9500 bc clovis Spearheads created in New Mexico

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10,000 BC Retreat of last ice age, advanced stone tools found, colossal flood in Washington State, Neolithic humans cultivate plants, domesticate animals, and make cloth and pottery, End of Bering Strait migration period, Man reaches tip of South America, Human evidence found in Chile, Beginnings of agriculture and private property, division of labor, End of old stone age, beginning of new stone age, Sahara habitable as rainfall increases, Natufian hunter-gatherers harvest cereals in Syria, first permanent human settlements, End of ice age, First cast copper and hardened pottery found, End of Bering Strait migration period, dogs domesticated, houses of sun-dried brick in Jericho, goats and sheep domesticated in Iran and Afghanistan, marked bone shows months and lunar phases in Zaire

9500 BC Clovis Spearheads created in New Mexico

9000 BC Stone tools created in Peru, Jamon pottery period of Japan begins, Clovis hunters in US hunt bison, alternate possible date for start of Holocene Epoch, Approximate date of first animal domestication, Wild sheep managed in Iraq, Agriculture in Fertile Crescent

8650 BC Agriculture spreads around fertile crescent, Bow and arrow invented, pottery in China

8400 BC First evidence of domesticated dog found in ID (USA)

8000 BC Cave paintings found in W AFR, painted human figures in AFR, settlement of Jericho, mud brick in Asia, shellfish consumption in Europe, Agriculture develops in Middle East, sheep and cattle domesticated, Cats domesticate people, End of Ice Age in North America. Copper objects first forged, Wheat and barley domesticated, Floodwater agriculture along Nile, Mesopotamian people use clay tokens for trade and measurement

7500 BC Earliest cemetery – in Arkansas

7000 BC Fishing communities in N AFR, farming in W Asia, earliest maize crops in MEX, Possible time of Bosphorous flood in Turkey, Copper first used for jewelry, Walled settlement at Jericho using mortar, pottery and metallurgy develop, Bronze Age begins,

6640 BC Eruption of Kurile Lake Kamchatka in Russia

6500 BC Cereal farming in Europe and the Indus valley, grain crops in Peru, Sumerians invent the wheel, Southern Sahara - first African pottery, Archaic people live in Great Basin region, Rice cultivated in Yangtze valley, Farming and cattle domestication in Balkans

6300 BC Dug-out canoes in Mediterranean

6200 BC Copper smelting and textiles in Turkey

6100 BC Norway70 foot tsunami, Tsunami caused by Storegga Slides hit Shetland and Scotland

6000 BC Villages of wooden huts found in Europe, town of Catal Huyuk in Turkey, pigs domesticated in China, Cattle domestication in Sahara, millet domesticated in China, irrigation in Mesopotamia, Egyptians build first astronomical observatory, Start of Neolithic period, Wheat and barley farming in Egypt, Farming in India, Domesticated cattle in mid-east, Farming across S Europe and Italy and Crete. Farming in Nile Valley, mummies created in Chile and Peru

5800 BC Millet farming in SE China

5700 BC Approximate extinction of Irish Deer (largest)

5500 BC Persians begin to smelt copper,

5400 BC Eruption and mudflow at Ranier WA, Bandkeramik culture (farmers) in central Europe

5000 BC European copper and gold work, rice cultivated in China, jade imported to China from Siberia, Egyptian village communities grow wheat and barley, stone age tools in China, first cities in Sumer, farming in S France, Karanova settlement in Bulgaria, corn cultivated in MEX, Cochise culture in SW US, Chumash culture in CA, Chonchorros people in Chile, copper used in Mesopotamia, Gumelnitsa culture in Romania, Cattle domestication between the rivers, Egyptians build irrigation canals and dikes. Copper age beings, Sea divides Britain from rest of Europe due to rising levels from warming after ice age, Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia, Neolithic age begins, Farming, stone axes, pottery, copper mining in Balkans, Irrigation in Mesopotamia, Plow used in Europe for farming, horse domesticated in Russia, Rock art in Australia

4850 BC Mount Mazama erupts forming Crater Lake in the US

4500 BC Pottery in Nubia, Vinca copper culture in Yugoslavia, Immigrants bring herding and cereal cultivation into Africa via the Nile region, Farming in the Ganges region

4400 BC Horses domesticated

4350 BC Europeans domesticate horses

4300 BC Eruption of Kikai-Akahoya in Japan, First megalithic tomb in Brittany, villages formed at Jericho, Catal Huyuk, Hacilar, Abu Hureya, and Ain Ghazal, Sumerian civilization, City of Uruk formed, earliest pictograph writing, cylinder seals invented

4241 BC First precisely dated year from Egyptian calendar – could be 1500 years later (2741)

4236 BC First date in Egyptian calendar

4000 BC Farmers in Sahara domesticate animals, first sail used on boats in Egypt, pottery made in Ghana W AFR, city of Enridu Mesopotamia expands, passage graves built at Carnac France, crops in Britain, First Sumerian writing appears on clay tablets – also bureaucracies run by priests, Yang-shao rice farming culture in China, civilization of Catal Huyuk in Turkey, "Sweet Track" a raised, wooden walkway constructed in swamps, Communities appear in Britain, Official beginning of the Copper Age in Egypt, Horse domesticated in steppes, Farming in Britain and Scandinavia, Pottery in the Americas, Mesopotamian pictograms with over 2000 signs

3800 BC Bronze working begins in Middle East - Iran

3760 BC First year of Hebrew calendar and traditional date of Creation

3650 BC Wheeled vehicles in use on Russian Steppes

3600 BC Asian artisans begin to work bronze - Lost-wax process developed

3500 BC Naqada culture begins in Egypt, Ur founded, llama first used in Peru, Haida culture in NW CAN, Fishing villages in Peru, Cotton introduced in Peru, Drought and famine in Egypt and Africa, Sumerians establish centers of civilization, Mesopotamians develop the wheel, Sumerins invent an alphabet, Sumerians use plows to cultivate, Mesopotamians use clay to make pots, End “proto-history” (my term) with death of Amenhotep III of Egypt, Uruk ziggurat built, Chambered tombs and corpse exposure practiced in Britain, Irrigation and civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia, Cuneiform developed - first writing, First cities in S Mesopotamia, Fishing in Peru, Farming in Europe, Pottery in Ecuador, Papyrus in Egypt – Egyptian numbering system allows perpetual counting, hieroglyphics develop, Sumern tokens signify merchandise, Bronze age begins in Mesopotamia

3400 BC Egyptians establish city of Memphis, Ox-drawn plow invented in Mesopotamia, Sumerians develop written language, First settlement of Shetland Islands, Beginning of early Minoan age, Priests rule Mesopotamian cities, Writing comes into use in Sumeria and Uruk (Iraq), Cylinder seals created

3372 BC First date in Mayan chronology

3350 BC Jordhoj graves constructed in DEN

3300 BC Passage graves built in Spain, Wheel used in Mesopotamia, Beginnings of the Bronze Age, Heiroglyphic script in Egypt, Naqada II period in Nile Valley, Copper smelting in central Europe

3200 BC Earliest hieroglyphics in Egypt, Newgrange passage grange built in Ireland, Mesopotamian picture depicts wheeled vehicles, Bronze Age begins, Wheeled vehicles in Balkans, First ranked societies in China (Longshan culture)

3110 BC Egypt unified under Menes (Pharaoh), Begin of the old Kingdom


3100 BC Menes unites two Egypts, Byblos founded, experimental bronzework in Mesopotamia , Flood and cyclone hit Mesopotamia, King Menes unifies Egypt, first earthworks at Stonehenge, First Egyptian dynasty, Sumerian writing system developed – clay tablets found, Menes unites kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, First known dated hieroglyphics, start of Archaic Egyptian Period, End of height of Sumerian civilization

3000 BC Wheel appears in Mesopotamia, plow used in China, Neolithic age in SE Asia, Bronze Age in Crete, Stone temples in Malta, Neolithic village of Skara Brae built in Orkney Scotland, Sumerians write story of great flood and an ark, first dolphins killed in the Black Sea, Ling-lun invents first bamboo flute, cotton woven in Indus valley, Indian civilixation takes root, Sumerians develop number system, End of the copper age, Peanuts, avocados and sweet peppers in Peru, first heiroglyphics in Egypt, Domestication of maize in MEX, Windmill Hill culture in Britain, Phoenicians settle eastern Mediterranean coast, Bricks first used in Egyptian and Assyrian cultures, First cities in Sumer and Egypt, Invention of the wheel, Menes unites upper and lower Egypt, approximate introduction of the potter's wheel, Minoans on Crete, Papyrus invented, Castlerigg (Cumbria) Stone circle created, Chambered tombs built in Britain, Sumerians extend domain to Semitic people, Greek civilization begins to flourish, Age of the Minoans, Potters wheel introduced, Copper and silk in China, Upper and lower Egypt united, Memphis founded by Narmer, Chinese towns and fortifications built, Potter's wheel introduced in China, Ancestral Austronesians migrate from Taiwan to Philippines, Farming on Asian steppes, Stone tombs on Crete - Cretans trade with Levant , Domestication of alpacas and llamas, rootcrops in highlands of S America, start of history in Sumer with wheel, calendar, architecture, religion and writing,

2980 BC Egyptian physician Imhotep begins to treat disease

2920 BC Traditional Egyptian date of 1st dynasty

2900 BC First city at Troy, Defensive walls built around cities, Cuneiform begins, tin and bronze used, cord-impressed pottery in Europe, Egyptians simplify hieroglyphics to Hieratic Script, Cuneiform in Sumer and first numbers develop,

2800 BC Stonehenge, Sumerians invent the sickle, Old Kingdom in Egypt covers 3rd and 4th dynasties

2781 BC Probable date of Egypt's Calendar originating - Sothis (Sirius) cycle

2780 BC First pyramid built in Egypt, Zoser rules Egypt and physician Imhotep designs step pyramid

2776 BC Begin Egypt's 3rd Dynasty

2772 BC Egyptian calendar lengthened to 365 days

2770 BC End of Archaic Egyptian Period and start of Old Kingdom

2750 BC Gilgamesh rules Uruk, Samaria, Secular rulers become more important

2700 BC King Gilgamesh reigns at Uruk Sumeria, City of Troy founded, first use of acupuncture by Chinese emperor Shen-Nung, Egyptians begin building pyramids, first standardization of measurement in Mesopotamia, Khufu (Cheops) rules Egypts and commissions great pyramid, Third Egyptian Dynasty begins, Maize domesticated in Mesoamerica

2697 BC Huang-ti Emperor of China “Yellow Emperor”

2686 BC Beginning of Egypt's old kingdom, End of Egypt's third dynasty, begin 4th (Old Kingdom), era of pyramid building under Snefru

2680 BC Great Pyramid at Giza

2650 BC Start of great pyramid building in Egypt, Kufu of Egypt builds great pyramid

2640 BC Wife of Chinese emperor Huang Ti manufactures silk

2630 BC Step pyramid built at Saqqara

2600 BC Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) built, Egyptians sun-dry fish, Earliest glass beads in Mesopotamia, Begin building of pyramids of Egypt, Rich burials at Ur, Monumental buildings at Aspero, Peru, Indus valley civilization flourishes

2595 BC Huang Ti produces first medical text Nei Ching

2566 BC Start of reign of Pepi II of Egypt – longest ruling monarch

2550 BC Construction begins on Egypt's great pyramids including Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza, Approximate creation of the Sphinx

2525 BC Approximate end of Pyramid construction in Egypt

2500 BC Rise of Indus civilization in Pakistan complete with writing, building of the Sphinx at Giza, people at Ebla, Syria trade with Mediterranean peoples, Beaker culture from low countries reaches France, Paloma site in Chilca river valley in Peru abandoned, Corn becomes diet staple in Americas, Sumerians develop 500 symbol alphabet, first Egyptian libraries established, Canaanite tribes in Palestine, Yao dynasty in China, Potter's wheel invented in China, Knossos founded by Minoans in Crete, Indus valley civilization in Indus valley, Trade between Babylonand India founded, Tombs and monuments, elaborate pottery found, Rise of the Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa people in India, End of the New Stone Age, End of the Bronze Age, Beginning of the Iron age as man learns to cast iron, Desertification of the Sahara sends herders to the edges, Bell Beaker cultures appear in W Europe - from low countries reaches France, Unetice culture begins in central Europe, trade units of length weight and capacity fixed legally, Mesoamerican settlements see cities of 4000

2476 BC End of Pepi II of Egypt – longest ruling monarch who ruled 90 years

2440 BC Egypt's Middle Kingdom (overlap with Old)

2420 BC End of Egypt's 5th dynasty, begin 6th , End Egypt's 5th Dynasty

2400 BC Lugalzaggisi of Uruk defeats Lagash empire – becomes king of the countries, Under reign of Pepi I ships were sent to end revolt in Lebanon, Guti people move into fertile crescent, Pepi I sends troop ships in the Levant coast, four-wheeled war wagons in Mesopotamia, decline of royal power in Egypt, copper used in W Europe as Bronze Age ends, Chinese develop modern astronomy, start of founding of cities of Ur Ebla Nineveh Lagash and Mari,

2350 BC Lugalzaggisi defeated by Sargon – Sargon king of four quarters, Sumerian empire founded as Satfon the Great of Akkad begins conquest, Yao Dynasty in China, Urukagina king of Lagash promotes first written law code

2340 BC Sargon of Akkad the Semitic King extends empire to west coast of Mediterranean and founds city of Agade

2334 BC Sargon of Akkad conquers Mesopotamia

2300 BC Sargon II of Akkad dominates Sumer – start of Akkadian Empire (Iraq area), End of Yao dynasty - Shun dynasty of China begins, Semitic people absorb Sumerians as Semites settle in Mesopotamia, Evidence of trade between India and middle east, Largest stone circle at Avebury built, Bronze in use in SE Europe/Aegean region, First permanent farming villages in Mesoamerica - S Mexico, pottery first used there

2270 BC Naramsin rules Babylon, End of Egypt's 6th dynasty and the Old Kingdom, beginning of Egypt's "dark age", Syrians overrun Egypt

2250 BC Yu-shun becomes emproro of China

2233 BC End of Naramsin’s rule of Babylon

2205 BC End of Shun Dynasty of China – start of Hsai (Xia) dynasties, Chinese mill grain created

2200 BC Middle Jamon period in Japan, beginning of Bronze Age in Ireland, Drought and famine in Egypt, Earthquake or space threat (Sodom Gomorrah), Hyksos begin to rule Egypt, Hsia Dynasty in China, Jomon Culture in Japan, end of Akkadian Empire, All Mesopotamia under one rule under Sargon the Great, Pharaoh's powers diminished (end of old kingdom), Trade between India and Mesopotamia occurs, end of Egyptian Old Kingdom, and start of Intermediate period to 2050

2150 BC Aryans invade Indus Valley, Low floods bring famine and unrest in Egypt

2134 BC End of Old Kingdom, division into two kingdoms in Egypts

2112 BC Sumerian King Ur-Nammu founds third Dynasty of Ur and builds famous ziggurat

2100 BC Corn grown in Andean highlands, end of Sargon reign of Sumeria, estimated departure of Abraham from Ur, Empire of Ur founded, Middle Kingdom of Egypt with 7th dynasty, migration of Abraham, Aryans invade Indus valley, End of Egypt's "dark age" and beginning of Middle Kingdom (Dynasties 11-13), end of early Minoan age, beginning of middle Minoan age, Egypt's Middle Kingdom comes into power as Pharaoh regains control, Middle kingdom begins, End of pyramid building era

2060 BC Ziggurat of Ur built

2050 BC Begin the first dynasty of Babylon, start of Egyptian Middle Kingdom

2040 BC Middle kingdom in Egypt begins as Egypt reunified under 11th dynasty at Thebes

2000 BC Inuits settle Arctic, Andean settlements thrive in Peru, Afanasievo Neolithic culture begins in Siberia, end of Sumerian power in Mesopotamia, Bronze age begins in Scotland, Minoan palace civilization in Crete, invention of the alphabet, Hittites plunder Babylon, Egyptians begin worshipping myriad of gods, Indus Valley civilization in India, Bronze Age in Northern Europe, Jomon culture in Japan, Hammurabi's code set up, by this time, Assyrians established, Babylon increases in power, writing reaches Anatolia, start of Egypt's 12th dynasty, Egypt's Imhotep first physician, Egypt occupies lower Nubia, northern invaders make their way into Italy, Metal manufacturing in Britain, pins, fasteners, Stonehenge's inner ring built, Mycenaean area begins in Greece as Greeks inhabit peninsula, Iron age in full power, Beginning of Greek/Roman classical age, Farming chief in Peru, Farming begins in Sub-Saharan Africa, Minoan palace civilization in Crete, Greeks settle Peloponnese, Austronesians settle in Melanesia, Classical period of Egyptian literature begins, Achaeans (Mycenaeans) move south into Greece, Minoan heiroglyphic script develops, Palaces on Crete, Hill forts in central Europe, Crete - first European state, trade routes begin for amber, metals, Wessex culture flourishes in Britain, cattle farming in E Africa, construction of Stonehenge, end of old period of Sumer, by this point major cities of Mesopotamia founded, Amorites conquer Mesopotamia and build Babylon – start of Epic of Gilgamesh

1994 BC dynasty in China

1960 BC Amenemhet I conquers Nubia, Egyptian frontier established

1950 BC End of Ur Empire, Sesostris I of Egypt invades Canaan

1925 BC Hittites conquer Babylon

1900 BC Epic of Gilgamesh written in Babylon, Ashur is founded as capital of Assyria, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa people in India decline, Hebrews leave Mesopotamia, Minoan civilization arises in Crete, Early Chinese bronzes made at Erlitou

1887 BC Sesostris III invades Canaan

1878 BC Senwosret III reorganized local Egyptian government

1860 BC Start Stonehenge construction

1849 BC Death of Sesostris III of Canaan

1830 BC First dynasty of Babylonian kings

1800 BC Ceremonial platforms in Peru, Taboos against eating pork established in Near East, Hittite king Labarnas reigns, rise of the alphabet, Labarnas, Hittite ruler, mentioned in writing, writing develops in Sinai peninsula, Control of society passed from priests to manufacturers, bronze work introduced in Egypt, decline of the Unetice culture in Europe, U-Shaped ceremonial centers built on Peruvian coast, agriculture and irrigation begins on Pacific, Multiplication tables invented in Mesopotamia

1792 BC King Hammurabi extends Babylonia

1790 BC Reign of King Hammurabi in Babylon

1788 BC End of Egypt's 12th Dynasty with rule of female Pharoah

1786 BC Rule of the Hyksos in Egypt, Egypt's Middle Kingdom ends, start of Second Intermediate Period

1780 BC Hammurabi writes his code

1775 BC Mursilis, the Hittite, leads his people to power

1766 BC Start of China's earliest (Shang) Dynasty , Begin Shang Dynasty in China

1760 BC End of Hsei dynasties of China – Start of Shang Dynasty (also called Yin dynasty), Hittites sack Babylon

1750 BC Death of Hammurabi of Babylon, Estimated start of Persian empire, End of Babylon's first dynasty as Kassites take over, Earthquake and revolution produce new Minoan dynasty, Kassites rule Babylonian area, Minoan earthquake, Code of Hammurabi written, Pottery used in Peru, Invasion of Hyksos in Egypt, Sumerians brew beer

1730 BC Hyksos rule Egypt founding 15th Dynasty - take control of northern Egypt (Probably Aryan-Semites from southern Russia) - time of the patriarchs

1728 BC Accession of Hammurabi the Great

1708 BC Drought and famine in Egypt/middle east (Joseph?)

1700 BC End of rule of Hyksos in Egypt – also 1550/75, End of drought in Egypt, Amorites conquerors Mesopotamia, Shang dynasty begins in China as Hsia (primitive) dynasty ends, Knossos rebuilt as main palace on Crete, Minoan Linear A script develops, fall of Indus valley civilization, End of Egypt's Middle Kingdom, , Minoan palaces rebuilt – start of Minoan Golden Age, horses used in warfare

1650 BC Hyksos invade Egypt, driving Egyptions from lower Egypt, gain power, End of Middle Kingdom 1640, Mycenian culture begins, Mycenaean urban life begins, End of Hittite Old Kingdom, start era of darkness

1640 BC Semetic Hyksos dynasty of Egypt (15th) rules lower Egypt

1626 BC Volcano eruptionat Thera disrupts Cretan life

1600 BC Beginning of Mycenaean power in Agean, End of Xia Dynasty, begin Shang dynasty, Hittites in Asia make first iron works, Early writing begins in Crete, Eruption of Greek volcano of Santorini, Amosis I liberates Egypt from Hyksos, Pictograph writing begins in China, Chariot introduces into Egypt, Rich shaft grave burials in Mycenae, proto-Canaanite phonetic alphabet developed by the Levant people, foundation of the Nubian kingdom of Kush, colonization of Pacific islands, Greek pictograph script develops – Minoans, end of Akkadian rule in Mesopotamia, In the Levant Phoenicians begin using Canaanite script – alphabetic, start of middle Assyrian Period, Egyptian empire extends to Euphrates incorporating Palestine, the Levant and some of Syria

1595 BC Hittites from Turkey sack Babylon

1590 BC Kassites from Zagros mountains seize Babylon

1580 BC Egyptian king Ahmose pushes out Hyksos, end of Middle Minoan age, beginning of Late Minoans , Hyksos driven out of Egypt, End Middle Minoan Age

1570 BC New Kingdom in Egypt Hyksos driven out, Temple of Amun at Karnak started, Begin New Kingdom

1567 BC Pharoahs begin to expel Hyksos from Egypt, begin New Kingdom

1560 BC End of Second Intermediate Period in Egypt and start of New Kingdom

1557 BC Shang capital of China moved to Zhengzhou

1550 BC Ahmose I drives Hyksos out of Egypt – also 1575 BC – New Kingdom Amenhotep I rules Egypt, (18th dynasty)

1532 BC Hyksos are expelled from Egypt, New kingdom begins

1530 BC Death of Amenhotep I of Egypt Thutmose I rules

1520 BC Queen Hatshepsut born… or married

1515 BC Death of Thutmose I of Egypt – wife Hatshepsut rules until 1480

1504 BC Egypt ruled under Tuthmosis I

1501 BC Thutmose III and/or Hatshepsut reign in Egypt , Thutmose III rules Egypt with Hatshepsut

1500 BC Phoenicians trade via ship, Shang Dynasty begins in China, Kassites take over Indus civilization, collapse of Minoan civilization in Crete, first Olmec gravel platforms in MEX, Greek volcano erupts – may have led to tsunamis which wiped out the Minoans on Crete (River to blood?), Moses delivers ten commandments from Mt. Sinai, Shang kings in China organize sacrifices and call selves sons of God, Beginning of Olmec civilization in W Mexico, Fall of Indus civilization, glass pottery in Egypt, Mohenjo-Daro (city in upper Indus valley) destroyed with Indus Valley civilization, Cacao first cultivated, Destruction at Crete, Knossus arises as supreme city of Crete, Cretan culture becomes Mycenaean culture , Beginning Chinese written history, End of Bronze Age - Begin Iron Age in Turkey, Hittites (from Turkey) conqueror Mesopotamia, Hebrews established in Canaan, Aryans from Afghanistan invade India, begin India's Vedic epoch - Kassites take over Indus civilization, Earliest advanced Chinese writing found, farms in use in Devon and Wales, burial mounds cease, Steeling of Iron discovered, First clock created (clepsydra), Rice cultivated in Korea, Pastoral farmers spread across Eurasian steppes, Lapita culture spreads to Vanuatu, Tonga and Samoa, Poverty Point culture in Louisiana, dog remains only domesticated animal in North America, True alphabet made when cuneiform pared to 30 signs, Parchment in Egypt, Pictograph writing in China, start of Mayan Preclassic Period as Olmec power wanes

1480 BC Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt turns throne over to son Thutmose III

1479 BC End of Hatshepsut of Egypt, Thutmose III fights battle of Megiddo, Thutmose III rules, Begin battle of Har Megiddo

1470 BC Greek Volcanic Eruption, Queen Hatshepsut sends trading expedition to E Africa

1468 BC Queen Hapshepsut dies

1450 BC End of reign of Thutmose III of Egypt, Eruption of Aniakchak Alaska, End of Hittite dark era and beginning of New Kingdom , Crete struck by 200 ft tsunami, destroying Minoan civilization, Minoans conquered by Mycenians, Mycenaean linear B Script begins

1440 BC Earliest Andean metal work at Waywaka

1420 BC Amenhotep III rules Egypt begins “golden age”

1400 BC First Phoenician alphabet, farming develops in Honduras, Knossos destroyed by fire, Iron Age in western Asia and India, Temples at Luxor under construction, First Habiru people in Palestine (Hebrews), Fall of Jericho, end of Late Minoan dynasties as Crete plundered and ravished, Aryans push into India, Habiru come into Palestine, Jericho destroyed and deserted, End Late Minoan Age, Crete plundered and ravaged by Mycenaeans, Aryans enter India - confront Dravidians, Moses writes the Pentateuch, Royal burials in China includes human sacrifices, Shang capital moved to Anyang, Walled Mycenaean cities begin, Olmec culture emerges - maize farming, Ugarit on N Syria creation of 30 character alphabet script with consonants and three vowels – proto Semitic

1385 BC End of reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt, Amenhotep IV rules (Ikhnaton) tries to set up Aton monotheism

1380 BC Suppiluliumas I becomes king of Hittites

1379 BC Amenhotep IV in Egypt introduces Sun worship and names self Akhenaton – bad government begins

1375 BC Suppiluliumas becomes king of Hittites and kingdom grows, Amenhotep of Egypt dies (III), Ikhnatan teaches monotheism in Egypt, Amenhotep dies, Ikhnaton rules in Egypt with Nefretiti

1374 BC Egyptian king Aamenhotep introduces monotheism

1370 BC King Tut born

1367 BC Anhnaton begins rule of Egypt with wife Nefertiti tries to introduce monotheism - Amun-Ra (Aton)

1366 BC Assuruballit I rules Assyria and Assyria gains power

1362 BC Death of Akhenaten in Egypt

1361 BC Accession of Tutankhamun after Akhenaton – advisors restore worship of old gods

1358 BC Death of Pharoah Amenhotep IV (Ikhnaton), son-in-law rules

1353 BC Akhenaten created monotheistic cult in Egypt

1352 BC King Tut dies? See 1339

1350 BC Settlement begins at San Jose Mogote, MEX, Start of 19th Egyptian Dynasty with Seti and Ramses, Egyptian dynasty dies out under Tutankhamon - Harmhab rules , End of Egypt's 18th Dynasty, Begin the Egyptian Empire and 19th dynasty, Akhnaton dies (poisoned?) and Ramses I and Seti rule, war chariot introduced into China, Umfield culture begins in central Europe, Peak of Hittite empire

1347 BC Tutankhaman begins rule of Egypt

1339 BC King Tut dies

1335 BC Death of Ahmose I of Egypt?

1319 BC Rameses I founds 19th Dynasty in Egypt

1315 BC Death of Harmhab of Egypt, Ramses I becomes king

1313 BC Rameses son Seti I starts to reconquer Egyptian lands in Palestine and Syria – Death of Ramses I

1304 BC Accession of Ramses the Great (II)

1300 BC Earthquake in Israel? (Jericho?), Construction of great rock temples of Abu Simbel, oppression of Israelites in Egypt, Sidon becomes great Phoenician port, Egypt begins to lose power, End of Egypt's "building" era. Temple of Karnak, decline of Minoan civilization in Crete, Troy destroyed

1298 BC Battle of Qadesh between Ramses II and Hittites under Mutawallis – both sides claim victory

1292 BC Death of Seti, Ramses II begins to reign , Seti dies, Ramses II comes to power

1290 BC Ramses II reasserts Egyptian power, Suggested date of the Exodus

1288 BC Pharoah Ramses II soundly defeated by Hittites at Battle of Kadesh, but Egypt claims victory – lie believed until recently

1285 BC Egyptians advance into the Levant and is halted by the Hittites

1283 BC Rameses II makes peace with Hittites

1275 BC Shalmaneser I rules Assyria and conquers, possible date of Battle of Kadesh – see 1288

1272 BC Ramses II and Hattusilis (Hittite) draw a truce , Hittite and Egyptian peace

1260 BC Approximate date of writing of Deuteronomy

1250 BC Building of Lion Gate at Mycenae, Suggested date of Joshua’s conquest of Canaan and the exodus, Trojan War begins

1232 BC Israelites in Canaan, Rameses II’s son Merneptah defeats Israelites in battle – first mention of Israel in Egyptian texts

1226 BC Mt Etna erupts on Sicily

1225 BC Trojan war, fall of Troy, Ramses II dies, Ramses III comes to power (no relation to Ramses I), Death of Ramses II, son Merneptah reigns, Assyrians conquer Babylon

1220 BC End of Trojan war, raids on peoples of Aegean causes trade to stop

1215 BC Death of Merneptah of Egypt

1205 BC End of Egypt's 19th dynasty

1200 BC Yams grown for food in W AFR, Greeks destroy Troy after 10 year war, Olmec peoples thrive in Gulf of Mexico, Chavin culture grows in Peru, first epic tales of Gilgamesh told, End of New Kingdom of Egypt and 19th Dynasty – estimated departure of Israelites from Egypt and officialness of monotheism, Start Egypts 20th Dynasty, Fall of Hittite empire to the Assyrians, Iron age in Europe, Vedas written in India, Moses' 10 commandments, Earliest possible date for founding of Etruscan civilization, Period of Judges in Israel, start of golden age of Phoenicians, Lion Gate of Mycenae built, Hittites invade Mitanni, Moses leaves Egypt?, Warrior class takes control in Britain, Hittites conquered by unknown people, Possible time of Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), Trojan War begins as Mycenaeans attack Troy, Maize in US s-w, Fall of Mycenaeans, Invasion of the sea people, Karasuk culture introduces advanced bronze in Asian steppes, Hebrew tribes settle in Canaan, Mycenaean culture colapses and Greek "Dark Ages" starts, Olmec ceremonial centers in Mesoamerica at Tres Zapotes, China creates Logographic script, epic of Gilgamesh recorded in cuneiform, emergence of Dorian Greeks, start of invasion of sea peoples in Egypt, Olmec resurgence, Hittite Empire suddenly laid waste by Sea Peoples,

1199 BC Ramses III begins to reign

1193 BC Trojan War- Greece destroys Troy

1191 BC Egypt fights Philistines - end of battle Egypt lets them settle in Palestine

1190 BC Mycenians win Trojan War

1188 BC Rameses III starts 20th Dynasty with capital at Tanis

1182 BC Ramses (Rameses) III begins to reign

1180 BC Invasion of Nile Delta by "Sea Peoples"

1175 BC Invasion of Egypt by Philistines, Greeks, Sardinians and Sicilians – Ramses III defeated

1170 BC Tyre the Phoenician city gains power, defeat of Sea Peoples by Ramses III

1167 BC Ramses III dies or 1151

1151 BC Death of Ramesses III of Egypt

1150 BC Era of Hebrew Judges begins

1146 BC Nebuchadnezzar I begins to rule Babylon

1140 BC Phoenicians found North African colony at Utica (in Tunisia)

1125 BC Nebuchadrezzar I becomes king of Babylon and holds off attacks by Assyrians (Nebuchadnezzar)

1123 BC End of Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon

1122 BC End of Shang Dynasty of China, Chou Dynasty in China under Emperor Wu Wang – Feudal System established, Zhou capital moved to Hao

1120 BC city of Mycenae destroyed, start of Greek Dark Ages, start of Egyptian Third Intermediate Period

1116 BC Tiglath-pileser I begins Assyrian empire and conquers Babylon

1100 BC First Assyrian civilization in n Mesopotamia declines, Olmec culture flourishes in San Lorenzo, Kingdom of Israel established, Decimals used in China, Phoenician alphabet, First Chinese dictionary produced, Tiglath Pileser I marches through the Mediterranean area and Mesopotamian civilizations decline - for Assyria, Brutus arrives (says Geoffrey of Monmouth), Kingdom of Egypt reduced to Nile valley, Zhou (Chou) dynasty in China – unification, End of the Mycenaean area in Greece, Dorians conquer and start Greece's "Dark Age" as Dorians sack Mycenians, As New Kingdom of Egypt collapses, anarchy ensues - Kush breaks away and becomes independent, hill forts in W Europe, Phoenician alphabet developed, Iron working on Ganges plain, Phoenicians use 22 letter alphabet

1090 BC End Egypt’s 20th Dynasty, start 21st, Last Ramses king gives kingdom to high priest of Amon, ending 20th dynasty and starting weak 21st , End of the Egyptian Empire as the last Ramses gives way to the priest of Amun

1087 BC End of New Kingdom of Egypt

1085 BC Government of Egypt passes to Pharaohs in north

1077 BC End of Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria

1070 BC Fall of 21st Dynasty of Egypt -intermediate period begins

1065 BC New Kingdom in Egypt ends with death of Rameses XI, Smendes a rich merchant becomes Pharoah and founds 21st Dynasty

1050 BC Priest-kings of Thebes in Egypt separate from pharaohs - End of Expulsion of Hyksos from Egypt, End of China's Shang dynasty, begin Zhou dynasty , Dorians invade Peloponnesus, Philistines conquer Israel, End of era of judges, Priest-kings of Thebes in Egypt separate from pharaohs, End of China's Shang dynasty - begin Zhou dynasty

1045 BC Zhou replaces Shang in China, Codron last king of Athens killed



1020 BC Saul anointed King of Israel – rebellion against Philistines, end of reign of judges

1002 BC Saul begins rule of Israel


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