Advertising & imc: Principles and Practice, 9e (Moriarty) Chapter 10 Visual Communication



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Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice, 9e (Moriarty)


Chapter 10 Visual Communication
1) Which of the following is NOT a key reason designers focus on the use of visuals in advertising?

A) anchor associations

B) cement belief

C) communicate quickly

D) replace copy

E) tell interesting stories

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1
2) In most marketing communication, the power to get attention lies primarily with the ________.

A) visual

B) audio

C) script

D) copy

E) sound effects



Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1
3) Who is the person most responsible for designing images that tell stories and create brand impressions in an advertisement?

A) copywriter

B) art director

C) producer

D) designer

E) photographer

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-1


4) A(n) ________ is the imprint used for immediate identification of a brand or company.

A) icon

B) logo

C) brand image

D) design

E) thumbnail

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 295

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-1

5) Images from collections of copyright-free art that anyone who buys the service can use are known as ________.

A) sepia images

B) die-cut images

C) process images

D) public art

E) clip art

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

6) Copywriters and art directors who imagine what the finished ad might look like are engaged in ________.

A) visualization

B) dubbing

C) post production

D) stop action

E) surrealism

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


7) Which of the following is NOT included in the art director's toolkit for print advertising?

A) photos

B) illustrations

C) typefaces

D) layout

E) dubbing

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


8) When art directors use the word art, they usually mean ________.

A) photographs

B) illustrations

C) color


D) A and B

E) A, B, and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

9) Which of the following statements about photographs and illustrations is false?

A) Most people feel that photographs lie because it is so easy to alter them with computer technology.

B) A photograph is more realistic and an illustration is more fanciful.

C) Illustrations eliminate many of the details you see in a photograph.

D) Illustrations can focus attention on key details of the image.

E) Illustrations can intensify meanings and moods.

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

10) Which of the following is a reason color is used in advertisements?

A) attract attention

B) provide realism

C) establish moods

D) build brand identity

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 298

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

11) The use of _______ lends a dignity and sophistication to a visual.

A) full color

B) spot color

C) blue and yellow

D) red and orange

E) black and white

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

12) A second color used in addition to black-and-white is known as ________.

A) mono color

B) single color

C) spot color

D) limited color

E) contrast color

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

13) Warm colors such as red, yellow, and orange convey ________.

A) intellect

B) alarm


C) danger

D) happiness

E) aloofness

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2


14) What colors should an art director use if he or she wants to bring a friendly tone to an ad?

A) deep blues and greens

B) yellow and red

C) cool colors

D) warm colors

E) pastel colors

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2
15) The appearance of an ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of typefaces is known as ________.

A) medium

B) typography

C) layout

D) design

E) classification

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

16) The primary function of ________ is to convey the words of the message.

A) typography

B) aesthetics

C) unity


D) balance

E) measurement

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

17) What are the two major typeface families?

A) point and font

B) face and size

C) serif and sans serif

D) justified and unjustified

E) Times Roman and Times

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2
18) Which of the following is NOT an aspect of typeface selection that designers must work with?

A) digitization

B) capitalization

C) lowercase

D) legibility

E) weight

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


19) How type relates to the margin is known as ________.

A) weight

B) posture

C) points

D) justification

E) legibility

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


20) The ________ of type refers to how easy it is to perceive the letters.

A) legibility

B) point

C) pica

D) justification

E) typography

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

21) The typography presentation of white letters written on a dark background is known as ________.

A) reverse type

B) negative type

C) white space

D) surprinting

E) ornamental type

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

22) Whether or not to use italic lettering is a(n) ________ decision.

A) typeface

B) font

C) surprinting



D) typesize

E) alignment

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


23) Which of the following does NOT hinder the legibility of print ads?

A) reverse type

B) all capitals

C) left justification

D) ornamental type

E) surprinted type

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2
24) Running the type over another image in a print ad is known as ________.

A) reverse type

B) surprinting

C) over-printing

D) bleed through

E) nonlinear type

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

25) Which of the following is a design principle that guides designers as they lay out an ad?

A) direction

B) dominance

C) unity


D) balance

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2
26) Which design principle describes how all of the elements in an ad come together?

A) unity


B) oneness

C) simplicity

D) direction

E) proportion

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

27) The saying "KISS" refers to the design principle of ______.

A) unity


B) movement

C) simplicity

D) direction

E) proportion

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2
28) A plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that is aesthetically pleasing in a print ad is called a(n) ________.

A) action plan

B) creative plan

C) layout

D) storyboard

E) thumbnail sketch

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

29) Which of the following layouts uses a single dominant visual that occupies about 60 to 70 percent of the ad's space?

A) picture window

B) all art

C) dominant type

D) panel

E) grid


Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


30) Which of the following is NOT a common type of ad layout?

A) picture window

B) circus

C) dominant type

D) nonlinear

E) jumbled

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


31) A layout that uses a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes is known as ________.

A) picture window

B) nonlinear

C) dominant type

D) panel or grid

E) symmetrical

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

32) A contemporary style of layout that can be read starting at any point in the image is known as ________.

A) circus

B) panel or grid

C) jumbled

D) picture window

E) nonlinear

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

33) A ________ layout type may have art, but it is either embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate position.

A) copy dominant

B) circus

C) panel


D) nonlinear

E) picture window

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


34) A ________ layout combines lots of elements to deliberately create a busy image.

A) dominant

B) circus

C) panel


D) nonlinear

E) circular

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


35) A(n) ________ layout type emphasizes the type rather than the art.

A) all copy

B) circus

C) panel


D) nonlinear

E) picture window

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


36) Which of the following is NOT a stage in the normal development of a print ad?

A) storyboard

B) thumbnail sketches

C) rough layouts

D) semicomps

E) All of the above are stages in the normal development of a print ad.

Answer: A

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 304

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

37) Quick, miniature, preliminary sketches are known as ________.

A) rough layouts

B) semicomps

C) storyboards

D) thumbnail sketches

E) mechanicals

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

38) In which layout stage of a print ad are the elements assembled in their final position for reproduction?

A) thumbnail sketches

B) comprehensives

C) mechanicals

D) rough layouts

E) semicomps

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

39) Which of the following refers to the way elements in a picture are arranged or framed through a camera lens?

A) balance

B) direction

C) composition

D) function

E) movement

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 304-305

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2


40) Inexpensive, rough-surfaced, spongy paper that quickly absorbs ink on contact is known as ________.

A) quick paper

B) newsprint

C) die cut paper

D) halftoned paper

E) registered paper

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-3

41) Color that aligns exactly with the image in a print ad is said to be ________.

A) registered

B) justified

C) halftoned

D) screened

E) centered

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-3


42) For impact, colors on a billboard should have maximum ________.

A) variety

B) unity

C) contrast

D) shadowing

E) separation

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

43) In an outdoor board, typography should be ________.

A) contrasted with the background

B) contrasted with the foreground

C) complex

D) all-capital letters

E) uncluttered

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

44) What are the two general types of printed images?

A) formal and informal

B) digitizations and illustrations

C) color and sepia

D) line art and halftone

E) tint blocks and halftone

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

45) Photographs are considered which type of printed image?

A) formal

B) halftone

C) tint block

D) line art

E) informal

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3


46) Printers create the illusion of shades of color by using dots of color surrounded by ________.

A) tint blocks

B) tint screens

C) color separations

D) offset prints

E) white space

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3


47) Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink called ________.

A) process colors

B) primary colors

C) basic colors

D) halftones

E) tint blocks

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

48) Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink in a process called ________.

A) full-color printing

B) four-color printing

C) tint blocking

D) color surprinting

E) color transferring

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

49) The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone negatives is called ________.

A) tint reduction

B) color separation

C) offsetting

D) tint blocking

E) tipping in

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

50) Which of the following is NOT considered a process color?

A) black


B) magenta

C) cyan


D) yellow

E) brown


Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3


51) ________ creates a raised surface on paper, and ________ creates a depressed image in paper.

A) Formal printing; informal printing

B) Tipping out; tipping in

C) Embossing; debossing

D) On-stamping; in-stamping

E) Overlaying; inlaying

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3


52) The application of a thin metallic coating molded to the surface of the image with heat and pressure is called ________.

A) foil stamping

B) embossing

C) debossing

D) digitizing

E) overlaying

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

53) Separate preprinted ads provided by the advertiser to be glued into a publication as the publication is being assembled are known as ________.

A) embosses

B) die-cuts

C) foil stamps

D) overlays

E) tip-ins

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

54) Previously recorded images, either video, still slides, or moving film are known as ________.

A) morphs

B) stock footage

C) tip-ins

D) photostats

E) clip art

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 309

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

55) A set of computer-generated letters that appear to be moving across the bottom of the television screen is known as a(n) ________.

A) crawl


B) morph

C) tip-in

D) register

E) overwrite

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4


56) A video technique in which one object gradually changes into another is called ________.

A) crawling

B) image transfer

C) morphing

D) interlocking

E) dubbing

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

57) A(n) ________ writes the script for a broadcast production.

A) copywriter

B) arranger

C) producer

D) director

E) editor

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4


58) The ________ develops the storyboard and establishes the look of the commercial.

A) copywriter

B) art director

C) producer

D) director

E) arranger

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4


59) The ________ takes charge of the production arrangements and makes sure the expenses and bids come in under budget.

A) copywriter

B) art director

C) producer

D) director

E) arranger

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

60) The ________ has responsibility for the actual filming of the TV commercial.

A) editor

B) art director

C) producer

D) director

E) arranger

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

61) Moving an inanimate object a bit at a time and filming it frame by frame is known as ________.

A) stop motion

B) stop action

C) micro filming

D) slow motion

E) step motion

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 312

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

62) Which of the following is NOT a step of the television production process?

A) preproduction

B) postproduction

C) shorts

D) the shoot

E) message design

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4


63) Finding the right director, locating or building a set, and casting the talent are elements of which step in the production of a television commercial?

A) message design

B) preproduction

C) production

D) postproduction

E) shorts

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4


64) During a television commercial shoot, which technician moves props and sets and lays tracks for the dolly on which the camera is mounted?

A) grip


B) gaffer

C) camera crew

D) shoot clerk

E) mixer


Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

65) Rough versions of the commercial assembled from cuts of the raw film footage are known as ________.

A) dailies

B) rushes

C) rough cuts

D) interlocks

E) answer prints

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313-314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

66) What term refers to the postproduction process of assembling the various pieces of the film into the same sequence as the storyboard?

A) dubbing

B) release printing

C) refocus

D) video editing

E) transition

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

67) Which of the following represents the correct order of the television postproduction output?

A) dailies, rushes, rough cut, interlock, release print

B) interlock, rough cut, answer print, release print

C) rough cut, interlock, release print, duplicate print

D) rough cut, interlock, answer print, release print

E) interlock, dubbed print, answer print

Answer: D

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 314-316

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

68) The final version of a television commercial with the sound and film mixed together is called a(n) ________.

A) interlock

B) answer print

C) release print

D) dubbed print

E) rush print

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

69) Because users can create their own paths through a website, designers have to make sure that their sites have clear ________.

A) URLs


B) networks

C) sequencing

D) navigation

E) pop-ups

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 318

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5
70) If a website's ________ is cluttered or unclear, website visitors will likely give up and move on to some other site.

A) banner ad

B) URL

C) navigation



D) pop-up

E) clickthrough rate

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 318

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5
71) In effective advertising, the visuals work together with the words to present the creative concept.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1


72) Words are generally better than visuals at getting and keeping attention.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1

73) Undifferentiated products with low inherent interest can be distinguished by linking the product with a visual representing lifestyles and types of users.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1

74) The visual's only function in an advertisement is to get attention.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1

75) The person most responsible for creating visual impact is the creative director.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 292

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-1


76) The art director's toolkit for print advertising includes the photos, illustrations, typeface, color, and layout of the proposed ad.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2
77) When art directors use the word art, they mean only illustrations.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2
78) Print ads with color tend to get more attention than ads without color.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 298

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2


79) Cool colors, such as blue and green, convey happiness.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2


80) The appearance of the ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of typefaces is known as typography.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-2

81) Through balance, all the elements in an ad fuse into one coherent image and the pieces become a whole.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

82) A basic design principle is "Less is more."

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2

83) A circus layout combines lots of elementsart, type, colorto deliberately create a busy, jumbled image.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2
84) The layout stage in which the elements are assembled in their final position for reproduction is known as a comprehensive.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 304

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-2
85) One problem with using color in newspaper advertising is that because of the limitations of the printing process, the color may not be perfectly in register.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-3


86) A key to an effective outdoor board is eye-stopping graphics.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-3


87) On an outdoor board, the product or brand label may be hundreds of times larger than in real life.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

88) Designers of outdoor advertising should make the relationship between foreground and background as obvious as possible.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

89) The two general types of printed images are photographs and illustrations.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3

90) Color is reproduced by setting up a printing press with a separate ink roller for every hue and value in a color photo.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3
91) The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone negatives is called color separation.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3
92) Tip-ins are separate preprinted ads provided by the advertiser to be glued into a publication as the publication is being assembled.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-3
93) Morphing is a video technique in which one object gradually changes into another.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 310

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4
94) The producer is the person responsible for the actual filming of a television commercial.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4
95) The director has responsibility for the actual filming of a TV commercial, including how long the scene runs.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

96) Stop motion and claymation are two types of animation.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 312

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4

97) The four major steps in the production of a television commercial are message design, preproduction, the shoot, and postproduction.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Communication abilities

Objective: 10-4

98) Dailies are rough versions of the commercial assembled from cuts of the raw film footage.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 313-314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4
99) The result of the editor's initial work is called an interlock, which is a preliminary edited version of the story that is created when the editor chooses the best shots and assembles them to create a scene.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 314

Skill: Concept

Objective: 10-4
100) Web designers are able to use different tools than those that are available to other types of art directors.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316

Skill: Concept

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5


101) Adreena wants to make consumers think of antiques with her photograph for a print advertisement for handcrafted furniture. Adreena should use a sepia tone for the photograph.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

102) Type in print ads has an aesthetic as well as a functional role.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

103) An advertiser that wants to soften its brand image would likely switch from using light typeface to boldface in its print advertisements.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

104) The video equivalent of a rough layout for a print ad is a storyboard.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2


105) A perfume maker wants to create an advertisement that gives consumers the chance to experience a new perfume. The perfume maker should choose to advertise in a magazine rather than in a newspaper.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3

106) Discuss how the use of visuals can be related to the Facets Model of Effects.

Answer: Designers focus on six key reasons for the effective use of visuals in advertising:

(1) Grab Attention –Generally visuals are better than words at getting and keeping attention.

(2) Stick in Memory –Visuals stick in the mind because people generally remember messages as visual fragments or key images that are filed easily in their minds.

(3) Cement Belief –Seeing is believing, so visuals that demonstrate add credibility to a message.

(4) Tell Interesting Stories –Visual storytelling is engaging and maintains interest.

(5) Communicate Quickly –Pictures tell stories faster than words because a picture communicates instantly. Consumers have to decipher verbal/written communication word-by-word, sentence-by-sentence, line-by-line.

(6) Anchor Associations –To distinguish undifferentiated products with low inherent interest, advertisers often link the product with visual associations representing lifestyles and types of users.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 291

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-1

107) Name and describe primary elements of the art director's toolkit for print advertising.

Answer: The art director's toolkit for print advertising includes the photos, illustrations, typefaces, color, and layout of the proposed ad.

Illustrations and PhotosWhen art directors use the word art, they usually mean photographs and illustrations. Photography has an authenticity that makes it powerful whereas illustrations are more fanciful. Illustrations eliminate many of the details you see in a photograph, often making it easier to understand.
Color is used to attract attention, provide realism, establish moods, and build brand identity. Print ads with color get more attention than do ads without color. However, black-and-white also lends a dignity and sophistication to the visual. Ads can also use spot color, a color in addition to black and white to highlight important elements.
Typography is the appearance of the ad's printed matter in terms of the style and size of typefaces. Art directors' concerns include fonts, justification, type measurement, and legibility.
Finally, a layout is a plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that is aesthetically pleasing. Some common types of ad layouts the art director might use are picture window, all art, panel or grid, dominant type or all copy, circus, and nonlinear. Finally, several design principles guide designers as they lay out an ad, such as direction, dominance, unity, white space, contrast, balance, proportion, and simplicity.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 296-303

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

108) Explain what layout means, and compare the common ad layouts the art director might use.

Answer: A layout is a plan that imposes order and at the same time creates an arrangement that is aesthetically pleasing. Some common types of ad layouts the art director might use are:

(1) Picture Window –One of the most common formats; it uses a single, dominant visual that occupies about 60 to 70 percent of the ad's space.

(2) All Art –Art fills the frame of the ad and the copy is embedded in the picture.

(3) Panel or Grid –Can use a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes. If there are multiple panels all of the same size, the layout can look like a window pane or comic strip panel.

(4) Dominant Type or All Copy –Layout that emphasizes the type rather than the art, or even an all-copy ad in which the headline is treated as type art. A copy-dominant ad may have art, but it is either embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate position, such as at the bottom of the layout.

(5) Circus –Combines lots of elements –art, type, color –to deliberately create a busy, jumbled image. This is typical of some discount store ads or ads for local retailers, such as tire companies.

(6) Nonlinear –A contemporary style of layout that can be read starting at any point in the image, meaning the direction of viewing is not ordered. This style of ad layout works for young people, but it is not as effective for older generations.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

109) A printer really needs only four colors to reproduce full-color images. Explain how this can be and describe the process used in four-color printing.

Answer: Full-color images are reproduced using four distinctive shades of ink called process colors, in a process called four-color printing. These colors are magenta (a shade of pinkish purple), cyan (a shade of bright blue), yellow, and black. Printing inks are transparent, so when one ink overlaps another, a third color is created and that's how the full range of colors is created. The black is used for type and, in four-color printing, adds depth to the shadows and dark tones in an image. The process printers use to reduce the original color image to four halftone negatives is called color separation.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3

110) Name the four steps in the production of a television commercial, and discuss some of the activities associated with each.

Answer: In general, there are four steps in the production of a television commercial:

(1) Message Design –Includes getting client approval on the advertising strategy, choosing the message format, creating a key frame, writing the script, storyboarding the action and scenes, and getting client approval of script and storyboard.

(2) Preproduction –Develop a set of production notes describing in detail every aspect of the production. Activities at this stage include find the right director; find the production house or animation house; work out details in preproduction meetings; locate or build the set; cast the talent; locate props, costumers, and photographic stills; and get bids for all the production operations.

(3) Production (the Shoot) –The director manages the shoot, and activities include: record the action on film; record music, voices, and sound effects; create the onscreen graphics; and create computer graphics.

(4) Postproduction –When the commercial begins to emerge from the hands and mind of the editor. Activities include: edit the film, mix the audio track, synchronize the video and the audio, give a presentation tape to client for approval, and duplicate videotapes for distribution.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313-314

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-4

111) What was the challenge facing the advertising agency that developed the campaign for Altoids described in the chapter's opening vignette?

A) to increase awareness of a new line of mints

B) to increase awareness of the brand among children younger than 12 years old

C) to depict visually the impact of the flavor

D) to communicate to consumers the superior quality of the Altoids brand

E) to communicate to consumers the price/value relationship of Altoids

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 290-291

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-1

112) The Michelin Man is an illustration that appears in many advertisements for Michelin tires. The Michelin Man, who is made of tires, represents the brand. The Michelin Man is an example of a ________.

A) logo

B) position


C) brand icon

D) brand image

E) thumbnail

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 295

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-1


113) Arthur works at an advertising agency and is in charge of the visual look of the message, both in print and TV, and how it communicates mood, product qualities, and psychological appeals. He makes decisions about whether to use art or photography in print, film or animation in television, and what type of artistic style to use. He was trained in graphic design and designs ads, but he rarely creates the finished art. What is Arthur's job title?

A) producer

B) art director

C) advertising director

D) creative director

E) creative strategist

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

114) Stan is a copywriter and Bob is an art director working on a client's account. They are brainstorming ideas and trying to imagine what the finished ad might look like. What technique should they use?

A) creative aerobics

B) thought listing

C) "drawing on the right side of the brain"

D) visualization

E) image transfer

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Application

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

115) Quiana is an art director working on a print ad for a new client. The client wants the ad to stress the credibility of the product. Which of the following types of art should Quiana choose?

A) illustration

B) photograph

C) spot color

D) embossing

E) line art

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Application

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

116) Rahim is an art director developing an advertising campaign for a new online multiplayer game. The game allows players to create characters who interact in an imaginative environment with characters created by other players. Which of the following types of art should Rahim choose for the campaign?

A) illustration

B) photograph

C) spot color

D) embossing

E) halftone

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 297

Skill: Application

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2
117) As you're flipping through the newspaper, your eye catches a bright blue graphic in an ad for a new restaurant. This ad uses ________ to attract attention.

A) off-set printing

B) tip-ins

C) color separation

D) four-color printing

E) spot color

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2
118) Kindrella is trying to convey happiness in a print ad. Which of the following color(s) should she use in the ad?

A) yellow

B) orange

C) red

D) A and B

E) A, B, and C

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

119) Typeface that looks like this ABCDEFGHIJK... is known as ________.

A) serif

B) sans serif

C) block printing

D) ornamental

E) surprinted

Answer: B

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 301

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

120) In finalizing a newspaper ad, Mandeep is considering changing the spot color from blue to red. In terms of design, Mandeep is considering a(n) ________ change.

A) functional

B) aesthetic

C) balance

D) movement

E) complexity

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2
121) A print advertisement for Hyatt is dominated by the image of a woman sitting on a pristine beach, gazing out at a calm ocean. Text below the image reads "Hyatt. You're more than welcome." The ad also includes a Hyatt website address. Which type of layout does this ad use?

A) picture window

B) circus

C) panel


D) nonlinear

E) dominant type

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

122) A print advertisement for Bloomingdale's features seven separate photographs of products for a trip to the beach, including sunglasses and a beach bag. The largest image in the ad is a photograph of a famous surfer. The headline for the ad appears above the photographs, and smaller text providing details on the products and the sale appear below the photographs. Which type of layout does this ad use?

A) picture window

B) circus

C) panel

D) nonlinear

E) dominant type

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

123) A print advertisement for a movie features boldfaced, all caps quotes from respected movie critics praising the film, the title of the movie, and the names of the actors appearing in the movie. The ad uses only black, white, and red ink. Which type of layout does this ad use?

A) picture window

B) circus

C) panel


D) nonlinear

E) dominant type

Answer: E

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2
124) Saul is taking a sample layout of a new print advertisement to a meeting with the client for approval. This layout is most likely in the ________ stage.

A) thumbnail

B) panel

C) semicomp

D) high-resolution film

E) rough


Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 304

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2

125) Mmmints, the maker of a line of breath mints, is launching a new flavor. The company's agency has created an advertisement that includes a flavor strip, which will allow consumers to experience the taste of the new product. This advertisement is an example of a(n) ________.

A) tip-in

B) embossing

C) stamping

D) debossing

E) die-cut

Answer: A

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 308

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-2


126) Lisa writes original music and sometimes writes the lyrics along with the music for radio and television commercials. What is Lisa's role in TV and radio production?

A) producer

B) director

C) arranger

D) composer

E) talent

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-4

127) A four-color, full-page advertisement for a sale at a local retailer appeared in the Sunday newspaper. The ad featured several images of products that would be on sale. The color images, however, were somewhat blurry. Which of the following best explains why the images were blurry?

A) The glossy paper used by newspapers is not the best surface for reproducing fine details.

B) The color was not perfectly registered.

C) The advertisement used continuous tones rather than half tones.

D) The advertisement used half tones rather than continuous tones.

E) The advertisement did not use enough white space.

Answer: B

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3


Refer to the following passage to answer the questions below.
A television ad for Meridia, a prescription medication for the management of obesity, begins by showing a close-up of a cute, pudgy baby's face while the copy says something to the effect that doctors have been concerned about your weight all your life. The baby's face gradually turns into that of a woman who is attractive yet overweight, and the copy indicates that Meridia can help –just ask your doctor. Then the scene shifts, rather abruptly, to the name of the prescription medication.
128) The art director wants to purchase a previously recorded image of a baby's face rather than going through the process of casting and abiding by all the regulations for working with minors. What could the art director use?

A) pre-shot footage

B) open footage

C) stock footage

D) proprietary footage

E) dubbed footage

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 309

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-4
129) The art director wants to purchase a previously recorded image of a baby's face rather than going through the process of casting and abiding by all the regulations for working with minors. This decision was most likely made during the ________ stage of the production process.

A) message design

B) editing

C) preproduction

D) production

E) postproduction

Answer: C

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-4

130) The technique in which the baby's face gradually changes into a woman's face is known as ________.

A) die-cutting

B) debossing

C) morphing

D) interlocking

E) dubbing

Answer: C

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 310

Skill: Application

AACSB: Analytic skills

Objective: 10-4

131) Describe the challenge that was facing the creative team for the Altoids campaign described in the chapter's opening vignette.

Answer: The challenge was to create advertising that would bring to life the intense flavor of this extreme mint. The challenge was to depict visually the impact of this flavorwhat it's like to suck on this miniature atom bomband dramatize the brand slogan, "Curiously Strong Mints."

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 289-290

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-1

132) Explain why pictures are important in print ads.

Answer: Visuals capture more attention with words, and bigger illustrations tend to capture more attention. The right visual can pull readers into the body copy of an ad.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 291-292

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-1


133) Explain why there is a tension in advertising between creativity and responsibility to a brand image.

Answer: A brand image is established over years and many market communication campaigns; new marketing communications should be creative but should not interfere with the established brand image without strategic cause.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 295

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-1


134) Explain why an illustration might be easier than a photograph to understand.

Answer: An illustration can leave out many details that appear in a photograph, making it easier for the viewer to focus on the main idea of the image.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-1


135) Compare and contrast functional and aesthetic needs in design.

Answer: Functional needs involve making the visual message easy to perceive; aesthetic needs involve making the visual attractive and pleasing to the eye.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

136) Explain the two ways videographers and photographers handle composition.

Answer: Videographers and photographers handle composition by placing or arranging the elements in front of their cameras or by manipulating their own point of view if the elements can't be moved.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

137) The Institute for Outdoor Advertising (IOA) recommends several tips for designers. Discuss three of them.

Answer: Students can discuss any three of the following:

(1) Graphics –Make the illustration an eye-stopper.

(2) Size –Images in billboards are huge. The product or the brand label can be hundreds of times larger than life.

(3) Colors –Use bold, bright colors. The greatest impact is created by maximum contrast between two colors such as dark colors against white or yellow.

(4) Figure/Ground –Make the relationship between foreground and background as obvious as possible. The background should never compete with the subject.

(5) Typography –Use a simple, clean, uncluttered type that is easy to read at a distance by an audience in motion.

(6) Product Identification –Focus attention on the product by reproducing the label or package in a huge size.

(7) Extensions –Extend the frame of the billboard to expand the scale and break away from the limits of the long rectangle.

(8) Shape –For visual impact, create the illusion of three-dimensional effects by playing with horizons, vanishing lines, and dimensional boxes.

(9) Motion –Add motors to boards to make pieces and parts move. Disklike wheels and glittery things that flicker in the wind create the appearance of motion, color change, and images that squeeze, wave, or pour. Use revolving panels, called kinetic boards, for messages that change.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 305-306

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3

138) Compare and contrast the two general types of printed images.

Answer: There are two general types of printed images: line art and halftone. A drawing or illustration is called line art because the image is solid lines on a white page. Photographs, referred to as continuous tone or halftone, are much more complicated to reproduce. They have a range of gray tones between black and white.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 306

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3

139) Explain how printers use screens to create the illusion of shades of colors.

Answer: Printers create the illusion of shades by converting continuous-tone art and photos to halftones by shooting the original photograph through a fine screen. The screened image is converted to a pattern of dots that gives the illusion of shadesdark areas are large dots that fill the screen and light areas are tiny dots surrounded by white space. The quality of the image depends on how fine the screen is.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 307

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-3

140) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of a producer and a director in a broadcast production.

Answer: The producer takes charge of the production, handles the bidding and all production arrangements, finds the specialists, arranges for casting talent, and makes sure the expenses and bids come in under budget. The director has responsibility for the actual filming or taping, including scene length, who does what, how lines are spoken and the characters played, and how the camera records the flow of action.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-4

141) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of a composer and an arranger working on a broadcast production.

Answer: The composer writes original music and sometimes writes the lyrics along with the music. The arranger takes the original music and orchestrates the various instruments and voices to make the music fit a scene or copy line.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 311

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-4


142) A major television commercial production company is seeking summer interns. The jobs students would fill are called grip and script clerk. In which stage of the television production process will these roles be found, and what can you expect to do if you take either of these positions?

Answer: These roles are part of the production (the shoot) stage of the TV production process. The grip is a person who moves props and sets and lays tracks for the dolly on which the camera is mounted. The script clerk checks the dialogue and other script details and times the scenes.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 313-314

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-4


143) Describe a web designer's toolkit.

Answer: Web designers work with animation effects, sophisticated navigation paths, and streaming video.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 316

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5

144) How do banner ads compare to outdoor boards?

Answer: Banner ads are designed more like outdoor boards than conventional print ads because their small space puts intense requirements on the designer to make the ad communicate quickly and succinctly, and yet attract attention and curiosity to elicit a click-through response.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 316

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5

145) John is designing a website for a client. What does he need to know about designing the navigation of the website to make it easy to use?

Answer: The navigation must be clear, making it easy for customers to move through the site, find the information they want, and respond. Problems to avoid are navigation that is cluttered or unclear. Regular users should be able to customize the site to fit their own interests and navigation patterns.

Diff: 3 Page Ref: 318

Skill: Synthesis

AACSB: Use of information technology

Objective: 10-5

Refer to the following passage to answer the questions below.
Kimberly is an art director at an advertising agency, and she is developing the print campaign for one of the agency's clients. The clients don't have a large budget, so they would like to keep the costs of production as low as possible; this means that the creation of original art in their ads is not feasible. The desired look of the ads is formal, and the mood Kimberly wants to convey is calm, serene, reflective, and intellectual. She also wants the layouts to be formal because the product is financial services targeted to consumers 50+ years old.
146) Considering that the client does not want to pay for original visuals to be included in their ads, how will Kimberly get the visuals she needs to get attention and to set the tone for the ads?

Answer: She can use clip art, which are image collections of copyright-free art that anyone who buys the clip-art service can use.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 296

Skill: Application

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2


147) What color or colors should Kimberly use to convey the mood she desires?

Answer: Cool colors, such as blue and green, are aloof, calm, serene, reflective, and intellectual.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 300

Skill: Application

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

148) Kimberly is considering using mostly copy in her ad since financial services is a complex topic and the market is interested in knowing detailed information. Describe the layout you would suggest.

Answer: The dominant type or all copy layout would serve Kimberly well. This layout emphasizes type and copy, and any art is embedded in the copy or placed in a subordinate position, such as at the bottom of the layout.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

149) Kimberly is considering using visuals of matched or proportional sizes. Name and describe the appropriate layout she should use.

Answer: The panel or grid layout can use a number of visuals of matched or proportional sizes. If there are multiple panels all of the same size, the layout can look like a window pane.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 303

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2

150) Which design principles are most appropriate for what Kimberly wants to do?

Answer: The design principles of balance and simplicity seem most applicable here.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 302

Skill: Critical Thinking

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Objective: 10-2



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