Acknowledgements: Ms Jacinth Watson Ms Liz Wenden Ms Jacquie Phegan Table of Contents

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Dr Laura Thomas

Ms Sarah Falconer

Professor Donna Cross

Ms Helen Monks

Dr Debora Brown


Ms Jacinth Watson

Ms Liz Wenden

Ms Jacquie Phegan

Table of Contents

List of Figures v

Chapter 1. Executive summary 1

Chapter 2. Introduction 5

Chapter 3. Methods 16

Chapter 4. Results 25

Chapter 5. Social marketing campaign evaluation and monitoring recommendations 72

Chapter 6. References 75

Chapter 7. Appendices 76

Hello everyone. My name is __________________ and I work at the Child Health Promotion Research Centre at Edith Cowan University. (With me today are/is _______________ and ________________, also from our research Centre. You have been invited here today to share your opinions on what you think young people who witness someone being cyberbullied can do to help. 111

Thanks again. If there are no more questions, I will now ask that you please make sure you have all your things and then return quietly back to class. 120

List of Tables

Table 1. Website analysis – availability and accessibility of bystander information 14

Table 2. Socio-demographic factors of schools participating in focus groups 20

Table 3. Sample selection 21

Table 4. Description of students attending the CFSP Cyber Friendly Student Leader training day 25

Table 5. Students’ favourite Australian movie hero 26

Table 6. Students’ favourite Australian TV hero 26

Table 7. Students’ favourite Australian sporting heroes 26

Table 8. Funniest celebrity on TV or in Australian movies 27

Table 9. Games students play on their phone 27

Table 10. Games students play on Facebook and elsewhere online? 28

Table 11. Students’ favourite game on their mobile telephone 28

Table 12. Students’ phone type, frequency of phone replacement and phone type decision maker 29

Table 13. Students’ iTouch, iPad or any other tablet ownership 29

Table 14. Students’ favourite way to chat to their friends after school 30

Table 15. Students’ most frequently stated positive and negative comments 30

Table 16. Finish this sentence: "bullies are…” 31

Table 17. Students’ perceptions of what might prevent someone from acting as a bystander to cyberbullying and what might motivate someone to act as a bystander to cyberbullying 31

Table 18. Actions students saw a friend do that really impressed them and made them think they were not very nice, and really make students mad 32

Table 19. Students’ preferred method of communication for cyberbullying campaigns 33

Table 20. Student Edge discussion board response rate 35

Table 21. Student Edge discussion board participant demographics 36

Table 22. Positive cyberbullying bystander messages identified in your say discussion board 42

Table 23. Focus group participant demographics 50

Table 24. Focus group participant technology use 51

Table 25. Top rated respondent created slogans 57

Table 26. Student responses to ‘what rights do young people have?’ 69

Table 27. Student responses to ‘what responsibilities do young people have?’ 70

List of Figures

Figure 1. Student Edge discussion board screen image 34

Chapter 1. Executive summary

In May 2011, the Child Health Promotion Research Centre (CHPRC), in partnership with Primary Communication, were commissioned by the Australian Human Rights Commission to conduct a study to identify the most effective strategy, messages, content and technology to be used to undertake a social marketing campaign targeted at young people aged 13 to 17 years old. The social marking campaign will focus on encouraging cyberbullying bystanders to take positive, effective and safe action when they witness cyberbullying.

The Cyberbullying Bystanders Project comprises five stages in a two phase plan. This report presents the findings and outcomes as part of Phase One (Stages 1 to 3). A communications strategy will be prepared by Primary Communication for the Australian Human Rights Committee which utilises the findings in this report to inform future directions of the campaign.

The CHPRC used three strategies to consult with young people to answer the following research questions:

  1. How can barriers to taking positive bystander action be removed?

  2. What would motivate the target group to take positive bystander action?

  3. What are the most effective messages to communicate bystander strategies?

  4. What is the most effective content including user generated and the use of mobile applications?

  5. What is the most effective platform(s) for implementation?

First, Cyber Friendly Student Leaders recruited as part of the CHPRC’s Cyber Friendly Schools Project (n=60) were consulted, via a written worksheet, about their technology use, preferred Australian celebrities and perceptions of friends’ behaviours. Second, Student Edge were engaged to conduct a moderated online blog to determine students’ experiences as bystanders to cyberbullying and recommendations for campaign strategies. Of the 409 responses posted on the blog, 277 (68%) were provided by the target age group (13-17 year old students) by students nationwide. Finally, Year 8 and 10 students (n=102) at five Perth metropolitan, non-government secondary schools were recruited to participate in focus group discussions (approximately 40 minutes duration) to consolidate the themes arising from the previous consultation stages. The methods and results of each research stage are described in full in Chapters 3 and 4 of this report. The findings arising from these stages were triangulated to answer the five research questions comprising the Cyberbullying Bystanders Project, as discussed below.

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