A strategy for introducing media education into the national curriculum at the primary and the secondary school levels in south korea



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A STRATEGY FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA EDUCATION INTO THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM AT THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVELS IN SOUTH KOREA



Submitted by

Chang-Sup Choi
A thesis submitted for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Specialized in Media Studies


School of Arts and Media

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences


La Trobe University

Bundoora, Victoria 3083

Australia


1998

CONTENTS




CONTENTS 2

List of Tables 2

List of Figures 3

List of Diagrams 4

Statement of Authorship 6

Chapter One. INTRODUCTION 7

1.1 Rationale for This Study 7

1.1.1 Ethical Implications of Electronic Media 9

1.1.2 Media Education: An Exit from Moral Impasse? 15

1.2 Research Questions 22

1.2.1 What Would Be the Most Effective Framework of Strategies and Tactics for Introducing Media Education into Korean National Education at the Primary and the Secondary School Levels? 22

1.2.2 What are the valuable lessons from foreign experiences? 22

1.2.3 How can those foreign experiences be effectively applied to the Korean setting? 24

1.3 Framework of the Study 25

1.4 Research Design 27

1.4.1 Basic Design of the Study: A Relationship Model for Goals, Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics (as illustrated in Figure 2) 27

Chapter Two. Review of the Literature 34

2.I The Literature on the Social Functions of the Media 34

2.1.1 Research On Media Effects 34

2.1.2 Audience Activity in Media Use 42

2.2 The Literature on Media Education 43

2.2.1 Basic Concepts in Media Education 44

2.2.2 Theoretical Backgrounds of Media Education 51

Chapter Three. Korean Context: A History of Korea,

Korean Education, and of the Media in Korea 65

3.1 Location and Population 65

3.2 Early History 66

3.2.1 Development of Ancient Society: 67

3.2.2 Development of Medieval Society: 67

3.2.3 Development of Choson (朝鮮) Kingdom: 68

3.2.4 Development of Ancient Education (4th Century-19th Century) 69

3.3 Challenges of Modernization: 71

3.3.1 Advent of Modern Schools (1880-1945) 72

3.3.2 Birth of Modern Print Media 75

3.4 Japanese Rule (1910-1945) 76

3.5 Development of the Contemporary Period: 77

3.5.1 Education after 1945 in the Republic of Korea :

South Korea - Post Liberation Period 77

3.5.2 Media after 1945 and during the Fifties 80

3.5.3 Legacies 81

3.6 The Second, Third and Fourth Republics: 82

3.6.1 Education in the 60s and 70s 83

3.6.2 Media in the 60s and 70s 89

3.6.3 Regulations Through Self-Regulatory Bodies in the 60s and 70s 94

3.6.4 Journalists in the 70s 99

3.7 The Fifth and Sixth Republics: 101

3.7.1 The Fifth Republic and The Press Law 101

3.7.2 Television in the 80s 102

3.7.3 Innovative Educational Efforts in the 80s 104

Chapter Four. The Korean Context: Society, Education and the Media in Korea Today 106

4.1 Introduction 106

4.1.1 Sustainable Human Development 107

4.1.2 Korea’s Role in Sustainable Human Development 108

4.1.3 Society and Economy: Recent Changes 109

4.1.4 Projection of Korean Society into the 21st Century 112

4.1.5 Revising Korean Community and Educational Goals For The Future 120

4.2 Present and Future Education System in Korea 123

4.2.1 The National Education System Of Korea 123

4.2.2 Educational Reforms 146

4.3 Present and Future Media in Korea 151

4.3.1 Mass Media and National Integration and Development 151

4.3.2 Media Controls 153

4.3.3 Censorship and the Freedom of the Press 155

4.3.4 Growing Media Industry 156

4.3.5 Concentration Of the Media 166

4.3.6 The Korean Ethics Commissions 168

4.3.7 The Transnational Media and “Ideological” Influence 169

4.3.8 The Crisis Of Media Ideology 170

4.4 More Issues to be Resolved 172

Chapter Five. Putting Media Education into the Korean Context 176

5.1 Setting the Goals for the Research Project 176

5.1.1 Contextualizing the Project 177

5.1.2 Learning from the Literature 177

5.1.3 Learning from International Media Education Experience 178

5.1.4 Modifying the Goals 178

5.2 What Has Already Been Done in Korea 179

5.2.1 Involvement in Media Education 179

5.2.2 Resources for Media Education 180

5.3 Present Activities and Plans for the Future 186

5.3.1 SSM-AME (Sogang Strategic Model for Approaching Media Education) SCHEMA 186

5.3.2 Strategic Options: 192

5.3.3 A Proposed Model for Korean Media Education 214

5.3.4 A Suggested Sogang-Latrobe Project for Media Education (SLP-ME) 232

Chapter Six: Conclusion 233

BIBLIOGRAPHY 239

APPENDIX 260

Appendix 1:PCC (Jesuit Declaration of Communication) 260

Appendix 2: The Mexico Declaration--Communication for Human Dignity 265

Appendix 3: Major Religions in Korea 267

3.1 Buddhism 267

3.2 Christianity 268

3.3 Confucianism 269

Appendix 4: Basic Guidelines, Policies, and Major Projects of Education Reforms (as provided by the Ministry of Education). 274

4.1 Basic Guidelines: Education Reforms 274

4.2 Reform Policies 274

4.3 Major Projects 276

Appendix 5: Results of Major Projects for Education Reforms (1993-1996), as Provided by the Ministry of Education 283

Appendix 6: The Greenscouts 288

Appendix 7: Foreign Experiences 289

7.1 Europe 289

7.2 North America 314

7.3 Latin America 323

7.4 Asia and The Pacific 336

Appendix 8: Educational System of the World: A Summary 356

Appendix 9: Newspaper Articles 368






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