3649 Збірник тренувальних текстів та вправ для підготовки до вступного іспиту з англійської мови до магістратури



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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Сумський державний університет


3649 Збірник тренувальних текстів та вправ для підготовки до вступного іспиту з англійської мови до магістратури

для студентів усіх спеціальностей денної та заочної форм навчання

Суми


Сумський державний університет

2013
SECTION I


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

1 The European Union

The European Union began in 1952 when Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Holland and Luxemburg formed the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). This agreement meant that the coal and steel companies in all six countries were controlled by the same organization.

In 1957, the same six countries formed the EEC (European Economic Community). The agreement, called the Treaty of Rome, made trade much easier and cheaper between these countries and with the USA.

By the end of the 1990s, the EEC had changed its name to the European Union and there were fifteen member countries. Trade between members is cheap and easy. They also have more power as a group when they trade with larger countries like the USA. Some people worry that the EU takes a lot of political power away from the government of each country. There is now a new kind of money in Europe – the euro. Not all EU countries have begun to use euros. Some people want their country to keep its own money and make its own economic decisions.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a The abbreviation EU appeared in the 2nd half of the 20th century.

b Steel, coal and chemicals producers initiated a new trade agreement.

c Six European countries and the USA made an agreement in 1957.

d The European Union membership helps develop national economies.

e There are problems which the EU countries have not solved yet.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 France and Luxemburg a was signed in 1957.

2 The Treaty of Rome b by the same organization.

3 The main idea of the EU is c about their political and economic independence.

4 People in the EU countries worry d belong to the EU oldest members.

5 In the EU countries trade is controlled e to make trade easier and cheaper.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

2 Money

Before money, people could not buy or sell. They had to exchange goods. With money, buying and selling could happen at different times with different people. A person could sell food to somebody on one day and get money for it; a week later, he or she could use the money to buy clothes from a third person.

There have been metal coins for thousands of years. But this caused problems. People took very small bits of metal from each coin. Thousands years ago the Greeks used coins made of silver. Their money drachma was the most common kind of money for trade in Europe and parts of Asia. The Romans also used silver and gold coins.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries people did not want to carry large bags of coins with them, so they left the coins with traders. The traders gave them ‘notes’ which were just pieces of paper with a promise to pay back the gold and silver coins.

In 1950, the first credit card was made. Today, most shops, hotels and restaurants in the world take credit cards and people do not have to carry a lot of coins and notes with them when they travel.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a Money could make a selling/buying process longer.

b With money fewer people could buy and sell.

c Ancient people did not use silver and gold for money production.

d The traders’ business was to produce special written documents.

e Having a credit card is quite risky and dangerous.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 Primitive people a when having coins and notes on them.

2 With money people got b had to exchange goods.

3 With time metal coins c has celebrated its 55th birthday.

4 People do not feel comfortable d more choices to buy and to sell

5 The credit card e became smaller in size.



Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

3 Building a global brand

Coca-Cola is the most recognized brand in the world. When the company began, it was very small. For the first year, it sold only nine drinks a day. Today, it sells about 7,000 products every second.

John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886. He made it at home and brought to a shop where he sold it for five cents a glass. He worked with a man called Frank Robinson who invented the name Coca-Cola. It is still used on the bottles today. In 1891 the Coca-Cola company was bought for 2,300 dollars. In 1919, the company was sold for 25 million dollars. Robert Woodruff who became the president of the Coca-Cola company in 1923, stayed in the job for more than thirty years and helped Coca-Cola to become one of the largest companies in the world. By 1945, there were 64 Coca-Cola factories across the world.

A global brand must look the same everywhere in the world. All the Coca-Cola factories use the same bottles. The colours red and white have been an important part of the brand since those days.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a Coca-Cola sends more than 40,000 products a minute.

b Coca-cola is more than 100 years old.

c J. Pemberton invented a new drink and its name in 1886.

d J. Pemberton sold the Coca-Cola company in 1919.

e All the Coca-Cola products are the same in form and colour.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 John Pemberton started a thanks to its colours.

2 The new product got its name b not once.

3 The Coca-Cola company got its world popularity c thanks to Robert Woodruff.

4 The company was resold d with the price of five cents a glass.

5 The drink can be recognized easily e thanks to Frank Robinson.



Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

4 Business gurus

People have always been interested in success. They buy books about business written by ‘gurus’- people who promise to teach you the secret of success in the world of business. These books often become very popular and sometimes change the way companies work.

Some business gurus write for the individual. An example is Stephen Covey’s book “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People”. More than ten million people have bought this book. Covey teaches people to solve a problem in a way which is good for everyone. He also teaches to plan carefully before you start work, and never stop learning new things. Covey himself has become very successful. Now he has more than a hundred shops across the USA.

He comes to companies and give them advice which is very expensive.

Others business gurus write about companies and organizations. They give information about how to make people work together better. In his book “Human Competence”, Thomas Gilbert gives his six best ways to make people in an organization work badly, and then he asks his readers to think what happens in their company.

The “Business @ the Speed of Thought” by Bill Gates has become very popular. Many people who read this book hope that they can learn the secret of his success.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a Gurus are people who think they can share their knowledge with other people.

b In his book S. Covey writes about the six habits that business people must have.

c Covey put his knowledge into practice successfully.

d After Stephen Covey made a lot of money, he started to give advice for free.

e The book “Human Competence” by T. Gilbert was written for the individuals.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 Some books on business have changed a by Thomas Gilbert.

2 More than ten million people read the book b the way companies work.

3 The book “Human Competence” was written c from the negative example.

4 T. Gilbert makes people learn d Bill Gate’s example.

5 Many people would like to follow e by Stephen Covey.



Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

5 The future of commerce

Information technology and the Internet have changed the way people do business over the past twenty years, and they will continue to be important in the future. However, information technology is not the only thing which can change business. The way we live our lives at home and at work, and the hobbies we do in our free time, all have an effect on the world of business. To plan for the future, companies need to know how the world is changing.

By 2030, more than half a million of the people in the USA will be fifty or older. Many of them will stop working and have more free time. This is good news for companies who run hotels, cinemas and other leisure centers.

In richer countries fewer people are getting married and more people are living alone. This is good news for companies which build, buy and sell houses.

One thing is certain: the world of business will continue to change quickly. The most successful companies will be the ones which can change with it.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a Prediction is very important for business.

b The experts say that most Americans under fifty will stop working in the future.

c Only information technology can change business.

d Construction and entertainment businesses will be successful.

e The richer people become, the more children they have.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 The Internet has changed a the better for people who buy and sell houses.

2 To plan, companies need to know b is getting older.

3 The American nation c the future of the world.

4 The more lonely people, d never stop changing.

5 The main rule in running business is e the way we live and work.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

6 From the history of international trade

Trade is as old as history itself. In the beginning, people exchanged goods such as food and clothes. Later, then began to use money for buying and selling. But international trade only became important in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when many modern countries were formed. France, England and other countries made agreements which made the trade easier and cheaper.

In 1947, twenty-three countries made an agreement called GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). GATT played a very important part in the development of world trade for fifty years.

In 1995, GATT became the WTO (World Trade Organization). All the countries in the WTO have to follow the same trade rules. This saves time: countries can make just one agreement instead of a lot of different ones. Larger and more powerful countries cannot make it difficult for poorer countries to take part in trade. Cheaper trade means cheaper goods in the shops. Easier trade is good for the world economy and probably means more jobs. And finally, people say that trade agreements help to keep peace because they help countries to work together.

However, some people are worried about the WTO because it has got too much power and does not explain its decisions.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a The history of trade is the history of human civilization.

b Not many countries could trade with each other until the 14th century.

c The World Trade Organization was formed more than 15 years ago.

d The developed countries have better positions and privileges in the WTO.

e The WTO cannot improve the world working forces market.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 The members of the WTO a replaced GATT.

2 Neither large nor small WTO members b the lower the prices in the shops.

3 The cheaper the trade, c promote cooperation and piece.

4 The international trade helps d can have privileges.

5 In 1995 the World Trade Organization must follow e the same trade rules.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

7 The Internet-I

The Internet began in the 1970s as a way to send information from one computer to another. It was only used by people who worked in governments and universities. But in the 1990s, it suddenly began to be more popular.

In the early 1990s, a British man Tim Berners-Lee invented the ‘Web’. With the Web it was much easier to find information on the Internet, and to move from one part of the Internet to another. By the end of the 1990s, millions of people around the world were using the Web for many different things: for example, working, shopping, playing games and studying.

In the first half of the 1990s, it was clear that the Internet and the Web were changing the world. Hundreds of new companies started on the Internet. They knew that the Internet was growing, and that it offered an easy way to do business with millions of people. The banks gave money to these new ‘Internet start-up’ companies. By the end of the 1990s there were too many of these companies. They could not all be successful, and many of them went out of business. Now, only the best of the Internet start-up companies are making money.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a The Internet has been popular since 1970s.

b An American T.Berners-Lee made the Internet easier to use.

c The business people got more customers with the Web.

d Start-up business has never been risky.

e In the second half of the 20th century many companies started their electronic business.

2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 The 1990s saw a the growth of the Internet start-up companies.

2 The first Internet users could be found b made a new kind of business possible.

3 The late 1990s saw c the Internet birth and rapid development.

4 The Internet d to do the start-up business today.

5 It is not so easy e in state offices and educational institutions.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

8 The Internet -II

Internet users can be anywhere in the world; they just need a computer and a telephone. For this reason, it is often difficult to control what happens on the Internet. As computers become more powerful, the Internet becomes easier to use.

In January 1999, an American University student Shawn Fanning invented a piece of software that could copy music. In May of the same year, he started a company called Napster. Internet users could visit Napster and copy their favourite music. They did not need to buy CDs. Of course, the music companies were not very happy about this. A lot of musicians were also unhappy, because people could get their music free. In the end, Napster agreed to pay money to the music companies and musicians.

Today, almost every company in the world has got a website on the Internet. Each site has got a special name(a web address) and you use this to visit the site. But the Internet is not only important for business. It is also a cheap way to make contacts with people from all over the world. A lot of people visit ‘chat rooms: in a chat room, you can ‘talk’ to other Internet users and read their answers on your computer immediately. There is even a special kind of language which people use to save time.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a The Internet has both advantages and disadvantages.

b Internet users buy CDs to copy the music they like.

c Shawn Napstar designed the software for music copying.

d A chat room cannot be locked or unlocked by the key.

e It is clear that the Internet world need good legislation.


2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 Today having a website a when the Napstar company was started.

2 Not everybody was happy b the world is really getting smaller.

3 The more powerful to computers are, c to have music free.

4 Lots of people would like d the easier the Internet is.

5 With the Internet e is not a problem at all.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

9 Getting the message-I

Although the first email message was sent in 1971, electronic messages began nearly two hundred years earlier. Telegraph machines used electricity to send messages along wires from one place to another. The first telegraph machine was built in 1774. But for the next sixty years, the machines were very large and difficult to use, and each one needed twenty-six wires –one for each letter of the alphabet. In the 1840s, an American inventor Samuel Morse built a better kind of telegraph which only needed one wire. He also invented a special code for messages – Morse Code.

Immediately, telegraphs became an important way for people to communicate. During the next twelve years, American telegraph companies put up 36,000 miles of telegraph wires to send messages all over the USA.

In the 1920, a new kind of electronic message was invented – the telex. A telex machine could send a message to any other telex machine in the world. They did not use the telephone or telegraph wires – they used telex lines. These lines were quite expensive, and the machine were not easy to use. It was not a perfect system - but it worked. Companies continued to use telex until the 1980s and many companies still have telex machines today.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a S.Morse made the telegraph simpler.

b Americans were the first to enjoy the advantages of the telegraph.

c The Morse code and the telex are examples of electronic messages.

d Both the wires and telex lines can be used to send messages.

e Today telex is considered as an old-fashioned device which came out of use.


2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 One should use electricity a in the English alphabet.

2 American telegraph business b belong to the means of communication.

3 High price and complexity c grew up within twelve years.

4 There are twenty six letters d to send message along wires.

5 Both the telegraph and the telex e are main disadvantages of the telex.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

10 Getting the message -II

In the 1980s, people began to buy personal computers. Soon, it was possible to send email messages from one PC to another, but both people had to be a part of the same system. There were several different email systems, and it was not possible to send messages from one system to another. For this reason, emails did not immediately become popular.

In the 1990s, people began to use the Internet and the Web. This made it easier to send messages because there was only one system. Emails soon became a very popular and very cheap way to send messages to anywhere in the world. In the late 1990s, people started to send another kind of electronic message: they used their mobile phones to send text messages. Now they could send and receive messages in any place and at any time.

Text messages use their own kind of language. Long text messages are not easy to send or read, so people find ways to make them shorter. For example, you can write ‘RUOK?’ (Are you OK?), or ‘CUL8R’ (See you later).

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a Emails were not very popular in the 1980s for some technical reasons.

b There was no one universal email system in the 1990s.

c Computer users combine letters and numbers to shorten long messages.

d Only people in big cities can send and receive text messages by mobile phones.

e People do not send long text messages because they are lazy.


2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 Different email systems a because of their low price.

2 Emails messages became popular b were replaced by the one.

3 It is not easy to read c can mean ‘today’ and ‘message’.

4 The text message senders have invented d a long text on the mobile phone.

5 ‘2DAY’ and ‘MSG’ in the text message e a unique language of abbreviations.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

11 Computer games

In the early 1960s, the computer company DEC made a computer called a PDP-1. This type of computers was very large and expensive (120,000 dollars), so only companies and universities bought them. Steve Russell, a student at one of these universities wrote a piece of software for the PDP-1. It was a game for two players, and he called it Spacewar. The two players controlled spaceships which fought against each other. Users of the PDP-1 liked the game, and the other programmers made the software better.

In the late 1960s, a programmer Donald Woods invented a game called Adventure. This was a different kind of game from Spacewar because it did not have any pictures and it was for one player only. The computer told a story; the player took part in the story, and gave the computer instructions, like ‘Go south’, or ‘Get the box’.

Together, Spacewar and Adventure started the two most important kinds of computer games: games with speed and action, and games with stories and imagination.

In 1971, a student Nolan Bushnell tried to make money from the game Spacewar. People did not have PCs then, so he built a machine for bars, shopping centers, and other places where people meet. To play the game, people had to put money in the machine. A company bought Nolan Bushnell’s idea for 500 dollars and made 1,500 machines. But nobody wanted to play the game.

1 Are the statements below true (T) or false (F)?

a The computer company PDP is known for production of the computer DEC-1.

b Nolan Bushnell installed personal computers at the bars and shops.

c Two students contributed a lot to the development of the computer games software.

d Adventure and Spacestar were the two most popular computer games.

e Adventure could be played by two players.


2 Complete the sentences 1-5 with the correct endings a-e.

1 Nolan Bushnell a made the software for Spacewar.

2 Steve Russell wanted b to make money from the game Spacewar.

3 People in business and higher education c were fighting against each other.

4 Speed and action are typical d for one kind of computer games.

5 People playing Spacewar e could buy the first computers.


Read the text, then do two after-reading tasks.

12 Computer viruses

A virus is a kind of computer program. It moves from one computer to another and damages the memory or other parts of the computer. Some viruses are difficult to stop; they can damage millions of computers in a very short time.

The first virus appeared in 1986. It was called Brain. In 1987, a more dangerous virus called Jerusalem appeared. This virus stayed in the computer and did nothing until the date was Friday 13th; then it started to damage the computer’s memory. Programmers began to write anti-virus software.

By the early 1990s, there were more than 150 computer viruses in the world. Some of these viruses were more ‘intelligent’ than others: they had special software which made it very difficult for people to fight the virus. Programmers also wrote new viruses around this time.

In 1993, the Satanbug virus appeared in Washington DC. The anti-virus software companies worked with the police to find the programmer, who was just a child.

By the late 1990s, most computers were part of the email and Internet systems. This meant that virus programmers could do a lot of damage very quickly. In 2000 the most successful virus ‘I love you’ appeared on millions of computers in less than 24 hours.




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