There are four basic theories of myth. Those theories are: the rational myth theory, functional myth theory, structural myth theory, and the psychological myth theory. The rational myth theory states that myths were created to explain natural events and forces. Functional myths are what you call the kinds of myths that were created as a type of social control. The third myth theory is the structural myth theory. This theory says that myths were patterned after human mind and human nature. The psychological myth theory is the fourth myth theory, which states that myths are based on human emotion.
The rational myth theory states that myths were made to better understand natural events and forces that occurred in the everyday lives of people. This theory also explains that the gods and goddesses controlled all of these happenings of nature. Examples of this type of myth are creation myths from different cultures. Creation myths explain how man was created and explain what the gods and goddesses used and what actions they took to create humans. These myths also tell what substances were used (if any) in order for man to exist. The existence of man is a natural event but creation myths give other explanations.
The functional myth theory talks about how myths were used to teach morality and social behavior. It states that myths told about what types of things should and shouldn’t be done, and the consequences for those wrong doings. The functional myth theory also states that myths were created for social control and served the function of insuring stability in a society. A story about a tribe who rebelled against the great serpent, Degei, is a good example of a functional myth. This story is about a tribe who learned many skills from their great serpent god, Degei, and then became Degei’s workers and servants. Two chiefs of this tribe were sick of working for him and tried to defeat him; they were too weak for Degei. Instead of winning their freedom, they were killed in a great flood caused by Degei. This myth is trying to say that you should not be lazy because if you are, then you will regret it.
Structural myths are said to be myths based on human emotion. These types of myths show the two sides of the human mind; the good side and the bad side. They show the divided self and the duality of human nature. Myths about Hercules show how the human mind can be both good and bad. Hercules did both good and bad things. One of the bad things he did was (in “Jason and the Argonauts”) he stole a broach pin from the treasure chamber of the god Talos. This sin caused his friend to be killed. Hercules knew that his friend was killed because of his sin, so to make up for it; he vowed to stay on the island until his friend was found.
The psychological myth theory states how myths are based on human emotion and that they come from the human subconscious mind. Cultures all around the world had similar fears, questions, and wishes which, to them, were unexplainable. That is the reason that psychological myths were made; and that is why there are archetypes shared between cultures. Archetypes are general forms and characters used by all cultures. Some archetypes found between cultures are having a sky god (Zeus and Oleron),a sea god (Poseidon and Olokun), and an agricultural god (Orisha-Oko and Demeter). These archetypes are examples of how people think alike when it comes to things that are to them mysteries and fears.
In conclusion, it appears that man created myths for quite a few reasons. These reasons include explaining the unknown, natural events and forces, to show the duality and pureness of human nature and the human mind, and to help societies maintain order and remain stable. There must be more reasons of exactly why myths should have arisen but that is beyond the extent of this essay.
Chapter 2: Odysseus by Homer
The Odyssey, written by Homer tells the story of Odysseus and how he faced misfortune in his attempts to return home after the Trojan War. Odysseus is not famous for his great strength or bravery, but for his ability to deceive and trick. From his misfortunes he learned to be a better man and became able to regain his place in his homeland of Ithaca.
During his journeys Odysseus often makes the mistake of bragging to his enemies but learns that doing this gives his enemies a chance to seek revenge against him. After leaving Troy, Odysseus attacks the land of the Cicones. Instead of leaving after his victory he stays to celebrate until a force is gathered against him. He must then flee after many of his men are killed. Afterwards Odysseus and his crew land on the island of the Cyclops. They are attacked and Polyphemus eats some of the men. After getting the giant Cyclops drunk, Odysseus and his men blind the monster with a spear in his one eye. They could have made an escape without misfortune but Odysseus mocked Polyphemus and shouted his real name, when before Odysseus had told Polyphemus that his name was “Noman”. With this new information Polyphemus prays to his father, Peoeidon, to have Odysseus and his men punished. Because he angered Poseidon, Odysseus must wander throughout the sea while his men slowly die one by one. Odysseus learns that bragging can have ill effects and uses this knowledge on the island of Phaecians and Ithaca when he does not openly brag about his deeds and his journeys.
Odysseus also learns to pay close attention to the instructions of the gods, or he might have to face a terrible price. When Odysseus and his crew landed at the island of Aeolus, they were given a parting gift that would have helped if they had paid attention to the warnings of Aeolus. He gave Odysseus a bag full of the bad winds that would keep them from their home of Ithaca. Odysseus and his crew were in sight of the homeland they had waited so long to see, when a hand of rebel crewmen opened the bag, because they thought it contained treasures, creating a great gale that blew them back to Aeolus. When Aeolus saw this he believed that Odysseus was cursed and banished him from the island. this is not the only time Odyseus was betrayed by his men and suffered a great price. When they landed on the island of Hyperion, bad winds prevented them from leaving. Food soon became low, and when Odysseus was asleep, the crew killed the cows of Hyperion against the gods warnings. Hyperion was enraged to see this and had all of Odysseus’ men killed in a great storm. Odysseus learns that the gods must be respected in order for any man to succeed.
On the island of the Cicones, and with his encounter with Polyphemus, Odysseus learns that bragging can bring great misfortune. On Ithaca Odysseus never brags to the suitors and is able to enter his house with the Antinous and the other suitors knowing his real identity. He takes the punishment of Antinous and the other suitors without saying a word and is able to see those who have invaded his house. Odysseus is able to see who is loyal and who is not and take his revenge with the suitors never knowing who he was until the final moment. Odysseus also learns to respect the gods. When he landed on Aesea, the island of Circe, he follows the instructions given to him by Hermes so that he can overcome Circe and free his men. Odysseus follows the instructions that Circe had given him very closely, entering and leaving Hades without misfortune and using wax in the ears of his crew to pass the Sirens. Odysseus becomes a better man throughout his journeys and is ale to return to his homeland to regain his kingdom.
After spending years with the goddess Calypso Odysseus is offered a choice of either living on the island with Calypso and becoming immortal like the gods, or he could return to his wife and country and be mortal like the rest. He chooses to return home.
Throughout his wanderings for home, Odysseus becomes a humbler and more respectful man. the once boastful man learns that his bragging can turn people against him, and is quieter than before he left for Troy. He also learns that the immortal gods of Olympus can be merciful and bring great fortune, but they also punish those that disobey their wishes. Every time Odysseus had not been respectful he has been severely punished and his trip home delayed. Out of this great tragedy he has become a greater man to regain his kingdom and live a long life.
Chapter 3: Odysseus and Telemachos
In The Odyssey written by Homer and translated by Richard Lattimore, several themes are made evident, conceived by the nature of the time period, and customs of the Greek people. These molded and shaped the actual flow of events and outcomes of the poem. Beliefs of this characteristic were represented by the sheer reverence towards the gods and the humanities the Greek society exhibited, and are both deeply rooted within the story.
In the intricate and well-developed plot of The Odyssey, Homer harmonized several subjects. One of these was the quest of Telemachos, (titled “Telemachy”) in correlation with the journey of his father. In this, he is developed from a childish, passive, and untested boy, to a young man preparing to stand by his father’s side. This is directly connected to the voyage of Odysseus, in that they both lead to the same finale, and are both stepping-stones towards wisdom, manhood, and scholarship. Through these voyages certain parallels are drawn concerning Odysseus and Telemachos: the physical journeys, the mental preparations they have produced, and what their emotional status has resulted in. These all partake a immense role in the way the story is set up, stemming from the purpose of each character’s journey, their personal challenges, and the difficulties that surround them.
The story commences when Odysseus, a valiant hero of the Trojan war, journeys back home. Together with his courageous comrades, and a several vessels, he set sail for his homeland Ithaca. Fated to wander for a full ten years, Odysseus’s ships were immediately blown to Thrace by a powerful storm. The expedition had begun.
Upon this misfortune, he and his men started a raid on the land of the Cicones. However, this only provided them with temporary success. The Cicones had struck back and defeated a vast majority of Odysseus’s crew. This was their first of many disastrous experiences to come.
Storms then blew his ships to Libya and the land of the Lotus-eaters, where the crew was given Lotus fruit from which most lost their entire memories from home. Odysseus, and the others who had not tasted it, recovered the sailors by force, and set sail again, westward, this time to the island of the Cyclops, a wild race of one-eyed giants. Leaving most of his men in a sheltered cove, Odysseus then entered the island with one crew only. They wandered around, encountering, and foolishly entering an immense cave, awaiting the owner. Moments later, a Cyclops named Polyphemos, son of Poseidon, entered and pushed a huge bolder covering the entrance to the cave. Upon this, he immediately ate two sailors, and promised to eat the others in due time. The morning came, and Polyphemos had promptly eaten two more seamen, against the will of Zeus. Odysseus soon realized that killing him asleep would do no good since the mouth of the cave was still inescapable. The captain had then devised a new plan. When Polyphemos returned that evening, Odysseus showered the monster with wine until he had fallen under a drunken spell. Then, with the help of his companions took a sharp pole and rammed it into his large eye, blinding him instantaneously. As the crew sailed away into the vast dimensions of the sea, Odysseus had unwisely revealed his name in taunting the poor beast, boasting his excessive pride. Polyphemos then made a prayer to his father, asking to punish the man who had caused him this harm.
Several days later Odysseus and his men arrived at the island of Aeolus, keeper of the winds. There, they stayed for about one month, and departed, in sight of the long-awaited Ithaca. However, before they left, Odysseus was presented with a container of winds, carrying each but the needed West wind. As Ithaca approached, the crew not knowing the contents of the “skin”, opened it up and released all of the winds, depositing the ships back at the island of Aeolus, who refused to help them any further.
Setting sail once again, the group headed back west, where they had come across the Island of the Laesrtygonians, a savage race of cannibals. Everyone, but Odysseus, lined their ships at the harbor, covered with rocks. The entire party was attacked and eaten by the Laestrygonians, who had bombarded them with giant boulders. Having but one vessel left, Odysseus sailed his ship to the Island of Dawn, inhabited by the sorceress Circe.
A group of men were sent to explore the island, who were then lured, feasted, and the turned to swine by Circe. Knowing this Odysseus went after her, and on his way encountered Hermes who gave him a potion to withstand the spell. Circe tried, and then she failed. Odysseus had then requested for his crew to be turned back to normal. She complied, and eventually housed Odysseus and his shipmates long enough for him to father three children. Homesick and distraught, Odysseus was then advised by Circe to search the underworld for Teiresias, to tell him his fortune, and how to appease Poseidon.
Odysseus agreed and made a trip to the underworld, where he discovered many of his dead companions from Troy, and most importantly, Teiresias. With his new knowledge, he returned to Circe, which had provided him with just the information he needed to pass the Sirens. They then departed from the island and continued on their journey, ears filled with wax.
What Odysseus was about to encounter next would be a very difficult task. He needed to direct his ship through a straight, between two cliffs, on one side the whirlpool Charybdis, on the other, a monster Scylla. Trying hard to avoid Charybdis Odysseus came too close to Scylla, and six members of his ship suffered the consequences. As the journey continued the Island of Helios stood in path. Helios was the sun god, and nurturer of the cattle of the gods. Knowing this, but at the same time extraordinarily hungry, Odysseus waited for his sea-mates to fall asleep and slaughtered several of the cattle. This was much considered a lack of respect not only to Helios, but to the rest of the gods as well.
Zeus, angered by his gesture, struck his ship with thunder, destroying the entire thing and killing the rest of the crew except for Odysseus, which floated off to the Island of Ogygia, where he would there spend the next seven years, made a lover, by the sea nymph Calypso. Upon Poseidon’s departure to Ethiopia, Zeus had then ordered that Calypso release Odysseus, who gave him an ax. With this, he constructed a float, and continued his expedition. Back from his trip, Poseidon, saw Odysseus floating in the ocean and felt compelled to drown him, which he almost did, if it was not for the goddess Ino, who had spared him a magic veil. He tied this to his waist, and swam to a beach where he immediately fell asleep.
The next morning maidens playing ball after doing the wash awaked him. There he saw Nausikaa, daughter of king Alkinoos. Odysseus gently supplicated to the princess. She first took him to the inhabitants of the island, the Phaiakians, and then Alkinoos, the king. There he listened to Odysseus’s stories, and presented him with lavish gifts and a furnished ship back to Ithaca. Resenting this fact, Poseidon turned the new crew into stone for their generosity.
This is the time, nearly twenty years after his father’s departure, Athena wisely advises the worried, and still immature Telemachos to go in search of his father. Telemachos agrees with her orders, and before his departure he makes it clear to the suitors (robbing his home and proposing marriage to his mother Penelope) that he wants them all out of his house.
He then requested a ship and twenty men, and sailed off to the Island of Pylos, where Nestor immediately greeted him, in the middle of offering 81 bulls to Poseidon. Peisistratos, son of Nestor, then offered some intestines to Telemachos and Athena as far as sacrificing it in hopes of a safe journey. This was ironic since in reality, Athena was controlling his journey, and on the other hand, moments ago, Poseidon, was in fact destroying the journey of his father. Nestor, once seeing that his guests were finished feasting, asked of their identities. Once he was recognized, Telemachos asked Nestor about his father. Nestor rambled on and said nothing of real importance to Telemachos. At this point Telemachos became pessimistic, and Athene reassured him with an analogy of Agamemnon’s short journey, and it’s consequences. Still emotionally unstable, Telemachos used this opportunity to speak of Menaleus, Agamemnon’s brother.
Nestor agreed that Menaleus may be more knowledgeable that he, and kindly provided him with a chariot, so that he could travel to Sparta to speak with him, accompanied by Peisistratos. He arrived at Sparta two days later, sleeping in the house of Diocles the first night, and arriving by nightfall the second day. He reached the island just in the middle of a double marriage ceremony of Menaleus’ daughter and son.
At this point, Homer cleverly compared Menaleus to Odysseus in the reader’s mind by suggesting the similarities between the both in background, and “undoubtedly” survival. He also used this scene to emphasize Telemachos’ emotional instability as he burst out crying at the mention of his father’s name. The night ended and Helen, Menaleus’ wife, finally noticed Telemachos to be Odysseus’ son. Once this took place, he conclusively mentioned his purpose in visiting: To find information about his father. Menaleus answered Telemachos by speaking of his journey from Troy, and reassuring Telemachos of his father’s wit and cleverness, and almost certain survival.
After the men finished talking, Menaleus showered him with complements and gifts (one refused, one accepted), and then Telemachos left, feeling good about himself once again. After this event, the scene changes back to Ithaca where the suitors were planning their ambush on the young prince. Telemachos went back home, only to find out that his father had already arrived before him. This sets Odysseus (disguised as a beggar) and Telemachos up for the big scene against the suitors, where father and son, side by side, rid Ithaca of its cancerous cells, and reunite the “royal” family. Odysseus then appeased and sacrificed to the god Poseidon in the name of his misbehavior.
As Homer makes it apparent, there are other underlying themes embedded in the story that would just confuse the reader if they were not there. An example of this is the emotional aspects of both characters. If one does not understand this key element, their is no way that the sequence of events would cohere. “Why didn’t Telemachos look for his father earlier? Why did Penelope wait twenty years to consider remarrying? How did this affect Odysseus in his journey?” These are questions that would go unanswered unless the reader reaches within the emotions of the character.
In the case of Telemachos, his emotions shaped his well-being. For example, had it not been for Athena giving him confidence, by no means would he ever have thought of taking such a voyage, hence, Telemachos would have never participated in his “final test” against the suitors either. His sorrow and anger from the loss of his father and his mother constantly being attacked and proposed to by piranha-like suitors were also driving forces towards his journey. Some of these are brought out in different situations, both positive and negative, such as Menaleus’ mention of his father, which caused a sudden out-burst of tears, and the proud and accomplished feeling he received from leaving Sparta.
Odysseus’s situation was only slightly different. He, like Telemachos had his worries about family-life, and his kingdom at stake, but also had concerns about his wife, possibly triggered by the mention of Agamemnon’s by Proteus, who was killed by the hands of his own wife. These factors probably had taken their toll on Odysseus. At the same time he had the wrath of Poseidon to contend with. Another factor which could have also lead to this distress could have been his visit to the underworld, and in his entire journey, losing friends and comrades regularly.
The last object of these journeys and possibly the most important to the reader, is comprehending how these travels actually led to the final test: The battle against the suitors. This is considered the poem’s mental perspective. Odysseus had many things to overcome before he would be ready to take on this responsibility. His journey prepared him for that. For one, if he had not have perfected his tolerance abroad and finely tuned his hubris problems there would have been no possible way for him to undertake a role such as the beggar, where he must be constantly enduring both verbal and physical attacks. There is also no way that Odysseus could have sacrificed and begged forgiveness to the sea-god Poseidon if he had not learned his lesson about respect from Polyphemos and Zeus (eating Helios’ cattle). These factors play an immense role in the outcome of the poem. If it had not been for these events, the story could never have taken place.
The same circumstances applied for Telemachos as well. His goal was to reach a level of adulthood and to stand by his father’s side, to mature into a man, and most importantly to gain respect, and to withhold and protect family kleos. This happened when at first Athena inspired him to go in search of his father. At that stage he was an inactive, and boyish young prince. When the challenges rose, however (assisted by Athena), Telemachos rose to meet those challenges. His first items of business were to set the suitors straight at home. Although he was not completely effective, he surprised them a great deal with his authority, and even his own mother in later books. That proved that Telemachos was gaining a new awareness, not only about his father, but about the kingdom, his mother, and the role he needed to partake. By the end of his long emotional journey, Telemachos realized what it took to be a man, which could not have been possible without his escapades to Pylos and Sparta.
In The Odyssey, Homer created a parallel for readers, between Odysseus and Telemachos, father and son. Telemachos was supposedly learning the role of his father, the king of Ithaca, to follow in the footsteps. The two are compared in the poem from every aspect. However, in analyzing The Odyssey, one may also presume that Homer had not intended for the Telemachos to be as great a hero as his father. This may be due to the fact that, for example, he never had a Trojan War to fight, his setting is in a time of peace unlike his father’s, and more notably- although matured, Telemachos never really learned true leadership or chivalry, as did his father. Homer has presented the world with poetry so unique and classic, so outstanding and awesome, that generations to come will challenge themselves interpreting them until the end of time.
Chapter 4: The Theme of Love
There are many essential emotions that form the building blocks of our lives. These emotions help to shape the people that we are. These feelings are emotional necessities to ultimately keep us happy. Nothing makes these feelings more evident than The Odyssey by Homer. Through out the course of this book there is one major emotional theme, which is love.
Often times in life we search for a companion, someone to share our love and life with. Odysseus and Penelope’s lasting relationship is an obvious representation of love in The Odyssey. Although Odysseus is gone for twenty years he never forgets his faithful wife in Ithaca. This love almost seems to help him persevere through the many hardships that he encounters on his journey home. On the other hand, Penelope also exemplifies this same kind of love for Odysseus. At home in Ithaca, she stays loyal to Odysseus by unraveling his shroud and delaying her marriage to the suitors that are courting her. She always keeps the hope that her love, Odysseus, will return. Odysseus and Penelope’s marriage clearly illustrates the theme of love. There are also many other bonds formed in life that show great love and guidance. One of the most emphasized in The Odyssey is the father - son relationship. These relationships clearly support the issue of love in The Odyssey.
The father-son relationship between Odysseus and Telemachos is a little awkward because they both never really got to know each other but they still care for each other’s well being. When Odysseus hears of all the suitors devouring Telemachos’ future fortune and mistreating him, he wants to return and revenge the misuse of his family and property. Odysseus, like any parent, also misses his only child while he is at war. Telemachos on the contrary also displays a lot of love for his father. Inexperienced Telemachos leaves Ithaca, to find any knowledge of his father in hope that he is still alive. Telemachos through out most of his life has lacked a father figure and desperately needs that special help and guidance from Odysseus, as he becomes a man. Their relationship seems to show how love can give you the strength to carry on.
The other important father-son relationship in The Odyssey that exhibits love is the one between Odysseus and Laertes. Odysseus, when he returns, wishes to go see his father. When he confronts his father and tries to hide his identity, he is unable to finish his story because of the great sorrow in his father’s eyes. This shows how much he loves his father and what great suffering he caused him. This anguish that Laertes exhibits also shows how much love he has for his son. Since Odysseus was assumed to be dead, it almost sent Laertes into a kind of depression. When Odysseus returned it gave Laertes an overwhelming happiness. This is a case where love seems to be the cure for pain and grief. Love is major emotional theme and it is seen often in The Odyssey. Even though love comes and goes it still plays and important role in everyone’s lives. It is not hard to see how happiness relies on love. It definitely shapes who we are and what we do with our lives.
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