Acknowledgements IIIIV Abstract IVV



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Syrian Arab Republic

Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation

World Bank/METAP



Final Report
February 9, 2004



Contents



Acknowledgements …………… …………………………………………………………………...iiiiv


Abstract …………… ……………………………………………………………………..ivv


Acronyms …………………………………………………………………………………………….vvi


Executive Summary vivii


Introduction vi

Cost of Environmental Degradation vi

Comparison of Damage and Remediation Costs vii

Conclusion vii



1. Introduction 1


1.1 Background 1

1.2 Cost of Environmental Degradation 1

1.3 Rationale and Objectives 1

1.4 The Preparation Process 2

2. Methodological Framework 3


2.1 Definition 3

2.2 Methodological Processes 3

2.3 Categories of Analysis 3

2.4 Consequences of Degradation 4

2.5 Monetary Valuation 4


2.6 Marginal Analysis 5

3. Cost of Environmental Degradation 6


3.1 Introduction 6

3.2 Cost of Degradation 6

4. Water 7


4.1 Introduction 7

4.2 Health and Quality of Life 7

4.2.1 Mortality 7

4.2.2 Morbidity 7

4.2.3 Valuation 8

4.2.4 Cost of Treatment and Care Giving 8

4.2 Natural Resources 9

5. Air 11


5.1 Health and Quality of Life 11

5.1.1 Dose-Response Coefficients 12

5.1.2 Mortality and Morbidity 12



5.1.3 Valuation 12

5.2 Natural Resources 14

6 Land 15

6.1 Natural Resources 15


6.1.1 Soil Salinity 15

6.1.2 Rangeland Degradation 17

7. Waste 18


7.1 Health and Quality of Life 18

7.1.1 Municipal Waste Collection 18

7.1.2 Valuation 18

7.2 Natural Resources 18

8. Coastal Zone 20


8.1 Natural Resources 20

8.1.1 International Tourism 20

8.1.2 Domestic Tourism 21

8.1.3 Recreation 21

8.1.4 Fisheries 21

9. Global Environment 22


9.1 Natural Resources 22

9.1.1 Biodiversity 22

9.1.2 Climate Change 22

10. Conclusions 23


10.1 Summary 19

10.2 A Comparison by Environmental Category 19


Bibliography 24



Appendix 26


Annexes 26


Annex 1 30

Annex 2 33

Annex 3 37

Annex 4 39




1. Introduction 1


A. Background 1

B. Cost of environmental degradation 1

C. Rationale and objectives 2

D. The preparation process 2


2. Methodological Framework 3

A. Definition 3

B. Methodological processes 3

C. Categories of analysis 4

D. Consequences of degradation 4

E. Monetary valuation 4

F. Damage and remediation costs 5

G. Marginal analysis 5



3. Cost Assessment of Environmental Degradation 7


A. Introduction 7

B. Total cost of degradation 7

C. Water 8

D. Air 9


E. Land and wildlife 10

F. Waste 11

G. Coastal zones and the cultural heritage 12

H. Global environment 13


4. Cost of Remediation 14

A. Introduction 14

B. Policy context 14

C. Water 14

D. Air 15

E. Land and wildlife 15

F. Waste 16

G. Coastal zones and the cultural heritage 16

H. Global environment 16



5. A Comparison of Damage and Remediation Costs and Conclusion 17


A. Introduction 17

B. A comparison by environmental categories 17

C. Conclusion 18
Bibliography 20
Annexes

Annex I. Damage and remediation costs calculation ………………………………………….

Annex II. Estimates of damage costs ……………………………………………………………

Annex III. Forest and woodland degradations costs in Syria …………………………………


Tables

Table A. Annual cost of environmental degradation – mean estimate viivii

Table B3.1. Annual cost of environmental degradation – mean estimate 67

Table 4.1. Water: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 10

Table C. Water: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 9

Table D5.1. Air: Annual damage cost – mean estimateDose-response coefficients 1210

Table E5.2. Land and wildlife: Annual damage cost – mean estimateAir: DALYs for health effects 12

Table F5.3. WasteAir: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 14

Table 6.1. Land: Crop salinity tolerance and yield effects 16

Table 6.2. Land: Cost of salinity – low estimate 16

Table 6.3. Land: Cost of salinity – high estimate 16

Table 6.4 Land: Cost of rangeland degradation 17

Table 6.5 Land: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 17

Table 7.1. Waste: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 19

Table 8.1. Coastal: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 21

Table 9.1. Global: Annual damage cost – mean estimate 22


Table A1. Comparison of the Cost of Environmental Degradation 29

Table G. Coastal zones, cultural heritage: Annual damage cost – mean estimate ………………13

Table H. Water: Cost of remediation 15



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