4 The Mythology of Sumer


The Marriage of Martu Paraphrase196

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The Marriage of Martu

Paraphrase196

There was a time when there was the holy crown but not the holy tiara, there were the holy herbs but not holy natrum, there was Ninab but not Aktab[a], and in Ninab Martu was the god. Martu having resolved to take a wife asks his mother to find one for him, but she declines the task. Martu sees the woman he wishes when she attends a feast in Ninab with her parents. She is the daughter of Numušda, the god of Kazallu. Happily Martu is able to perform some heroic deed by which he earns the gratitude of Numušda who offers him silver and lapis lazuli as a reward. Martu, however, declares that he desires from him only the hand of his daughter. To this Numušda is agreeable and so is his daughter, though all her girlfriends urge her against it. Martu, they tell her, is a tent-dweller, irreligious and contentious, who eats his meat raw and goes unburied at death[b].

Commentary


The myth attempts to explain how the Amorites (called in Sumerian the mar-tu) have become associated with the Sumerian culture. In this respect the myth is explanatory, but by disparaging the Amorite culture it also establishes the greater prestige of the Sumerians. It has two special points of interest. Firstly, it is clear again that the Sumerians were aware of the existence of changes in their culture and environment, as can also be seen in the myth ‘Inanna and the Mortal Sin of Šukalletuda’. Secondly, it is another example of anthropological study which may stand beside the list of mes given in the myth ‘Inanna and Enki: The Civilising of Uruk’. The god Martu was depicted on cylinder seals dressed in Amorite garb and often accompanied by a gazelle.
  1. The intent of this description seems to be to establish that much of the Sumerian culture was in existence yet there were things still to come. The city of Ninab is not identified.


  2. This claim makes it pretty clear that it is the characteristics of the people mar-tu being described, and not those of the god Martu.



1 Kramer:S, p. 118.

2 Kramer:HBS, p. 82.

3 Kramer:HBS, p. 83.

4 Kramer:HBS, p. 77.

5 Hawkes:FGC, p. 216.

6 Dalley, p. 320.

7 B&G, s.v. ‘Du-ku’.

8 Kramer:HBS, p. 84.

9 Kramer:S, pp. 132 ff.

10 Gurney:ATS, p. 28 (ref. to Heidel, pp. 129-133.)

11 ANET, pp. 507 ff.

12 Gurney:ATS, p. 29.

13 B&G, s.v. ‘Nammu’.

14 Kramer:HBS, pp. 82 ff.; Kramer:SM; critique in Jacobsen:SM.

15 Kramer:S, p. 117.

16 B&G, s.v. ‘melam and ni’.

17 B&G, Introduction et passim.

18 Kramer:S, pp. 122 ff.


19 Hawkes:FGC, p. 179.

20 Dalley, p. 320.

21 Jacobsen:TD, p. 107.

22 Jacobsen:TD, p. 107 (ref. to Frankfort:LB.)

23 p. 13.17.

24 Kramer:S, p. 132.

25 Roux, pp. 151, 361.

26 Kramer:S, p. 117.

27 Hawkes:FGC, p. 219.

28 Kramer:S, p. 117.

29 Jacobsen:TD, p. 17; TH ## 13, 38.

30 Kramer:S, p. 153.

31 Kramer:S, p. 206.

32 Hawkes:FGC, p. 219, Kramer:S, p. 205.

33 p. 3.24.

34 pp. 13.15 f.

35 Frankfort:BP, p. 159.

36 Hawkes:FGC, p. 216.

37 Kramer:S, p. 172.

38 Inanna and Enki: The Civilising of Uruk.


39 Roux, p. 103.

40 Kramer:S, p. 205.

41 Frankfort:AAAO, p. 31.

42 Kramer:S, p. 138.

43 B&G, s.v. ‘Ningirsu’.

44 B&G, s.v. ‘Baba’.

45 Frankfort:BP, pp. 202 ff.; Jacobsen:TD, pp. 81 ff.

46 pp. 14.11 f.; pp. 18.2 f.

47 B&G, s.v. ‘lion’.

48 Frankfort:BP, p. 144.

49 Levy:GH, p. 104 (ref. to Legrain, pp. 157 ff.)

50 TH #31.

51 B&G, s.v. ‘Ereškigal’.

52 B&G, s.v. ‘standards, staves and sceptres of the gods’.

53 Appendix 1, SKL text, col. iii, ll. 14-15.

54 Kramer:S, p. 141.

55 B&G, s.v. ‘Dumuzi’.

56 Appendix 1, SKL text, col.i.

57 B&G, s.v. ‘Asarluhi’.

58 Kramer:S, p. 131.


59 B&G, s.v.

60 B&G, s.v.

61 Kramer:S, p. 283.

62 B&G, p. 66.

63 B&G, s.v.; TH #37.

64 B&G, s.v.

65 Kramer:DU, p. 111.

66 pp. 13.17 f.

67 TH, p. 10.

68 B&G, s.v.

69 Hooke, p. 27.

70 B&G, s.v.

71 B&G, s.v. ‘La-tarāk and Lulal’.

72 B&G, s.v.

73 B&G, s.v.

74 B&G, p. 66.

75 Kramer:S, p. 283.

76 B&G, s.v. ‘Lugal-irra and Meslamta-ea’.

77 B&G, s.v.

78 p. 13.18.

79 Kramer:S, p. 136.

80 B&G, s.v. ‘snakes’.

81 Kramer:S, pp. 131, 138.

82 Kramer:S, p. 206.


83 Frankfort:BP, p. 209.

84 Kramer:S, p. 111.

85 Kramer:S, app. I.

86 Kramer:S, p. 277.

87 B&G, s.v.

88 B&G, s.v.

89 B&G, s.v.

90 Roux, p. 87.

91 Kramer:S, app. C.

92 Kramer:S, app. C.

93 TH #25.

94 B&G, s.v.

95 B&G, s.v.

96 Roux, p. 88.

97 B&G, s.v.

98 Foxvog

99 Cooper:RNN, p. 153 f.

100 vanDijk:LU, p. 55 [Lugal-e ll. 26 f.]

101 pp. 4.18 f.

102 B&G, s.v. ‘Lahmu’.

103 p. 13.13.

104 B&G, p. 93.

105 p. 9.12.


106 Kramer:S, p. 171.

107 Kramer:S, pp. 220 ff.

108 RS, pp. 17 ff.

109 Moran, p. 114.

110 Kramer:SM, p. 52.

111 Kramer:S, pp. 148 ff., Frankfort:BP, pp. 165 ff.

112 Kramer:S, p. 132.

113 Frankfort:BP, p. 165.

114 Hooke, p. 21.

115 Kramer:S, p. 133.

116 Kramer:SM, pp. 47 ff.

117 Jacobsen:EPD.

118 p. 9.38.

119 Kramer:S, pp. 149 ff., Frankfort:BP, pp. 175 ff.

120 Frankfort:BP, p. 176.

121 Frankfort:BP, p. 176.

122 Kramer:HBS, pp. 172 ff.

123 Gadd:CB, p. 34.

124 Cooper:RNN, p. 143.

125 K-W.


126 NLEM, p. 60.

127 Cooper:RNN.

128 Cooper:RNN, p. 143.

129 B&G, s.v. ‘Slain Heroes’.

130 Cooper:RNN, p. 136.

131 Kramer:SM, pp. 62 f.

132 pp. 3.23 f.

133 Appendix 1.

134 ANET, ‘Enúma Eliš’ tab. xii, ll. 131-138.

135 Kramer:HBS, ch. 19, Hooke, p. 32 ff., Frankfort:BP, pp. 170 ff., Kramer:SM.

136 Frankfort:BP, p. 171.

137 Kirk, p. 136.

138 Hooke, p. 32.

139 Kramer:S, p. 144.

140 Hooke, pp. 103 ff.

141 Kramer:S, p. 281.

142 Roux, p. 121, Hooke, p. 113.

143 Bottéro, p. 81.

144 Hooke, p. 110.


145 Frankfort:BP, p. 171.

146 Kramer:S, app. I.

147 Frankfort:BP, p. 171.

148 Kramer:HBS, p. 129.

149 Kramer:S, p. 111.

150 Frankfort:BP, p. 172.

151 Hooke, p. 115.

152 Kramer:S, pp. 172 ff.

153 Jacobsen:BP, p. 174.

154 Frankfort:BP, p. 174.

155 Roux, pp. 276 ff.

156 Allchins, p. 271.

157 Jacobsen:TD, p. 82 (ref. to B&K.)

158 Kramer:HBS, ch. 12.

159 Kramer:HBS, ch. 12.

160 Kramer:HBS, ch. 20.

161 Roux, p. 110 (ref. to Parrot:DAN.)

162 Woolley:EU, p. 27.

163 Woolley:EU, p. 3.

164 Gen. vi-ix.


165 Ovid, p. 230 ff.

166 ANETP2, p. 29, n. 4.

167 SKL, p. 60, n. 113.

168 Kramer:S, pp. 160 ff.

169 Hooke, p. 28.

170 B&G, p. 76.

171 Frankfort:BP, pp. 180 ff.

172 Kramer:S, pp. 217, 252 f.

173 Kramer:HBS, p. 110 ff.

174 Gen. iv 2-12.

175 Kramer:HBS, p. 153.

176 ANETP2, pp. 195 ff.

177 ANETP2, pp. 197 ff.

178 Kramer:S, p. 252.

179 Kramer:S, p. 140.

180 Hawkes:FGC, pp. 207 ff.

181 Kirk, pp. 112 f.; J&K, pp. 160 ff.

182 Kramer:SM, pp. 82 f.

183 K-W.

184 Kramer:S, pp. 153 ff.


185 Hooke, p. 22.

186 ANETP1, p. 83.

187 Kramer:S, p. 153.

188 Frankfort:AAAO, p. 46.

189 Kramer:S, pp. 155 ff., W&K, pp. 74 ff.

190 Hooke, p. 12.

191 Jacobsen:TD, p. 62.

192 Kramer:S, p. 159.

193 Frankfort:AAAO pl. 3c.

194 Jacobsen:TD, p. 159.

195 Jacobsen:TD, p. 159.

196 Kramer:S, pp. 164, 253.




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