6-15 Kim: hello there, I'm kim clark champniss. Rachel



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The Word This Week

6-15


Kim: HELLO THERE, I'M KIM CLARK CHAMPNISS.
Rachel: AND I AM RACHEL HARRY. WELCOME TO THE WORD THIS WEEK.
(Theme plays: Driving rock music)


[ Caption: The Word This Week ]


Rachel: ON THE WORD THIS WEEK: MINING THE MUSICAL MIND-- TRYING TO HEAR THE LINK BETWEEN SCIENCE, ART AND THE BOTTOM LINE.
[ Caption: The Word This Week ]

[ Caption: Kim Clarke Champniss & Rachel Harry ]
Kim: ELVIS COSTELLO ONCE FAMOUSLY SAID THAT WRITING ABOUT MUSIC IS LIKE DANCING ABOUT ARCHITECTURE; IT'S A REALLY STUPID THING TO DO. WELL, WE'RE GOING TO TRY THE IMPOSSIBLE THIS WEEK. WE'VE GOT A HALF-HOUR SPECIAL ON MUSIC. RACHE, TAKE IT AWAY.

Rachel: OUR CURIOSITY WAS PIQUED WHEN WE WERE GIVEN DANIEL J. LEVITIN'S BOOK, THIS IS YOUR BRAIN ON MUSIC. IT IS AN IN-DEPTH STUDY INTO THE SCIENCE OF SOUND. HE ALSO TAKES A LOOK AT THE CREATIVE PROCESS AND TRIES TO DISMANTLE THIS INCREDIBLY DIVERSE TOPIC.
(Quirky electronic music)


[ Caption: Daniel J. Levitin - This Is Your Brain On Music ]


Daniel: I JUST WANTED TO UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUT CREATIVITY AND WHERE THAT COMES FROM. WHY IS IT THAT SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE CREATIVE THAN OTHERS IN GENERAL, AND MUSICIANS IN PARTICULAR, AND WHERE DO MUSICAL IDEAS COME FROM? WHAT IS IT THAT'S GOING ON IN THE MIND AND THE BRAIN OF CARLOS SANTANA WHEN HE'S PLAYING A SOLO THAT JUST GIVES ME GOOSEBUMPS?
(Dynamic rock music)



Daniel: IT DIDN'T SEEM OBVIOUS TO ME THAT NEUROSCIENCE WOULD BE THE FIELD THAT WOULD ADDRESS THESE QUESTIONS, BUT NOW IT MAKES SENSE.



Daniel: IT'S THE STORY OF HOW LISTENING TO OR WRITING OR PERFORMING MUSIC AFFECTS OUR BRAIN. IT'S A STORY THAT TRIES TO UNPACK SOME OF THE COMPLEXITY THAT WE TAKE FOR GRANTED WHEN, YOU KNOW, THESE VIBRATING MOLECULES MAKE OUR EARDRUMS WIGGLE IN AND OUT, AND SOMEHOW THAT GIVES RISE TO THE RICH EXPERIENCE OF STEVIE WONDER OR ARETHA FRANKLIN OR BENNY GOODMAN OR WHATEVER.

♪ GOD SAVE THE ♪

(Musical medley)

♪ JUST A COUNTRY BOY ♪
[ Caption: David Sulzer - Neuroscientist, Columbia University ]
Daivd: I THINK WE HAVE TO SUSPECT THAT WE CAME UP WITH SINGING AND MAKING SOUNDS, THINGS WHICH ARE RELATIVELY ABSTRACT, WITHOUT DEFINED MEANING, BEFORE WE LEARNED HOW TO MAKE WORDS. BIRDSONG IS SOMETHING THAT'S VERY SIMILAR TO WHAT WE ALSO DO NATURALLY. WE MAKE WHAT WE, I GUESS, HAVE TO CALL MUSICAL SOUNDS FOR OUR OWN PLEASURE, FOR ALL SORTS OF COMMUNICATION. I THINK WE HAVE TO SUSPECT, WITHOUT GOOD PROOF BUT WITH PLENTY OF EXAMPLES IN THE NATURAL WORLD, THAT WE PROBABLY LEARNED TO MAKE ABSTRACT CONTROLLED SOUND, i.e. MUSIC, BEFORE WE LEARNED TO SPEAK.
[ Caption: Miles Davis, Musician ]
Miles: I GO WITH MY FEELINGS. YOU KNOW, I LOVE MUSIC. THE ONLY THING THAT MAKES ME PLAY AND CONTINUE IN THIS BUSINESS IS MY LOVE FOR MUSIC.
[ Caption: Miles Davis 1983, Live in Madrid ]
(Up tempo jazz music)

Miles: IT'S IN MY SYSTEM, MY SOUL, IN MY BODY. I LIKE A LOT OF RHYTHM, BROKEN RHYTHM. UH... I LIKE STRONG MELODIES. LIKE, IF YOU'RE SKETCHING, THE FEEL OF THE PAPER TURNS ME ON AND MAKES ME DO-- LIKE, SKETCH DIFFERENT THINGS. MAYBE A PATCH ON THE SYNTHESIZER WILL TURN ME ON TO WRITE SOMETHING IN THAT PARTICULAR PATCH.
[ Caption: Miles Davis, 1973 ]

Daniel: ABOUT 10% OF THE PEOPLE IN SOCIETY DON'T LIKE MUSIC. THEY DON'T UNDERSTAND WHAT ALL THE FUSS IS ABOUT. THEY'VE LEARNED TO SORT OF KEEP THEIR MOUTHS SHUT ABOUT IT, BECAUSE PEOPLE LOOK AT THEM KIND OF ASKEW. TO US, WE LIKE MUSIC. BUT YEAH, I THINK ONE IN 10 PEOPLE REALLY DON'T. THEY DON'T GET IT. IT'S NOT 'CAUSE THEY HAVE SOME NEUROLOGICAL DAMAGE OR ANYTHING, THEY JUST DON'T GET IT.

MOST OF US DESIRE TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER PEOPLE AND WE DESIRE TO COMMUNICATE ASPECTS OF OUR OWN INNER EXPERIENCE, OR OUR EXPERIENCE IN THE WORLD, AND SHARE THAT WITH SOMEBODY.

[ Caption: David Bowie - New Killer Star ]
♪ READY, SET, GO ♪

♪ I GOT A BETTER WAY ♪

♪ I DISCOVERED A STAR ♪

♪ I GOT A BETTER WAY ♪


[ Caption: David Bowie - Musician ]
David: I CREATE SOMETHING OUT OF MY ENTHUSIASMS AT THAT PARTICULAR MOMENT. I'LL GET RE-ENTHUSED BY SOMETHING ELSE AND SUDDENLY I DON'T SEE THAT ANYMORE AND NOW I'M OVER HERE. AND THAT'S THE WAY I AM.
[ Caption: David Bowie - Ashes To Ashes ]
♪ I'M HAPPY ♪

♪ HOPE YOU'RE HAPPY TOO ♪


Daniel: I'M ACTUALLY SURPRISED THAT LANGUAGE GETS US AS FAR AS IT DOES. WHAT WE GET, I THINK, OUT OF PAINTING AND DANCING AND MUSIC-- PLAYING MUSIC OR SINGING OR LISTENING-- IS A WHOLE DIFFERENT ASPECT OF EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION THAT LANGUAGE ISN'T ALL THAT GOOD AT.

(Operatic vocalizing)


[ Caption: Long Long courtesy of Universal Canada/Deutsche Grammophon ]
Daniel: TRY TO EXPLAIN TO SOMEBODY A SMELL THAT YOU SMELLED IN A FLOWER, FOR EXAMPLE, OR IN A PERFUME. YOU CAN'T DO IT. YOU END UP RESORTING TO METAPHOR AND THE METAPHORS DON'T REALLY GET IT AND, YOU KNOW, FINALLY YOU JUST SAY "COME ON, COME ON, HERE, HERE, SMELL IT."
(Graceful classical music)


Daniel: THERE'S THIS ASPECT OF HUMAN EXPERIENCE THAT'S INDESCRIBABLE AND I THINK THE EMOTIONAL COURSE OF OUR LIVES-- THE DYNAMICS OF OUR EMOTIONAL LIVES-- THE UPS, THE DOWNS, THE FEELING THAT YOU CAN FEEL HAPPY AND SAD AT THE SAME TIME-- LANGUAGE ISN'T SO GOOD AT CAPTURING THE ESSENCE OF THAT.


[ Caption: Radiohead - live in London Oct. 13/2000 ]
(Electronic rock music: Distorted vocals)


[ Caption: Thom Yorke, Musician ]

Thom: THE REASON THAT WE WRITE MUSIC IS IN ORDER TO COMMUNICATE WITH PEOPLE. NEVER, AT ANY STAGE, HAVE WE WRITTEN MUSIC IN ORDER NOT TO COMMUNICATE WITH PEOPLE. THAT'S ENTIRELY THE POINT, WHICH IS WHY I ALWAYS THINK IT'S POP MUSIC, BECAUSE TO ME, IT'S LIKE THE POINT IS TO TRY AND COMMUNICATE WITH AS MANY PEOPLE AS POSSIBLE.

♪ UNIVERSE ♪


Rachel: UP NEXT: AN ICELANDIC CHANTEUSE SINGS HER PASSION FOR RHYTHM AND MELODY.


Bjork: IT'S QUITE ROMANTIC AS WELL, BECAUSE IT'S ALMOST, LIKE, SO SYMBOLIC FOR FEMININE AND MASCULINE.
(Theme plays: Driving rock music)
[ Caption: The Word This Week ]
[ BREAK ]
(Theme plays: Driving rock music)
[ Caption: The Word This Week ]
[ Caption: Rachel Harry ]
Rachel: MUSIC HAS BECOME A MELODIOUS MIXTURE OF TRADITIONS, GENRES, STYLES, SEXUALITIES, SENSUALITIES FROM ALL AROUND THE WORLD AND OUR GLOBALLY CEASELESS PASSION FOR IT SUGGESTS THAT IT MAY BE THE ONE AND ONLY UNIVERSAL INTOXICATION.
[ Caption: Fela Kuti - Army Arrangement ]
(Spirited world beat music: Lyrics in other language)


[ Caption: David Sulzer - Neuroscientist, Columbia University ]


David: ALL THE GOOD MUSIC WE GOT, IT ALL CAME OUT OF THINGS THAT DIDN'T EXACTLY WORK TOGETHER. YOU GOT AN AFRICAN SCALE BUT YOU GOT A WESTERN TRUMPET. NOW HOW ARE THOSE TWO THINGS GOING TO MEET? WELL, THEY-- YOU GOT TO BE CREATIVE AND COME UP WITH A NEW WAY FOR IT TO MEET.
[ Caption: Wilco - Kicking Television ]
(Upbeat rock music)



[ Caption: Kanye West - Grammy Family ]


[ Caption: Midlake - Young Bride ]
[ Caption: Louis Armstrong - courtesy of KLS Productions ]
David: I THINK THAT'S WHERE ALL OUR INTERESTING MUSIC-- JAZZ, ROCK, YOU KNOW, GOSPEL MUSIC, COUNTRY AND WESTERN-- IS COMING OUT OF ALL THESE DIFFERENT TRADITIONS. HOW AM I GOING TO PLAY A MAYAN INDIAN TUNE ON A TRUMPET? HOW ARE WE GOING TO TAKE AFRICAN MUSIC AND MOVE IT ON TO A JOHN PHILIP SOUSA MARCHING BAND? WELL, THAT BECAME LOUIS ARMSTRONG, RIGHT?
(Spirited jazz music)

David: RHYTHM AND HARMONICS MEAN A LOT IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. THE WAY OUR EARS WORK, FOR INSTANCE, IT'S, YOU KNOW, START WITH SOMETHING SIMPLE. I MEAN, OF COURSE, YOU KNOW, THE WAY WE HEAR MUSIC, AT LEAST IN TERMS OF THE COCHLEA IN THE EAR AND THE AUDITORY NERVE IS EXACTLY THE SAME WAY WE HEAR EVERYTHING ELSE THAT WE CONSIDER NOT TO BE MUSIC. MAKES YOU WONDER HOW ARTIFICIAL THESE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MUSIC-- I GUESS THE IDEA IS MUSIC IS ART, AND WHEN WE'RE TALKING, SOMEHOW IT'S NOT ART.

[ Caption: Bjork - Possibly Maybe ]
♪ ELECTRIC SHOCKS ♪

♪ I LOVE THEM ♪


[ Caption: Bjork - Musician ]
Bjork: I'VE ALWAYS BEEN VERY INTERESTED IN MELODIES AND RHYTHMS. IT'S QUITE ROMANTIC AS WELL, BECAUSE IT'S ALMOST, LIKE... SO SYMBOLIC FOR FEMININE AND MASCULINE. AND FEMALES DON'T REALLY NEED MALES, EXCEPT FOR BEATS, YOU KNOW, IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD.
[ Caption: Bjork - Possibly Maybe ]
♪ SINCE WE BROKE UP ♪

♪ I'M USING LIPSTICK AGAIN ♪



Bjork: AND IT'S NO COINCIDENCE THAT NOW, TECHNOLOGY HAS BECOME SO OUTRAGEOUS THAT PEOPLE CAN LITERALLY BE ONE-MAN BAND. AND SO WE DON'T HAVE TO HAVE, LIKE, SIX PEOPLE IN A BAND BECAUSE THE MUSIC NEEDS IT. ONLY IF YOU WANT THE PEOPLE, YOU KNOW.
[ Caption: Miles Davis ]
(Frantic jazz music)



[ Caption: Miles Davis - Musician ]


Miles: WHITE MUSICIANS USUALLY ARE OVER-TRAINED. BLACK MUSICIANS SOMETIMES ARE UNDER-TRAINED. SOMETIMES, A BLACK MUSICIAN HAS HIS OWN SOUND, USUALLY, AND IN ORDER TO PLAY SOMETHING THAT YOU WANT STRAIGHT, YOU MIX A WHITE MUSICIAN WITH THAT AND YOU HAVE THE FEELING AND IT'S STILL STRAIGHT.
SOMETIMES, YOU GET TWO BLACK MUSICIANS, YOU CAN'T GET ANYTHING STRAIGHT. YOU MIX IT WITH A WHITE MUSICIAN, YOU GET IT STRAIGHT WITH SOME FEELING. YOU HAVE MORE TO WORK WITH, RATHER THAN JUST ONE SOUND. AND I'M NOT-- THERE'S SOME FUNKY WHITE MUSICIANS OUT THERE.
[ Caption: Daniel J. Levitin - This Is Your Brain On Music ]

Daniel: ONE OF THE INTERESTING THINGS, I THINK, ABOUT CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY IS THAT WE USE MUSIC AS SELF-MEDICATION. WE USE IT LIKE WE USE DRUGS. YOU KNOW, SOME PEOPLE USE MUSIC TO GET GOING IN THE MORNING, EITHER AS AN ADJUNCT OR A REPLACEMENT TO COFFEE. YOU USE MUSIC AT THE END OF THE DAY WHEN YOU'RE TRYING TO UNWIND. YOU HAVE A CERTAIN KIND OF MUSIC TO-- THAT YOU PLAY DURING YOUR WORKOUT ROUTINE AND ANOTHER KIND OF MUSIC THAT YOU PLAY WHEN YOU'RE CLEANING THE HOUSE AND, YOU KNOW, MUSIC IS SORT OF FUNCTIONING IN A WAY THAT MODULATES OUR MOOD.

AND WE NOW KNOW FROM STUDIES THAT I DESCRIBE IN THE BOOK THAT, YOU KNOW, THERE'S A NEURAL BASIS FOR THIS. NEURAL CHEMICALS ARE RELEASED-- PARTICULAR NEUROCHEMICALS WHEN YOU HEAR CERTAIN KINDS OF MUSIC. THEY ARE SOME OF THE SAME NEURAL CIRCUITS THAT ARE ENGAGED WHEN YOU HAVE OTHER PLEASURABLE EXPERIENCES, LIKE EATING CHOCOLATE OR, LIKE, TAKING CERTAIN DRUGS.
[ Caption: Dingo - courtesy of Greycat Films ]


Miles: IF I DON'T HAVE ON SOMETHING THAT I LIKE TO WEAR, I CAN'T PLAY TRUMPET. I CAN'T PLAY NOTHING. I HAVE TO LOOK LIKE I'M GOING TO PLAY. I HAVE TO HOLD MY HORN A CERTAIN WAY.

WHEN I WAS YOUNG, ME AND A FRIEND OF MINE, MY BOYS, WE USED TO GO HEAR A MUSICIAN. WE WOULD LOOK AT WHAT THEY WORE FIRST-- HOW THE DRUMMER LOOKED, HOW HE WALKED-- FIRST THING, THE DRUMMER. NOW, IF HE DIDN'T SET UP THE DRUMS AND DIDN'T HAVE ON THE RIGHT STUFF TO WEAR, WE'D LEAVE. YOU KNOW, IF HE DIDN'T LOOK SLICK OR, YOU KNOW, LIKE HE WAS GOING TO GET INTO SOMETHING, MY MAN WOULD SAY, "MAN, WE CAN'T-- NO, AIN'T NOTHING HAPPENING.


I MEAN, YOU CAN TELL, YOU KNOW, BY THE WAY A PERSON CARRIES HIMSELF. THE TRUMPET PLAYER, YOU CAN LOOK AT A TRUMPET PLAYER, IF HE DON'T LOOK RIGHT, HE CAN'T PLAY.

[ Caption: As part of a research project, neurologist David Sulzer commissioned an opinion poll in an attempt to scientifically understand what comprises a pop hit. ]
♪ I WALKED ACROSS AN EMPTY LAND ♪

♪ I KNEW THE PATHWAY LIKE THE BACK OF MY HAND ♪

♪ I FELT THE EARTH BENEATH MY FEET ♪

♪ SAT BY THE RIVER AND IT MADE ME COMPLETE ♪


David: WHEN YOU ASK PEOPLE WHAT DO THEY LIKE, THEY LIKE LOVE SONGS OF ABOUT THREE-AND-A-HALF MINUTES THAT USE SAXOPHONE, VIOLIN, CELLO, SYNTHESIZER, PIANO, BASS, DRUMS AND GUITAR.

[ Caption: Kanye West - Grammy Family ]

♪ OH NO, IT CAN'T BE ♪

♪ GOOD MUSIC, MY GRAMMY FAMILY ♪

David: YOU KNOW, AND YOU CAN GO FURTHER THAN THAT WITH THE KIND OF VOICES THEY LIKE. SO IN A CERTAIN EXTENT, THERE'S A FEEDBACK. YOU KNOW, PEOPLE LIKE WHAT THEY HEAR AND PEOPLE PLAY WHAT PEOPLE WANT TO HEAR AND IT KEEPS FEEDING BACK ON ITSELF.
[ Caption: Damhnait Doyle - Tattooed ]
♪ TATTOOED ON MY SKIN ♪

♪ DON'T KNOW WHERE YOU END AND I BEGIN ♪


[ Caption: Damhnait Doyle - Musician ]
Damhnait: WHEN I'M WRITING SONGS FOR MYSELF IT'S PRETTY MUCH I'M THE ONLY FILTER AND I'M MY HARSHEST CRITIC. BUT THAT'S THE AMAZING THING ABOUT SONGS IS THAT THEY CAN JUST HAVE LIFE OF THEIR OWN. LIKE, YOU CAN WRITE A SONG AND THEN THREE YEARS LATER, ALL OF A SUDDEN IT'S A HUGE HIT IN ASIA.
Rachel: DO YOU FEEL A CERTAIN KIND OF PRESSURE WHEN YOU'RE WRITING TO SORT OF FOLLOW WHATEVER IS CURRENT AT THE MOMENT?
[ Caption: Shaye - Happy Baby ]
Damhnait: YOU KNOW WHAT? I THINK, I MEAN, I THINK THAT'S A TREND WITHIN THE INDUSTRY, BUT WITH THE PEOPLE THAT I WRITE WITH, WHO ARE VERY SUCCESSFUL WRITERS, I THINK WE KIND OF PUSH OURSELVES TO TRY AND CREATE NEW TRENDS TO TRY-- BECAUSE I'VE BEEN IN THIS INDUSTRY LONG ENOUGH TO KNOW THAT YOU HEAR SOMETHING ON THE RADIO, YOU SIGN -- YOU KNOW, SOMEONE GOES AND SIGNS A BAND AND THEN THEY MAKE THE RECORD-- BY THE TIME THAT RECORD COMES OUT, THAT SOUND IS GONE, IT'S OBSOLETE. YOU KNOW, YOU HAVE TO BE AHEAD OF THE TRENDS AND AHEAD OF WHAT'S HAPPENING IN ORDER TO REALLY KIND OF CASH IN ON SOMETHING.
♪ IF THIS IS IT FOR ME, BABY ♪

♪ THAT'S JUST FINE ♪


Damhnait: IN ESSENCE, IT'S ALL RETREADS-- RETREAD TRENDS. YOU KNOW, THERE'S REALLY VERY LITTLE THAT AN ARTIST COULD DO RIGHT NOW THAT HASN'T ALREADY BEEN DONE WONDERFULLY BEFORE. IT'S JUST, YOU KNOW, MAKING IT MORE TIMELY.

Daniel: I DON'T KNOW ANYBODY WHO CAN PREDICT WITH GOOD ODDS WHEN A SONG IS GOING TO BE A HIT.
[ Caption: Justin Timberlake - Sexy Back ]
♪ I'M BRINGING SEXY BACK ♪

♪ YEAH ♪


♪ THEM OTHER F--- DON'T KNOW HOW TO ACT ♪
[ Caption: Madonna - Hung Up ]
Daniel: IN RETROSPECT, WE CAN LOOK AT A SONG AND WE CAN PICK IT APART AND SAY, WELL, IT HAS THESE ELEMENTS AND THIS IS WHAT'S DRIVING IT. YOU KNOW, THIS IS WHAT'S GOING ON IN THE CHORDS AND THIS IS WHAT'S GOING ON IN THE BASS LINE AND THIS IS WHAT THE VOCALIST IS DOING. BUT I DON'T THINK WE CAN DO IT PROSPECTIVELY AND PREDICT WHAT'S GOING TO BE A HIT.
♪ WAITING FOR YOUR CALL, BABY, NIGHT AND DAY ♪

♪ I'M FED UP ♪

♪ I'M TIRED OF WAITING ON YOU ♪
Daniel: IN A LOT OF CASES, YOU KNOW, HIT SONGS HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE SONG. I REMEMBER-- DO YOU REMEMBER SUZANNE VEGA?
[ Caption: Suzanne Vega - Luka ]
♪ MY NAME IS LUKA ♪
Daniel: SHE HAD A FIRST ALBUM THAT GOT A LOT OF CRITICAL ACCLAIM AND THE SECOND ALBUM, IN RECORD INDUSTRY PARLANCE, WE SAY IT "BROKE." WELL, HER THIRD ALBUM CAME OUT, IT WAS FANTASTIC. I THINK IT WAS THE BEST ALBUM SHE EVER MADE. THE DAY THAT HER RECORD CAME OUT, HER RECORD COMPANY, A&M, HAD BEEN SOLD. SO EVERYBODY SAT PARALYZED FOR A MONTH AND DID NOTHING AND HER RECORD DIED. YOU KNOW, IT JUST-- AND IT'S A TERRIFIC RECORD.
Rachel: UP NEXT: IDEAS FROM SOME OF MUSIC'S MOST INNOVATIVE MINDS.
Thom: I DON'T THINK IT'S THAT CLEVER. I DON'T THINK WHAT WE'VE DONE IS PARTICULARLY BRAVE. FROM WHERE I'M SITTING, I DON'T SEE IT AS PARTICULARLY EXPERIMENTAL.
(Theme plays: Driving rock music)

[ Caption: The Word This Week ]
[ BREAK ]

(Theme plays: Driving rock music)


[ Caption: The Word This Week ]

[ Caption: Rachel Harry ]

Rachel: IN THE CURRENT CLIMATE OF TOP 40 APPRECIATION, WE ARE LEFT TO WONDER WHO WAS IT THAT INSPIRED THAT ORIGINAL CREATIVE IDEA THAT THE REST WERE LEFT TO FOLLOW? IS THERE A SCIENCE TO THE ART? AND WHAT IS THE BASIS OF THAT KIND OF CREATIVE INSPIRATION?

(Quirky electronic music)
Rachel: THERE OFTEN SEEMS TO BE A CERTAIN SOUND--
Daniel: YEAH.
Rachel: AND THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN YOU WILL HAVE, YOU KNOW, HUNDREDS OF MUSICIANS COMING OUT WITH THAT SAME SOUND. AND WE LOVE IT, WE LISTEN TO THE TUNES ON THE RADIO AND WE CAN SING ALONG TO EVERY SONG AFTER WE'VE HEARD IT THREE OR FOUR TIMES. THAT MUST BE PART OF THE HIT MACHINE.
Daniel: YEAH.
[ Caption: Radiohead - Idioteque ]
Rachel: SOMETHING MUST-- BUT WHAT INTERESTS ME IS, WHO IS COMING OUT WITH THAT ORIGINAL SOUND?
♪ EVERYTHING ALL OF THE TIME ♪
[ Caption: Daniel J. Levitin - This Is Your Brain On Music ]
Daniel: YOU HAVE REAL ARTISTS, CREATIVE PEOPLE, WHO ARE EXPERIMENTING WITH DIFFERENT THINGS, DIFFERENT WAYS OF PUTTING SOUND TOGETHER. YOU KNOW, THEY MAY NOT THINK IT'S GOING TO BE A HIT. THEY MAY JUST BE EXPERIMENTING WITH SOMETHING. AND THEY PUT IT OUT AND THEN OTHER PEOPLE LIKE IT AND SO COPY IT.
[ Caption: Thom Yorke - Musician ]
Thom: I DON'T THINK IT'S THAT CLEVER. I DON'T THINK WHAT WE'VE DONE IS PARTICULARLY BRAVE. FROM WHERE I'M SITTING, I DON'T SEE IT AS PARTICULARLY EXPERIMENTAL. I DON'T SEE THAT IT'S PARTICULARLY ADVANCED OR, LIKE ANY-- AND, YOU KNOW, IT AIN'T ROCKET SCIENCE OR ANYTHING. AND IT'S STILL, ESSENTIALLY, I THINK, POP MUSIC.
IT'S NOT LIKE I WAS EVEN TRYING TO PROVE ANYTHING BY WANTING-- JUST BANGING ON ABOUT COMPUTERS ALL THE TIME. IT WAS JUST THAT NOTHING ELSE WAS WORKING FOR ME.
(Electronic rock music: Distorted vocals)
[ Caption: New U.K. bands like Travis and Coldplay would often be compared to Radiohead following their growing popularity. ]
♪ FOR A LONG, LONG TIME ♪

♪ I WROTE A SONG FOR YOU ♪

Thom: I KIND OF HAD A PROBLEM WITH MY OWN VOICE AND HEARING PEOPLE LIKE MYSELF ON THE RADIO MADE ME NOT WANT TO SOUND LIKE ME AND I WOULD DO ANYTHING, FRANKLY, TO NOT SOUND LIKE ME.

[ Caption: "When critics described bands such as Coldplay as sounding like Radiohead, they usually meant they sound like Radiohead's brilliant second album." -Rolling Stone magazine 2003 ]
♪ BUT YOU KNOW, YOU KNOW I LOVE YOU SO ♪

♪ YOU KNOW I LOVE YOU SO ♪


[ Caption: Chris Martin - Musician ]
Chris: BAND COMPARISONS ARE, LIKE-- THEY'RE JUST SILLY. I MEAN, EVERY BAND SOUNDS LIKE EVERY OTHER BAND--
Male Interviewer: RIGHT.
Chris: ...IF YOU WANT TO MAKE THEM SOUND-- YOU KNOW, YOU CAN SAY ANYTHING ABOUT ANYONE.
[ Caption: David Bowie - Musician ]
David: THERE'S NOTHING MORE, I THINK, EMBARRASSING THAN WATCHING SOMEBODY WHO DOESN'T LOVE WHAT THEY DO WITH-- DOES IT BECAUSE THEY BELIEVE THAT'S THE WAY THEY'RE GOING TO BE LOVED... IN THIS HUGE, EPHEMERAL WAY BY THE MASSES OR SOMETHING.
(Vibrant reggae music)
[ Caption: Christopher Farley - Music critic - Time magazine ]
Christopher : SOME ARTISTS LEAD, SOME ARTISTS FOLLOW, AND THIS IS WHAT BOB MARLEY DID. BOB MARLEY TRIED TO CREATE MUSIC THAT WOULD LEAD HIS GENERATION AND ALSO, HE TOOK HIS INSPIRATION FROM PEOPLE-- FROM THE THINGS AROUND HIM, NOT JUST FROM OTHER MUSICIANS. HE USED TO GO OUT INTO THE STREET AND TALK TO PEOPLE. HE USED TO HEAR FRIENDS' CONVERSATIONS AND INCORPORATE THAT INTO HIS MUSIC.
HIS WAY OF CREATING MUSIC WAS BY DRAWING ALMOST FROM THE SOIL OF JAMAICA ITSELF, AND WHEN YOU MAKE MUSIC THAT'S ROOTED IN A SPECIFIC PLACE BUT ALSO HAS A UNIVERSAL QUALITY TO IT, THAT'S WHAT GREAT ART'S ABOUT. THAT'S WHAT JAMES JOYCE DID. HE CREATED LITERATURE THAT WAS ROOTED IN IRELAND BUT ALSO HAD A UNIVERSAL QUALITY TO IT. THAT'S WHAT FAULKNER DID. HE WROTE BOOKS THAT WERE ROOTED IN THE SOUTH BUT ALSO HAD A UNIVERSAL QUALITY TO IT.
[ Caption: Bob Marley - Could You Be Love ]

♪ COULD YOU BE LOVED ♪

Christopher: BOB MARLEY ONCE SAID, ONE GOOD THING ABOUT MUSIC IS WHEN IT HITS YOU, YOU FEEL NO PAIN. HE CREATED THE KIND OF MUSIC THAT TOOK THE PAIN OF HIS GENERATION, THAT TOOK THE PAIN OF A SOCIETY AND TRANSFORMED IT INTO SOMETHING THAT WAS REVOLUTIONARY, THAT WAS SOOTHING, THAT TOOK PEOPLE BEYOND THOSE CIRCUMSTANCES INTO SOMEPLACE ELSE. AND WHEN PEOPLE SEE THAT KIND OF POWER ON DISPLAY, THEY WANT TO COPY IT, THEY WANT TO BE PART OF IT, THEY WANT TO FOLLOW IT.
[ Caption: David Bowie - Ashes To Ashes ]

David : EVERY TIME I DO SOMETHING NEW, I JUST PRETEND I DON'T HAVE ANY AUDIENCE WHATSOEVER, SO THAT I'M TOTALLY FREE OF ANY EXPECTATIONS FROM ANYBODY. I KIND OF GO IN LIKE THAT AND WHEN I'VE DONE IT, THEN I GET TREPIDATIOUS. THEN I GO, "OOH, UH--" (Laughs) "I SHOULDN'T HAVE DONE THIS. NOBODY'S GOING TO LIKE THIS AT ALL. I KNOW, I'LL DO A REALLY ARTY ALBUM COVER, THEN THEY'LL LIKE IT." (Laughs)
[ Caption: Missy Elliott - Get Ur Freak On ]
♪ I KNOW YOU FEEL ME NOW, I KNOW YOU HEAR ME LOUD ♪

♪ I SCREAM IT LOUD AND PROUD ♪


[ Caption: Missy Elliott - Musician ]
Missy: I THINK IT'S VERY IMPORTANT TO PUT OUT SOMETHING INNOVATIVE. I FEEL LIKE I GOT FANS AND I WANT TO GIVE THEM SOMETHING. YOU KNOW, THEY GO OUT AND THEY SUPPORT MISSY.
[ Caption: Missy Elliott - Work It ]
♪ WHEN I WALK UP IN THE P'S I AIN'T GOTTA USE SPEED ♪

♪ I'M A BAD RAMMER-JAMMER ♪

♪ Y'ALL PEOPLE AIN'T GOT IT LIKE ME ♪
Missy: HIP HOP FROM MY TIME WAS ALWAYS ORIGINAL AND CREATIVE AND I FEEL LIKE RIGHT NOW WE GETTING SO STUCK IN ONE FORMAT. IT'S LIKE YOU GOT THE HOT BEAT, BUT GIVE ME 20 GIRLS AND SOME CHAMPAGNE AND WE GOOD.
[ Caption: Jay-Z - Big Pimpin' ]

♪ AH-AH-AH-AH-AH ♪

♪ THAT'S RIGHT ♪

[ Caption: David Sulzer - Neuroscientist, Columbia University ]
[ Caption: Radiohead - Idioteque ]
David: YOU KNOW, ONE THING ABOUT MUSIC IS IT'S HIGHLY ABSTRACT AND THIS IS SOMETHING THAT I THINK, YOU KNOW, PEOPLE LOSE SIGHT OF. BECAUSE THE WAY WE KIND OF ADVERTISE MUSIC IS, YOU KNOW, IT'S GOT SO-- YOU KNOW, IT'S LIKE THE MUSIC OF THE PEOPLE AND STUFF LIKE THAT, BUT ANYBODY WHO REALLY PLAYS MUSIC HAS TO WORRY ABOUT THINGS LIKE, HOW DO I MOVE MY FINGERS ON THE INSTRUMENT? YOU KNOW, HOW CAN I TAKE ONE CHORD AND PUT IT AFTER ANOTHER CHORD AND HAVE IT MAKE SENSE? WHAT'S RHYTHM? WHAT KIND OF RHYTHM DO I WANT? I MEAN, RHYTHM'S SORT OF, IT'S ABSTRACT. YOU CAN'T-- YOU DON'T SEE A RHYTHM, RIGHT? I MEAN, YOU HEAR IT, BUT WHAT'S IT MEAN TO HEAR IT? WHAT'S THE IMPORTANT PART OF THE RHYTHM AND WHAT'S THE LESS IMPORTANT PART OF THE RHYTHM? IT'S HIGHLY ABSTRACT STUFF.
IT'S STUFF THAT YOU-- IT ONLY KIND OF EXISTS IN ONE DIMENSION, WHICH IS HEARING. I MEAN, I KNOW YOU CAN WRITE DOWN MUSIC, BUT WRITING DOWN MUSIC DOESN'T REALLY MEAN ANYTHING. IT'S JUST KIND OF A SHORTHAND FOR RECREATING IT.
David: I WOULD GIVE MY RIGHT ARM-- MAYBE NOT MY RIGHT ARM-- I WOULD GIVE SOMEBODY'S RIGHT ARM IF I COULD FIND SOMEBODY TO SING ALL MY SONGS FOR ME, I REALLY WOULD. I'M VERY MUCH OF THE OPINION THAT IT IS THE INTERPRETATION OF THE RECEIVER OR LISTENER THAT CREATES THE-- THAT COMPLETES THE ALBUM.
YEAH, WHEN I LISTEN TO OTHER PEOPLE'S WORK OR LOOK AT OTHER PEOPLE'S WORK, MAYBE, IT-- I REALLY DON'T WANT TO KNOW WHAT THEY-- I'M LESS AND LESS INTERESTED IN WHAT THEIR INTENTION WAS. I'M FAR MORE INTERESTED IN WHAT MY REACTIONS ARE. BUT THAT'S COMING FROM THE IDEA THAT ART SHOULD BE THERE TO BE USED.

I THINK IT WAS SOCRATES THAT SAID-- NO, ACTUALLY IT WAS PLATO-- THAT THE ARTIST IS POSITIVELY USELESS BECAUSE HE CAN'T EXPLAIN HOW HE DOES WHAT HE DOES, THEREFORE WHY SHOULD ANYBODY TAKE ANY NOTICE OF WHAT HIS SUBJECT MATTER IS, BECAUSE IF HE CAN'T EVEN EXPLAIN HOW HE DOES WHAT HE DOES, WHY SHOULD WE PUT ANY FAITH IN HIS ACTUAL STATEMENTS WHEN THEY DO COME OUT?

Daniel: I START THE BOOK WITH A QUOTE FROM ROBERT SAPOLSKY, A BIOLOGIST/PROFESSOR AT STANFORD WHO WRITES "I LOVE MUSIC AND I LOVE SCIENCE. WHY WOULD I WANT TO MIX THE TWO?" HE ARTICULATES THIS TENSION. YOU KNOW, WELL, MAYBE ART AND THINGS THAT WE APPRECIATE SHOULD NOT BE SUBJECTED TO THE CRUEL KNIFE OF SCIENTIFIC DIVISION, THAT SOMEHOW WHEN WE UNPACK IT ALL AND WE SEE THE MAN BEHIND THE CURTAIN, THE WONDER OF IT ALL WILL DISAPPEAR. AND IN FACT, THAT HAD-- I WAS TERRIBLY AFRAID THAT THAT WOULD HAPPEN, BUT I PUSHED FORWARD IN SMALL STEPS AND IN FACT THE OPPOSITE HAS BEEN TRUE. EVERY TIME I FEEL LIKE I'M ABOUT TO UNPACK A MYSTERY, THERE'S THREE NEW ONES THAT POP UP BEHIND IT THAT ARE EVEN MORE WONDROUS THAN THE ONE I WAS AT. AND I CAN LISTEN TO MUSIC NOW AND I ACTUALLY APPRECIATE IT MORE, I THINK.
(Typewriter bell dings)
Kim: WELL, I'M INSPIRED ENOUGH TO GO TO THE RECORD COLLECTION AND BREAK OUT SOME TUNES. TILL NEXT WEEK, I'M K.C.C.

[ Caption: www.booktelevision.com ]
Rachel: AND I AM RACHEL HARRY. PLEASE GO TO OUR WEBSITE, booktelevision.com. WE LOVE YOUR FEEDBACK.
Kim: CIAO.
Rachel: BYE.

(Theme plays: Driving rock music)





[ CREDITS ]
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