How to transfer analogue materials to digital materials 105
Obtaining and enforcing copyright 109
Copyright notices 113
The exclusive rights of the copyright holder 115
Fair use and fair dealing 118
Copying and recording audio 123
How to copy VHS to DVD 130
Copying VHS and other video recordings to a computer 134
VHS to files suitable for websites (e.g. wmv files) 136
Teaching Foreign Languages to Hearing Impaired Students 140
Learning about deaf and hearing impaired students: 140
Tips for Teaching Hearing Impaired Students by means of Audio-Visual Materials 144
Subtitling Audio-Visual Materials 145
Visually impaired students and accessibility of materials 149
Benefits of Web accessibility 151
User agent devices 153
Enabling technologies include: 154
Assistive technologies 157
General advice and guidelines for accessible web page creation 159
Article structure 159
Caption: [caption text] 166
Layout tables 167
Style and markup 169
Website accessibility audits 171
Standards and guidelines 174
Resources for users 175
Resources for designers 177 Web accessibility checkers 180
The W3C database of Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools - revitalised in early 2006 and regularly updated : http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/tools/Overview.html How to make your own CALL exercises. 180
The TextBlender 180
A multiple choice quiz (this is a type of quiz – see below) 188
A Quiz program 195
Jumbled sentence exercises 200
Crossword exercise 205
Matching exercise (Drag and drop) 209
Fill in the blank or Cloze exercise 219
How to make your own paper based exercises 224
Some example outputs from the Web Project 225
Board game generator 225
Crossword maker 226
Word search 227
Fill in the blank 228
Make your own flashcards 228
Label the pictures 229
Matching exercise generator 230
Multiple choice 230
Missing words 231
Split words 232
Scrambled sentences 233
Word spiral 234
Computer Assisted Language Learning within the framework of Task Based Learning. 236
A task based example “The Wired Plug” 254
List of materials: 257
Lesson plan 258
About the CALL Course Book
The course book was originally compiled in the period 2002 to 2004 by the BP-BLTM project teams. The material was updated and extended by the POOLS project in the years 2005 to 2007.
The main content was updated and more content added in 2010 by team members from POOLS-2, which is a Transfer of Innovation project based on the first POOLS project. The content of the manual will be used by another ToI project POOLS-M, which works with language teaching methods, therefore one of the POOLS-M teams. The University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI) has worked on language and content (editing) and has given advice to the POOLS-2 project teams.
CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) is often considered a language teaching method, but this is not really the case. In traditional CALL, the methodology was often claimed to be based on a behaviouristic approach as in “programmable teaching”, where the computer checked the student input and gave feedback (reward?) / moved on to an appropriate activity exercise. In modern CALL, the emphasis is on communication and tasks.
The role of the computer in CALL has moved from the “input – control – feedback” sequence to management of communication, text, audio, and video. Few people may realise that a DVD player is really a computer. Future domestic appliances will integrate and merge video, television, audio, telephone, graphics, text, and Internet into one unit as, in 2010, can be seen in newer generations of “mobile telephones / communicators”.
How do we use CALL for teaching the less widely used and taught languages, for example? The starting point should not be that students sit at computers to learn a language. The starting point should instead be that students are learning a language and as part of that process sometimes sit at computers1.
When planning to use CALL, it is important to understand how a language is learned; language learning is a cognitive process, i.e. it is the result of the student’s own processing of language inputs. What is learned is mainly the result of this process and not just explanations, rules, and questions presented by a teacher or a computer. Based on her/his existing knowledge of the topic being worked on, the language and the language acquisition, the student processes the input and fits it into the language system s/he possesses. Language knowledge is not just recorded, but rather constructed by the student2.
One of the worst fears when dealing with CALL and distance / online learning has always been the social aspect. It has been believed that the computer mediated community would imply some lack of social relations. However, several presentations at EUROCALL conferences have revealed that distance learning classes using audio conferencing actually developed a strong sense of social community. (E.g. "The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Teacher: The Role of Social Presence in the Online Classroom." by Tammelin Maija from the Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland and another presentation "Fostering (pro)active language learning through MOO" by Lesley Shield, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom).
CALL offers the language teacher and learner a number of activities that, when carefully planned as part of the pedagogical room, will help the learner learn a language.