Add Jack Roberts and Florida tv interview from post dis and bh file section 3 The fbi, cointelpro-white hate, and the Ku Klux Klan in Florida 1964-1971


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53 The ADL, which generally overestimated Klan membership in the 1960s, claimed that 3500 people had signed up. Foster and Epstein, Report on the KKK, 26 cited in Moore, "A Sheet and a Cross," 131.

54 Fallaw had been a member of the Coca and Jacksonville UFKKK units, and referred to his unit as the KKKK or North Florida Klan. Key organizers included brothers Melvin and Herbert Fallow, as well as Buddy Cooper, Alton Cox and Joe Godwin. NSRP activist Jesse Stoner would act as his council at the HUAC hearings. SA [X] to SAC [X] 6/1/64, (quote) FBI HQ File 157-813 “Manucy, Holstead R.” Section 1, Lazar archive; Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 191; HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan Organizations, Vol. V, 3656-3664.

55 In Federal Court, former Klansman Earl Sidney Jordan testified that he had witnessed defendant Barton Griffin set off dynamite blasts. Newton, Invisible Empire, 172-173; Bartley, Keeping the Faith, 105; United States v. William Rosencrans et. al., (S.D. Fla.); Rosen to Belmont, 11/30/65 and attached UPI release, VIOLA LIUZZO MURDER FBI File 44-28601; UPI, “Former Klansman Says Dynamite Was Set Off as Initiation Ritual,” Washington Post, 22 November 1964; HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3684-3685, 3690-3693. Donald Eugene Spigal, Barton H. Griffin, Jacky Don Harden, Willie Eugene Wilson, and Robert Pitman Gentry were arrested. Papers of the NAACP. Part 20 White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965, edited by John H. Bracey Jr. and August Meier, (Bethesda MD, 1995), Reel 13, Frame 0011; New York Post, 27 July, 1964, cited in Moore, "A Sheet and a Cross," 131; HUAC, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, 117-118. On February 2, an explosion had also taken place at a railway bridge in north-Miami Beach. The FBI pursued a suspect who worked for Dade County and, according to informant reports, associated with the American Nazi Party and the National States Rights Party. Miami to Director, RE: 2/24/64; FBI to Department of Justice, Re: Bombing Matters Investigation MM 160-67, 2/24/64.


56 According to Rowe, James R. Whitefield and his brother William acted as bodyguards in Jacksonville, and the Klokan Committee included Robert Thomas and Ralph Roton, as well as militant Birmingham area Klansmen Collie Wilkins, Eugene Thomas, and Thomas Eaton. NSRP attorney Jesse B. Stoner also worked on the case. HUAC, The Present-Day Ku Klux Klan Movement, 117-118; HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 2110-2112, 3113-3114, 3234-3235; John Drabble, “The FBI, COINTELPRO-White Hate, and the Decline of Ku Klux Klan in Alabama, 1964-1971,” revised and resubmitted to the Alabama Review, August 2005. posted at http://geocities.com/drabbs/workingpapers; Rosen to Belmont, 11/30/65 (Pdf12, 13, 26), and attached UPI wire report, VIOLA LIUZZO MURDER file [FBI File 44-28601].

57 Thunderbolt No. 58, April 1964; Thunderbolt No. 66 April 1965, 11; "'Jacksonville Chronicle' Charges F.B.I. Using Illegal Methods Against Fla. K.K.K.," "Letters To The Editor," and "FBI Plant Wins Top KKK Post," Thunderbolt No. 57, March 1964.

58 HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3686.

59 Newton, Invisible Empire, 173; Bartley, Keeping the Faith, 110; Papers of the NAACP. Part 20 White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965, edited by John H. Bracey Jr. and August Meier, (Bethesda MD, 1995), Reel 13, Frame 0011; Gloster B. Currnet to Messrs. Wilkins, et. al., 3/24/64, Papers of the NAACP. Part 20 White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965, edited by John H. Bracey Jr. and August Meier, (Bethesda MD, 1995), Reel 7, Frame 0005.


60 In St Augustine, whites stoned blacks outside an integrated church and lobbed eggs at marchers in the city’s Easter parade. Newton, Invisible Empire, 173-174, 176; HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3686. This was the only appearance ever made by the Knights of the Golden Eagle. Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 327. Cites NYT 1964.

61 McGowan to Rosen, May 30 1964, COTSS; Director to Jacksonville, 5/28/64, COTSS.

62 AP, “Rival Rights Marchers Parade in St. Augustine,” Los Angeles Times, 22 July 1964, 13.

63 AP, “Four Negroes Beaten in St. Augustine Strife,” Los Angeles Times, 18 July 1964, 3.

64 Teletype, Jacksonville to Director, 4:05 PM, 7/24/64.

65 “2 St. Johns Segregationists Freed After Brief Jail Stay, Florida Times-Union, nd, 24 in FBI HQ File 157-813, “Manucy, Halstead R.,” Section 1, Lazar archive.

66 Cochran was also charged under a state anti-mask law. Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 121, 123, 201, 241; “Warrants Against Klan Leaders, London Times, 25 July 1964, 6; AP, “Klansmen Facing Arrest: 5 Men Sought After Bombing,” Miami Herald, 25 July 1964; AP, “Bomb Kindles Crackdown on Ku Klux Klan,” Los Angeles Times, 25 July 1964, 1.


67 Michael and Judy Ann Newton, Racial and Religious Violence In America: A Chronology, (New York: Garland, 1991), 476.

68 Soloman had helped to lead the 1939 Miami Voting Rights drive. “In Florida: NAACP Hits Try to Kill Sam Solomon,” New Pittsburgh Courier, 5 Dec 5, 1964, 18.

69 Jacksonville to Director, 10/14/64.

70 CHECK Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 177; Edward W. Kallal Jr., “St Augustine and the Ku Klux Klan,” in Garrow ed, St Augustine; Newton, Invisible Empire, 146-150..

71 Jacksonville to Miami, 12/29/64, FBI HQ File 157-813, “Manucy, Halstead R.,” Section 1, Lazar archive.

72 SA [X] to SAC [X], 4/6/65, FBI HQ File 157-813, “Manucy, Halstead R.,” Section 1, Lazar archive.

73 Director to Tampa 9/22/64; Tampa to Director, 9/25/64; “FBI Arrests 2 As ‘Bonzo’ Fugitives,” Orlando Evening Star, 22 September, 1964.

74 Miami to Director, 12/31/64.

75 Hall led the KKKK-AKA. Director to Tampa, 11/2/64. According to the HUAC, this Klan was very small and inactive when HUAC in October 1965. HUAC, Activities of KKK, 1573.


76 Ibid; Tampa to Director, 1/4/65.

77 Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 3/30/65; HUAC, Present-Day KKK, 54-55; Robert E. Baker, “Revived KKK Isn’t Funny Any More,” Washington Post, 5 July 1964, E1; “The Ku Klux Klan On The Way Back,” US News and World Report, 57:16 19 October 1964, 52; Douglass Kiker, “Heavy Infiltration by FBI Spawns Klan Within the Klan,” Tampa Tribune, 6 April 1965.

78 Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 3/30/65.

79 Tampa to Director, 12/9/64.

80 HUAC, Present-Day KKK, 54-55.

81 The FKKK had existed since 1955. The UKKK had been composed of remnants of the Florida Realm of the U.S. Klans, led by Imperial Wizard Eldon Edwards until his death in August 1960. Reluctant to pay dues to an organization based elsewhere, Florida Klansmen opted out of joining the Alabama based United Klans of America (UKA), loosely affiliating with the National Association of Klans, led by Veteran Georgia Klansman James Venable in Stone Mountain Georgia. HUAC, Present-Day KKK, 54-55.

82 HUAC, Present-Day KKK, 59. This group split off from the Jacksonville UFKKK Klavern #2 in Spring 1965. Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 177.

83 CHECK Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 17, 154, 177, 201; Arnold Foster and Benjamin Epstein, "Report on the Ku Klux Klan" 1965, 9. SBI Box II, ID2.


84 CHECK HUAC, Activities of KKK, 1569-1575, 1594; HUAC, Present-Day KKK, 28-29, 37, 62; Miami Herald, 16 March, 1966, cited in Moore, "A Sheet and a Cross," 144-145.

85 Tampa to Director, 4/1/65; Newton, KKK Encyclopedia, 177; Edward W. Kallal Jr., “St Augustine and the Ku Klux Klan,” in Garrow ed, St Augustine; Newton, Invisible Empire, 146-150..

86 Jacksonville Report, 12/23/63, Los Angeles to Director, 7/30/64, FBI Jacksonville file 157-670 “Lynch, Conrad,” Lazar archive.

87 Jacksonville reports, 7/30, 9/22, 9/22 and 10/5 1964, 11/12/65, FBI Jacksonville file 157-670 “Lynch, Conrad,” Lazar archive.

88 Baumgardner to Sullivan, 12/16/65 (Section 1); Director to Los Angeles, et. al., 12/17/65, (Section 1). The operation failed to secure revocation. “State Drops Case Against C. C. Lynch,” Florida Times-Union, 19 July 1965, in FBI Jacksonville file 157-670 “Lynch, Conrad,” Lazar archive.

89 Tampa to Director, 3/30/65; Miami to Director, 12/28/65.

90 John Herbers, “The Klan: Its Growing Influence,” New York Times, 20 April 1965, 1.

91 Miami to Director, 10/14/66.

92 Tampa to Director 12/9/64; Director to Tampa, 12/18/64; Baumgardner to Sullivan, 12/17/64, 1/14/65, 2/3/65.


93 Agents also provided information about UFKKK klaverns in other areas of the state, and may have provided information to a second source at the Melbourne Daily Times . Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 11/23/64, 1/14/65, 4/1/65; Baumgardner to Sullivan, 1/28/65; Director to Tampa, 12/10/64, 1/29/65.

94 Located in near Keysville South of Plant City, near Lake Wales, and at Auburndale, Haines City and Lacoochee north of Dade City, the , Polk and Pasco? County klaverns contained a few hindered members, according to locals. Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 11/3/64; Fred Smith, "5 Klan Klaverns Found Active in Central Florida", 4 April 1965 idem, “Two in Hillsborough County Praise Ku Klux Klan Ideals," 5 April 1965; idem, "Klan Has Trouble Keeping Its Secrets: Tribune Finds Klaverns in Polk, Lawman Says Action at Minimum," Tampa Tribune, 6 April, 1965.; idem, "Victim Tells of Klan's Role As the 'Keeper of Morals,'" Tampa Tribune, 7 April, 1965; idem, "Victim Tells of Klan's Role As the 'Keeper of Morals'" Tampa Tribune, 7 April, 1965.

95 Smith, "5 Klan Klaverns.” The intimidation had been “instrumental;” in convincing blacks to leave homes in County. Smith, “Two in Hillsborough.”.

96 Smith, "Victim Tells.”

97 Kiker, “Heavy Infiltration.”

98 Eatman said he had left the U. S. Klans in late 1959 or early 1960. Smith, "5 Klan Klaverns.” Perhaps this is the same group referred to as a John Birch society affiliate that called upon “patriots” to arm themselves and organize secret Minutemen teams to avoid FBI surveillance. Drew Pearson, “Noise on the Right,” Washington Post, 7 November 1965, E7; Lowell Brandle, “‘Patriots Called to Arms,” Washington Post, 15. November 1964, E3.


99 Fred Smith, "Two in Hillsborough .”

100 Kiker, “Heavy Infiltration.”

101 Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 6/29/65.

102 Tampa to Director, 1/4/65, 1/14/65; Director, to Tampa 2/1/65.

103 Tampa to Director, 1/14/65.

104 Tampa to Director, 1/14/65; 1/17/65 (and attached LHM 3/17/65), 4/1/65;; Radiogram, 4/2/65; Staff Writer, "Activities of Lake Wales Employee To Be Investigated" Tampa Tribune, April 7, 1965(quote). It seems that the employee had some kind of political connections, which made it difficult to discharge him. Tampa to Director, 6/18/65.

105 The klavern was meeting under the cover name of the Paul Revere Historical Society. Jacksonville to Director, 10/14/64, 12/30/64, 3/29/65; Director to Jacksonville, 11/5/64. The Klavern was later known as #502. Tampa to Director, 3/25/66. HUAC identified Klavern #502 E.C. Alton Cooksley as acting Grand Dragon and Klavern treasurer John Lee Stoudenmire as State Treasurer of the UFKKK. The klavern also used he name Duval Fellowship Club. HUAC, Activities, 3717-3719, 3736-3737.

106 John Drabble, “The FBI, COINTELPRO-White Hate, and the Decline of Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina, 1964-1971,” Talk Given at the John Hope Franklin Center Lecture Series, Duke University September 24, 2003. posted at http://geocities.com/drabbs/workingpapers.

107 Tampa to Director, 2/21/66.


108 The complaints were aired at a rally attended by about 50 people in Cocoa. AP, “2 Crosses Burned in Baltimore, MD.,” Baton Rouge State Times, 24 January 1966, 12-A.

109 Tampa to Director, 9/29/66.

110 Tampa to Director, 10/15/64, 3/30/65.

111 Tampa to Director, 3/9/65 (quote), 3/13/65, 3/17/65; Baumgardner to Sullivan, 3/11/65 (quote); Director to Tampa, 3/11/65

112 They also planned to provide confidential information to the Fort Pierce News Tribune, concerning an attempt by [6] to organize a new klavern in Sebastian, in Indian River County. [6] moved to Wabasso where his recruiting activities also failed. Miami to Director, 10/14/64 (quote), 12/31/64, 1/21/65, 3/30/65; Baumgardner to Sullivan 10/30/64; Director to Miami 11/2/64.

113 Tampa to Director, 8/5/65 (four memoranda); Director to Tampa 8/16/65; Tampa to Director, 9/29/65. In the 1960s, the federal Government had bestowed a special priviledge on members of the National Rifle Association. They had the exclusive right to purchase surplus surplus arms from the Army. Four alleged members of Klan or other “extremist”groups were blocked from the program in 1968. Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, “Guns for Criminals?” Washington Post, 14 July 1968, B7.

114 Tampa to Director, 4/23/65.


115 Tampa to Director, 4/1/65.

116 Tampa to Director, 3/30/65, 6/29/65.

117 Tampa to Director, 6/29/65. The Plant City klavern remained the largest in the Tampa division. Tampa to Director, 9/29/65.

118 Tampa to Director, 8/5/65 (four memoranda); Director to Tampa 8/16/65; Tampa to Director, 9/29/65.

119 Director to Tampa 8/16/65.

120 Ibid. [5] associated with [4] a Klansman that had shot someone with a teargas pen and made a death threat in connection with an affray at the State Theater in lake Wales. Tampa to Director, 8/5/65.

121 Ibid. [4] had also been previously been associated with the NSRP. Tampa to Director, 8/5/65 (four memoranda); Director to Tampa 8/16/65; Tampa to Director, 9/29/65.

122 Tampa to Director, 9/29/65.

123 Tampa to Director 11/15/65; Director to Tampa, 11/16/65

124 Tampa to Director, 6/30/66.

125 Tampa to Director, 10/18/65, 11/10/65; Director to Tampa, 10/22/65.

126 Tampa to Director, 12/30/65, 1/7/66; Director to Tampa, 1/18/66.

127 Tampa to Director, 9/29/65, 10/6/65; Director to Tampa, 11/1/65.


128 Tampa to Director, 10/6/65, 11/10/65, and Director, to Tampa, 11/22/65.

129 [7] was a bombing suspect. Tampa to Director, 1/6/66; Director to Tampa, 1/17/66.

130 Drabble, “To Preserve,” idem, “The FBI . . . in Mississippi,”; idem, working papers.

131 Director, to Miami, 11/8/65.

132 HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 1570, 1574-1575, 3736-3738.

133 Robert Gentry was interrogated in executive session in September. Newton, Invisible Empire, 177-178; HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, Part 5.

134 HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3739-3743.

135 One eastern NC resident refused to sell land to a local Klavern. James K. Batten, “Once Robust Klan is Clearly Ailing,” Charlotte Observer, 27 February 1966, 1.

136 HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3776-3777.

137 HUAC, Activities of Ku Klux Klan, 3745, 3747.

138 J. B. Stoner, "Un-American Committee Plotted Entrapment: Stoner Takes Oath Before House Committee," Thunderbolt, No. 75, March 1966, 5.


139 Jacksonville to Director, 4/19/66.

140 "Klan leader had FBI as a Target, Investigator Charges," Birmingham News, February 22, 1966, 11. In 1967 WKCT identified him as a leading member of the State NSRP. Wayne Ferris Reports, “Thunderbolt on the Right,” available at the University of Georgia Libraries, Media Center.

141 Director to Jacksonville 4/28/66.

142 [#] denotes a Bureau deletion, in which the number of characters in the person’s name is discernable Tampa to Director, 3/25/66.

143 US Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence ["Church Committee"], Final Report, Book III, 474; O'Reilly, Racial Matters, 223-224.

144 Jacksonville to Director, 4/19/66 (quote) 6/29/65; Director to Jacksonville 4/28/66.

145 Jacksonville to Director, 5/20/66, 5/25/66, 6/29/66; Miami to Director, Jacksonville and Tampa 10:12 EST 5/20/66; Miami to Director, 6/15/66, 6/17/66, 6/23/66.

146 Jacksonville to Director, 6/29/66.

147 Tampa to Director, 6/2/66, 6/28/66. Tampa agents at that time had confirmed 250 KKK addresses that Spring. Tampa to Director, 3/9/66.


148 Tampa to Director, 8/2/66.

149 Tampa to Director, 6/2/66, 6/28/66, 6/30/66.

150 Tampa to Director, 6/30/66, 7/21/66.

151 Tampa to Director, 7/21/66.

152 Director to Tampa 9/9/66. An informant told the FBI that [6], a Tampa Klansman had reproduced the cards after a collective decision by the state officers of the UFKKK. Tampa to Director, 8/30/66.

153 Tampa to Director, 8/30/66(quote); Director to Tampa 9/9/66.

154 Miami to Director, 9/12/66.

155 Director to Miami, 9/19/66.

156 Baumgardner to Sullivan, 3/10/66, (Section 1).

157 Ibid.

158 Drabble, “To Preserve.”

159 Tampa to Director, 6/2/66, 7/1/66.

160 Miami to Director, 6/17/66, 10/26/66.

161 Miami to Director, 12/30/66.

162 Miami to Director, 10/26/66.


163 Shelton and at least one other UKA Klansman [7] are reported to have laughed about the cards. Tampa to Director, 6/20/66, 7/21/66, 9/30/66.

164 Jacksonville to Director, 6/29/66.

165 Miami to Director, 6/23/66.

166 Tampa to Director, 7/21/66.

167 Tampa to Director, 9/30/66.

168 The Pioneer Club remained completely demoralized. Tampa to Director, 6/30/66.

169 Director to Jacksonville, 6/29/66 .

170 Jacksonville to Director, 6/9/66. See also Tampa to Director, 9/23/66.

171 Newton, Racial and Religious Violence, 493.

172 Tampa to Director, 6/28/66; Director to Tampa, 7/5/66.

173 Charles Hendrick, "Klan Shows Signs Of Increasing Prosperity" Tampa Tribune, 16 July 16, 1966.

174 Charles Hendrick, "Klan's Illegal Permit Traced to Inspector" Tampa Tribune, July 21, 1966.

175 Tampa to Director, 8/1/66; "Kluxers Work at Red Tagged Club" Tampa Tribune, 31 July, 1966.


176 Tampa to Director, 8/2/66;

177 "Klan Building May Get Its Permit" Tampa Tribune, September 23, 1966; "Kluxers Change Name, Receive Building Permit" Tampa Tribune, September 29, 1966; Tampa to Director, 2/8/67.

178 [5] was a suspect in a bombing case. Tampa to Director, 2/8/67; Director, to Tampa 2/23/67

179 Tampa to Director, 3/31/67; Supplemental Correlation Summary, Dec. 19, 1966, 25 in FBI HQ File 157-552 #44, personal archive of FIOA researcher Ernest Lazar. http://ernie1241.googlepages.com/home

180 Tampa to Director, 12/9/66; Director to Tampa, 12/21/66.

181 Tampa to Director, 3/31/67.

182 Don North, "Negro's burn Tampa Block, Battle Police," Birmingham News, 12 June, 1967, 1; S. T. Macfeely, "Raging Negro's burn, low in Tampa, " Birmingham News, 13 June, 1967, 1.—CHECK TITLE/author spelling

183 Tampa to Director, 4/1/68, 7/1/68, 10/1/68, 4/4/69.

184 Tampa to Director, 5/22/68.

185 "20 Tampa youths held after riot," Birmingham News, 21 May 1968, 4.

186 Mistaken for another youth whom the mob accused of having sexual relations with a white woman, the victim’s lacerations, which required 400 stiches, made him unrecognizable. "Negro beaten up by a group of whites," Birmingham News, September 18, 1968, 25; "


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