembly. It's another way to reinforce vocabulary.
Here are the steps in playing:

  1. Have each student think about the prefixes, roots, and suffixes you have been working with. It helps to have a list of the words on the board or on a chart so that students can see them.

  1. The first student says a word from the list, then tosses the koosh ball to another student who gives a definition or uses the word in a sentence. The answering student then tosses to the next student who calls out another word and tosses it to a different student who supplies the definition or uses it in a sentence.

  1. Have a student monitor check the definitions from 3" x 5" cards to check answers. This step not only keeps students honest but also serves as review.

Ideas for using:

  • Prefix or Suffix meaning: Have students play the same game using common prefixes and suffixes you would like students to learn. Instead of a sentence, students can use the root in a word, or they could give the definition of the word part.

  • Spelling: Have students use spelling words. One calls the word and another spells it.


Produced by Parker Brothers, a division of Tonka Corporation, Beverly, MA 01915, under license from Hersch and Company.
Players are given a topic, such as “commands you give your dog” and then have sixty seconds to identify the ten listed on the playing card. This “game of verbal explosions” is played in teams.


Produced by Milton Bradley Company, Springfield, MA 01101.
Played like the old TV game show, players give one-word clues to guide their partners to the target word


Produced by Western Publishing Company, Inc., Racine, WI 53404, distributed by the Games Gang, Ltd., New York, NY 10010.
Pictionary is literally charades on paper. Players identify unknown words through sketches. A one-minute time limit and a race around the board make for great word play through tactile translations, the “game of quick draw.”


Produced by Parker Brothers, a division of General Mills Fun Group, Inc.

Played much like hangman, players choose a word, record it on a word tray, and expose letters as they are guessed, ultimately attempting to guess the word. Great for phun with fonemic awareness.


Produced by Milton Bradley Company, Springfield, MA 01101, a division of Hasbro, Inc.
This “fast-thinking categories game” combines the critical thinking strategy of categorization with word knowledge and beginning sounds. Players list words beginning with a specific letter in a given category. Points are earned only for those words no one else lists.


Manufactured by Selchow and Righter Company, Bay Shore, NY 11706.
If you don’t know this one, ask your grandma. It’s been on the market since 1948 and continues to make word play popular and fun. You could double the point value of any word that contains a prefix, root, or suffix.

1 Allen, Janet, Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12, Stenhouse Publishers, 1999, pp. 117-120.

Mary Barrett These materials may be duplicated for nonprofit ,educational use.


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