Khagaria, as a district, is only twenty Years old. Earlier, it was a part of the district of Munger, as a subdivision. The sub-division of Khagaria was created in the Year 1943-44. It was upgraded as district, with effect from 10th May, 1981, vide Government of Bihar notification no. 7/T-1-207/79 dated 30th April,1981. As a sub-division of the old district of Munger, Khagaria was the youngest, in terms of creation of sundivision, before independence. The other three older subdivision were Munger sadar, Begusarai and Jamui. The Jamui sub-division was created on 22nd July,1864 and Begusarai sub-division on the 14th February 1870.
Khagaria was created as a separate sub-division mainly because of the difficulties arising out of a lack of easy means of communications. Railways were a very old means of communication in this district. As per the Gazetteer of 1960,this Sub-division had three railway lines - the north Eastern Railway, passing west to East had four Stations – Khagaria, Mansi, Maheshkhunt and Pasraha . One branch Line shot off from Khagaria passing through Olapur and Imli, while another branch line shot off from Mansi, which went up to Saharsa. This Mansi- Saharsa branch line, during that period was however disturbed during rains between Katyani Asthan and Koparia, a distance of 6 miles, which had to be covered by boats. Apart from railways, the other means of communication was roads, which were in a very bad shape. The only metalled road at that time was 22 mile long Maheshkhunt- Aguawani ghat road, which was still under construction. During that period Khagaria- Parihara- bakhri Road was also under construction and National Highway linking Moakamaghat to Assam was under contemplation.
Recurrence of floods was an annual affair, as five major rivers – The Ganga, The Gandak, The Bagmati, The Kamala and The Koshi passed through the area of the subdivision of Khagaria. The recurrence of floods along with water logging made communication extremely difficult in the rainy season. Before the construction of South embankment of Baghmati and Gogari- Narayanpur embankment, the vast portion of land between the railway line and three streams, namely, the Bagmati, the Kamla and The Ghaghri ( the main stream of Koshi) and the various streams, as the Maria river and the Maitha river, used to abound in marshes.
It is said that the entire areas, now included in the district of khagaria, was "Dahnal", affected by floods of the Ganga, the Gandak, the Kamla, the Bagmati and the Koshi and that because of its physical situation, any site of importance must have been washed away. That is why, it does not possess any historical site of importance. According to the history, commonly known in this part, it is said that during the time of Emperor Akbar, Raja Todarmal had been entrusted with the duty of making a survey of the entire area, but as he failed to do it, he advise that this area should be excluded, in other words, he adopted the policy of "Farak Kiya" and that is why the area is Known as "Pharkiya Pargana".
Early History :
The teritony, included in the old district of Munger, formed part of the Madhya- desa or "Midland" of the first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Modagiri, a place mentined in the Mahabharata, which was the capital of a kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamralipta. At the dawn of history, the territory apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, the capital of which was at Champa near Bhagalpur. Anga comprised of the modern districts of Bhagalpur and Munger, and also extended north wards up to the river koshi and included the western portion of the district of Purnea. Rahul Sankritayan in "Budh Charya" has mentioned that the area lying north of the Ganga was known as Anguttarap.
The first historical account of the old district of Munger appears in the Travels of Hiuen-Tsiang who visited the portions of it, towards the close of the first half of the seventh century A.D. After that there is a gap in the history of the district until the ninth century A.D., when it passed into the hands of Pala kings. The history during Pala period has become known mainly through the inscriptions. However, it is true that both Hiuen – Tsang’s account and Pala inscriptions cover maibly the Southern part of Munger district. The area passed through Muslim rule after the advent of Muslim rule in India.
Munger, in the later history, came into prominence, in the year 1762, when Kasim Ali Khan made it his capital instead of Murshidabad , from which he removed his treasure, his elephants and horses, and even the gold and silver decorations of the Imambara. He built himself a palace with a breast work before it for thirty guns, and had the fortifications strengthened; while his favourite General Gurghin Khan, an Armenian who had formerly been a cloth merchant at Ispahan, reorganized the army, had it drilled and equipped after the English model, and established an arsenal; the manufacture of fire-arms, which still is carried on at Munger, is said to date back to this period. Soon after he had established himself at Munger, Mir Kasim Ali came into collision with the English, which finally resulted in capture of Munger in the year 1763.
With the extension of the British dominions, Munger ceased to be an important frontier post. The existence of Munger, as a separate executive centre is believed to date from the year 1812. The extent of the Munger jurisdiction is not mentioned in the local records till september 1814, when it is stated to comprise five Thanas or Police divisions, namely, Munger,Tarapur,Surajgarha, Mallepur and Gogari. In 1834 pargana chakai was transferred from the district of Ramgarh and in 1839 pargana Bishazari from the district of Patna. Numerous minor changes followed but the greatest change was effected in June 1874, when parganas Sakhrabadi, Darra, Singhaul, Kharagpur and Parbatta were transferred from Bhagalpur to Munger, together with tappas Lowdah and Simrawan and 281 villages from parganas Sahuri and Lakhanpur comprising in all an area of 613.62 square miles. The subdivision of Jamui was formed in 1864, at first with headquarters at Sikandra, but in 1869 they were transferred to Jamui. The Begusarai subdivision was established in 1870 and in 1943-44, Khagaria subdivision was established with headquarters at Khagaria.
When Khagaria subdivision was created, it comprised of an area of 752 square miles and as per the census of 1951, had a population of 5,84,625 persons. It had seven Police Thanas, namely, Khagaria, Gogari, Chautham, Parbatta, Alauli, Beldaur and Bakhtiyarpur. Presently, Bakhtiyarpur forms part of Saharsa district, Most of the part of Khagaria district was referred to as ‘ Pharkiya Pargana.’ In the 1926 District Gazetter of Munger, it has been referred as "a pargana in the north east of the Munger subdivision, with an area of 506 square miles comprised mainly within the Gogri thana." This tract formerly belonged to an ancient family of Zamindars, of whose history little is known except what was collected in 1787 by Mr. Adair, the collector of Bhagalpur. Towards the close of the 15th century, the Emperor of Delhi sent a Rajput, namely Biswanath Rai, to contain lawlessness in the area. He successfully accomplished the task and obtained the grant of a Zamindari in this part of the country, and the estate developed on his posterity without interruption for ten generations. The annals of the family, however, after the first quarter of the 18th century, are a record of little but bloodshed and violence. At the time of publication of the 1926 Gazetteer , the greater portion of the estate was the property of Babu Kedarnath Goenka and Babu Deonandan Prasad.
Physical features :
Before the construction of embankments along the Ganga, the Bagmati, the Burhi Gandak and the Kosi, namely karachi badlaghat embankment, Badla- Nagarpara embankment, Burhi Gandak protection embankment and Gogri- Narayanpur embankment, the vast tract of present Khagaria district was flat alluvial plain and was abound in marshy and swampy land. The characteristics of this part, north of the Ganga has been described as follows by a former collector of Munger, Mr. E. Lockwood in "Natural History, Sports and Travel"- "The northern part is an extensive plain formed by the rich alluvial soil brought down by the ever changing river. In the north, nine tenths of the trees are cultivated mangoes, whilst wheat, Indian corn, various kinds of millet peas, masur, rahar, oats, indigo, mustard, linseed and castor oil, are the principal crops which the land holders find profitable to grow." He further describes that in contrast, "the southern portion (south of the Ganga) consists of vast rice tracts and forests, which cover the metamorphic hills extending far away into central India from the town of Monghyr. In the forest of the south are found the ebony tree, the sal and the mahua. The south also yields vast quantities of rice,and a hundred and fifty tons of opium, grown on twenty five thousand acres of land, whilst, after crossing the Ganges, little rice and not a single poppy will be seen."
The major part of the alluvial plain comprising this district, at present, is mainly a saucer- shaped depression, the center of which was innundated during the rains by the over flow of the rivers and for the rest of the year was full of marshy hollows. The inundation has decreased after construction of embankments but still a large part in the north eastern part of the district, contained in west by Gogari- Maheshkhunt – Saharsa Road, in the north by the Koshi and in the south by the Ganga is completely inundated during rainy season except for the National Highway and the New Delhi – Gauhati Railway line .
The principal rivers of the district are the Ganga, the Burhi Gandak, the Bagmati, the Kamla and the Ghaghri (the mainstream of Koshi). The Ganga forms the southern boundary of the district in its entire length. This river has severe shifting tendencies resulting in a vast tract of diara land, on the northern side and several hamlets of the present Munger district have resettled on the north of the Ganga due to erosion caused by the shifting of the river. Due to vast tract of diara land, during rainy season, at some places, the breadth of the river runs into miles.
The Burhi Gandak, runs a Zig-Zag course through the district of Begusarai and enters Khagaria for a short while, running by the side of the town of Khagaria, and flows in to the Ganga. It forms the western boundary of the Khagaria town and a protection embankment built along the eastern side of this river, protects Khagaria town from the floods of Burhi Gandak.
The Bagmati enters the district from the western side, through the district of Begusarai. It then pursues a winding but generally easterly direction, till it flows into the Tilijuga or the Kamla near Chautham.
The Tilijuga or the Kamla enters the district from Darbhnga, near Mohraghat, It then flows south east to Chautham, merges into the Bagmati, and the united stream flows into the district of Bhagalpur under the name of the Ghaghri, which is known as one of the main branches of the Koshi.
Climate, the flora and the fauna :
The climate of the district may be said to form a medium between the dry, parching heat of the up country and the close moist atmosphere of the south valley of Bengal. The heat is often intense but is very favourable during the rains because of law humidity. The seasons are the same as in the other parts of Bihar. The summer begins towards the middle of march and continues upto the end of June, when the rainy season begins, The months of April and May combine heat with high humidity relieved by intermittent rain falls. The rainy season continues upto October , while the water logging due to rain water continues in some areas up to the end of December. The winters are quite pleasant in this area.
The rainfall figures of last five years, as well as the normal rainfall,according to the reports of the Statistical section of Khagaria district are as follows:
( in mm)
-fall of District
In contrast to the southern portions of the old district of Munger, this district, lying north to the Ganga does not comprise of any forest of Sal or other large trees. However ever growing jungles of Kash and Pater is found in the northern areas in the belt of the Koshi and its tributaries .At most of the places, there are luxuriant gardens of mango and litchi, for which this district is mostly famous. Apart from these, Babul, Neem,Sirish and Sisho are also found. Not the least valuable product is thatching grass.It is grown on low land subject to inundation which retains water too long to enable the villagers to sow a cold weather crop upon it.
Wild animals, such as boars were occasionally found in the northern area bu now they are scarcely seen. However, birds are seen in large numbers in the various chours, particularly, in the area visited by the Koshi, the Kamla and the Bagmati. Snakes are also found in the river basins in a large number. Fish are abundant because of the rivers and the chours. Rohu, Kabai and Tengra are particularly known. During the winters, migratory birds come in large numbers in the northern part of the district.
Land use pattern:
In the whole district, there is no hill and no mineral is found in this district. As far as the land use pattern is concerned, wheat is the prominent rabi crop in the district. Due to floods and water logging, the paddy production is very low, except in the southern part of the district. Maize is grown abundantly almost through out the district, while banana cultivation as a cash crop, has grown into prominence in last two decades. Banana cultivation is done mostly in Choutham, Gogari and Parvatta blocks.
Apart from these mango and litchi orchards are abundant in this district and are found almost through out the entire area. The study of old gazetteers show that these orchards have been in existence since long.
As per the reports compiled by the Directorate of Statistics, Government of Bihar, the principal characteristics of the land use pattern of Khagaria district for the year 1998-99 is as follows:
Total Area : 1,49,342 Hectares. Total irrigated land: 87147 Hect.
Forest area : Nil Kharif paddy: 15618 Hect.
Total sown area : 88,140 Hectares. Garama paddy : 441 Hect.
Orchrd etc. area: 2732 Hectares. Wheat : 31584 Hect.
Water area- (i) permanent : 7715 Hect. Garama and rabbi maize:31636 Hct
(ii) Seasonal : 4272 Hect. Kharif maize: 503 Hect.
Wasteland and non-arable area : 13694 Hect.
Irrigation facilities :
After independence, the government has tried to create irrigation facilities through state tubewells and lift irrigation schemes. There are around 150 state tubewells and 20 lift irrigation schemes but 75 percent of the tubewells and 80 percent of the lift irrigation schemes are non-functional because of poor maintenance. Despite the abundance of rivers in the district, there does not exist any system of canal irrigation. As a result, the cultivators are dependent on the use of private borings fitted with pump sets. Fortunately, due to high water table in the area, the cost of boring is not very high and even middle class farmers can afford to have private boring and pumpsets. Agriculture, being the mainstay of the economy of the district, Government sponsored financing programmes, also give importance to bank financing of individual owned irrigation projects, comprising mainly of 5-7.5 KVA pumpsets and boring. To improve the functioning of the state owned tube wells, The Government has taken a decision to transfer thr ownership and maintenance of the tube wells to groups of beneficiaries and this is under the process of implementation in this district.
As per the reports compiled by the Directorate of Statistics, Govt. of Bihar, the break-up of irrigated area, sourcewise, for the year 1998-99 is as follows:
Total irrigated area : 87147 Hect. , out of which
Area irrigated by : (i) Canals – Nil
(ii) Govt. owned electric powered tubewells: 3006 Hect.
(iii) Private Diesel run tubewells : 62688 Hect.
(iv) Private minor lift irrigation : 10185 Hect.
(v) Other sources : 11260 Hect.
Seasonal breakup of irrigated area :
Bhadai : 935 Hectares
Agahani: 15754 Hectares
Rabbi: 65724 Hectares
Garama: 4734 Hectares
Total 87147 Hectares
Animal Husbandry :
The rearing of milch cattle had been a traditional occupation in this area. The 1960 Gazetteer says, "There is good pasturage among the hills to the south during the rainy season and in pasturage grounds of Pharkiya, in the dry season, but elsewhere grazing lands are scarce. Even in the south of the district, jungles yield poor grazing during the dry season, and only those who can afford to send their animals to the north gangetic plains in pargana Pharkiya keep good stock." Even people from the district of Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur and Bhagalpur usedto visit this tract for the grazing of the cattle during dry season.
According to the 13th All India Livestock and Agriculture Implements Census, 1982, the number of milch cattle in this district is as follows:
This data has been made available by the Directorate of Statistics, Govt. of Bihar.
Industrialisation : The economy of the district is dependent entirely on agriculture and its two main allied activities, namely horticulture and dairy. Industrialisation is completely absent. This district has potential for agro- based industries because of large production of banana and maize, but so far no industry has come-up. The development of Barauni district of Begusarai, as a prominent industrial area , has also pre-empted any industrialization in this district as entrepreneurs move towards Barauni or to the upcoming town of Silliguri in West Bengal, rather than investing in this district. Another reason is lack of surplus capital in this district because of historical reasons, as mentioned earlier. Agriculture was never so profitable here, as to generate surplus capital. Small business is the only non agricultural economic activity in this district.
This district is well connected to other parts of Bihar and the country through railways as well as roads. New Delhi – Gauhati railway lines passes through Khagaria. Other prominent stations are Mansi, Maheshkhunt and Pasraha. From Mansi, one branch line goes towards Saharsa, while from Khagaria, one branch line goes towards Samastipur. Both these branch lines are still meter- gauge. Between Khagaria and Mansi, both broad gauge and meter gauge railway lines run parallel. Mansi had been an important place from the point of view of railways, since it used to be the headquarters of an Engineering district of railway but now most of important offices of railways have shifted from this place to other places, and mostly to Khagaria or Barauni, which falls in Begusarai district.
National Highway No. 31 passes through the district almost parallel to the railway line in west-east direction, the intersection of the two existing at a place called Chukati, eight kms. eastward from Khagaria. Almost 46 Km. of NH- 31 falls within the jurisdiction of Khagaria district. NH-31 goes right upto Gauhati and is an important road link of Bihar to the north – eastern part of the country and to Northern Bengal. From Maheshkhunt, on NH-31, branches off one road to Saharsa district. It is maintained by Road Construction Department of Government of Bihar.
Apart from National highway, the condition of other roads in the district is not very good. Historically also the situation had been the same. Excessive rains and water logging coupled with poor maintenance account for this. Prominent roads of the district, which are maintained by Road Construction department are Maheshkhunt- Chautham- Beldaur Road (26 Km.), Maheshkhunt – Gogari- Parvatta- sultanganj ghat Road (32 Km.), Khagaria- Alauli Road (18 Km.), Khagaria – Parihara- Bakhri Road (19 Km.), Khagaria-Munger ghat Road (6.5 Km.) , Khagaria- Sonmankhi Road (6.5 Km.) and Pansalwa – Baijnathpur Road (11 Km.).
The condition of other roads, some maintained by Rural Engineering organisation and some by Block and Panchayats are also worse . Due to existence of several rivers and rivulets, all weather communication in the interiors of the district would require huge investment in bridges and culverts, the lack of which makes large part of country side accessible by boats only during the rainy season.
Trade and Commerce :
Trade and commerce are the only non- agricultural economic activity in the district . Khagaria and Gogri Jamalpur are the two important trade centres. Main trading item is foodgrains. Apart from foodgrains there are small number of traders in other items, as, textiles, hardware, jewellery and other commonly used items. Khagaria is a municipality while Gogari is a notified area. None of these is a fast growing township. In 1921 census, Khagaria town had a population of 9521 persons, which increased to 10,050 in 1951 census and in 2001, it is estimated to be near 45,000 persons. The 1960 Gazetteer of Munger terms Khagaria as "an important trade centre", wherefrom large amount of chillies and grains were exported; and "merchants from far and near corners of India have come and settled down here". In comparison, it seems that during last fifty years, most of the trading community has shifted out of the district, either to Begusarai and Patna, or to Siliguri. Due to the abundance of milch cattles in this area ,sale of milk and milk-product ,especially ghee is also an important business activity here.This has been a traditional occupation of this area. The 1960Gazetter says , "the only small industry ,which has earned a good name among the people is ghee making ,which is carried on in this subdivision on a large scale .This ils entirely due to a large number of she-buffaloes being reared in the Pharkiya Paragna. Many good cultivators send their cattle to the Pharakiya paragna for pasturage. Khagaria is famous for ghee making and in the Bazar a good trade has sprung up. There are certain firms in Khagaria,Mansi ,Badlaghat and Pasraha ,which send ghee to district places."
An organizedboost has been given to this trade of milk,through formation of dairy co-operative societies. Societies collect raw milk from members and send it to the chilling plant at Khagaria ,which sends chilled milk to Barauni processing plant of Barauni Milk Union ,where the chilled milk is processed and various milk products as well as packaged milk is sent to the market .The co-operative system ensures steady income to the farmers and provides market at their door-step itself. Still due to poor communication in their interiors , large amount of milk production is still outside the net of co-operative system . Increasing the number of societies as well as increasing the membership of existing societies, can be a very viable means to inject additional capital lin the economy of this district and will specially be beneficial to small and medium farmers. As on 31/12/1999, the membership of dairy co-operative societies is 7322,and the daily average collection of the year 1996-97, 1997-98, and 1998-99 is respectively 6,920 ; 7,800 and 9000 litres. The number of organized and functional dairy co-operative societies , blockwise are as follows:-
No. of org.
No. of func.
Out of the total membership of 7322, The number of SC , BC, Women and general members are respectively 591, 4489, 555 and 1687.
Electricity and Energy: The district of Khagaria has one grid station of 20 MVA at Khagaria and 3 sub-stations. The availability of electricity is not steady and stable. Out of total 306 villages, only 136 villages are electrified , as on 31/12/1999, out of which 86 villages do not get supply of electricity at present due to various fault or theft of wire transformers. Supply of electricity is very erratic even in urban areas, which means any trade, or industry based on electric supply, cannot be a success in this district under the present circumstances. As on 31/12/99, some of the basic facts regarding electricity supply and consumption are as follows:-
No. of Power Substations: 3 Total consumers : 16762
Average Power supply : 3759 MWH Per month LTI : 878 H.T. : 4
Agr. Connections: 605
State Tubewell : 131
PHED : 7
Public Lighting : 24
Social and Cultural Events: The district of khagaria is unfortunate in the sense that very little has been recorded regarding the social and cultural history of this area.Whatever account of the old district of Munger has been unearthed,covers mainly the southern Munger and to some extent Northwest Munger,i.e.,the present Begusarai district. All the ancient remains and inscriptions have been discovered south of the Ganga, and some in Northwest, namely in Jaimanglagarh (Begusarai). Description of cultural heritage of old district of Munger, in contemporary literature, is found both in the writings of Bengali and English writers. Munger finds reference in the book "Tirtha Mangal" by the Bengali poet Vijaya Ram Sen Visharad, in the poetic work "Surodhani kabya" by Dinbandhu Mitra, the great dramatist of Bengal. Besides description of Munger is found in the works of famous Bengali poets Navin chandra Sen, Baldeo palit and great novelists Bankim Chandra Chaterjee, Ramesh chandra Dutta, Sarat chandra Chatterjee, Prabhat kumar Mukhopadhyay, Dwarka Nath Vidyabhusan, Nirupama Devi, Anand Shanker Ray, Saradindu Bandopadhayay, Bibhuti Bhushan Mukherjee etc.
Among the accounts of foreigners, the earliest account is that by Hiuen - Tsang in seventh century A.D., in which he describes Munger as "Hiranya Paurato". Buchanan Hamilton, the great medico-geographer, who had been deputed by the British government to compile a historical and geographical account of the country, had visited Monghyr in the first decade of the nineteenth century, and has given an account. Bishop Heber, who visited Munger in 1823, has given an account of Munger, in chapter 10 of his book "Narrative of his journey through the upper provinces in India".Emily Eden visited Munger in November1857 and left an account in the book "Up the Country". Description of Munger is also found in the book "Wanderings of a Pilgrim" by Fanny Parkes, who visited Munger in 1836; and in the book "Natural History, sport and Travel"- a book by Edward Lockwood, a former Magistrate of Munger.
Specific to the account of the area now coverd under Khagaria district, the 1960 Gazetteer says, "There is absolutely no literature on palm leaves nor there is any record to that effect. ………No record of any paintings has been found". Some of the contemporary literatures, however, cover the area of this district as well.
Some important events during the freedom struggle, is commonly told by the freedom fighters of this area. Some freedom fighters have recorded it in writings also in their memoirs and autobiographies. One of these is an event of 24th August 1942.That day three Englishmen were surveying the railwayline by plane when their plane fell in river near Rohiyar Bangaliya, which is presently under Chautham Block .The villagers, killed all three out of revenge. Getting the information, the then collector of Munger started repressive actions and killed several villagers.
Another important event is the martyrdom of Prabhu Nrayan Singh, who was killed by the bullets of Englishmen on 13th August 1942,while leading a proccession towards Khagaria police station. He belonged to a village called Marar, nearly five kms. from Khagaria town.
Mahendra Choudhary, of Pipra village in Choutham block is another martyr, remembered reverently in Khagaria. He was hanged to death on 6th August 1945 in Bhagalpur Central Jail. It is said that Mahatma Gandhi had corresponded with Viceroy Wavell for granting pardon to Mahendra Choudhary.
It is said that several important national leaders of freedom movement had visited and stayed in Khagaria, especially in Gogri and Parvatta. Important centres of freedom movement were Shyamlal National High school, founded in 1910, at Khagaria; Gogri and Nayagaon village in Parvatta .
Culturally, this district has tradition of Melas, usually held on the occassion of Hindu religious festivals, particularly in Dussehara and Kalipuja .Old tradition of mela continues in Katyani Asthan, a place in Choutham Block. Another old traditional mela is Gopastami Mela, held just after chhath in the month of Kartik, near Goshala, Khagaria. This Mela still continues to be held at the same place and same time.
It has been mentioned in the Gazetter of 1960, that an Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition was organised with help of the non-official gentlemen of Khagaria, sometime in the month of November 1952, to spread awareness about modern methods of agricultural and small industries. The 10 days long exhibition was formally inaugurated by the then Chief Minister of Bihar, and several government departments like Public Health, Agriculture, Veterinary, Silk Institute of Bhagalpur, Jail Department of Bhagalpur and Munger, Fishery, Cottage Industries, agriculture section of Sabour etc. participated in the exhibition. It was repeated in 1953, on a bigger scale , for about a fortnight. The exhibition was formally opened by the Finance Minister, Shri Anugrah Narain Singh and was visited by the Chief Minister Dr. S.K. Sinha and Irrigation Minister, Shri Ram Charitra Singh. These exhibitions served very useful purpose in not only disseminating knowledge but also in providing light entertainments to the general masses visiting the exhibition.
No important social or cultural event of the recent past was found recorded. However, everybody remembers the devastating floods of the year 1987, when even Khagaria town was heavily flooded, including collectorate and other government offices. Though floods have become an annual occurrence since times imemorial, but the floods of 1987 left a devastating trail, after a long time, especially after the major embankments were constructed.
Under the rule of Mughal emperors, the old district of Munger appears to have been included in ‘Sarkars’ Hajipur, Tirhut and Munger. The district was constituted after 1832 by the transfer of several parganas from the districts of Bhagalpur, Bihar and Tirhut. The first provisional survey in pargana Pharkiya was carried out between 1835 and 1838 by Lt. Egerton. This survey was determined upon in order to demarcate certain ‘Wairana’ lands, i.e., tracts of waste land outside the orbit of settled and cultivated villages, to which it was held that Permanent Settlement did not extend. This survey was confined to boundaries and had neither the accuracy nor the completeness of the subsequent revenue survey. The latter was carried out in the rest of the district by Captain Sherwill in 1845-1847. A survey of diara lands subsequently took place in 1865-1866. The next survey operation was carried out in this area between 1899 and 1904. This is the last survey of this area and in last almost hundred years, no revisional survey has taken place resulting in poor updation of land records. Khagaria was part of Munger Sadar Subdivision till 1943. In the year of 1944, it was constituted into a separate subdivision. In the year 1959, Khagaria subdivision had one subdivisional officer(1st class), one Land Revenue Deputy Collector(2nd class), one sub-deputy collector(1st class), one sub-deputy magistrate(3rd class) and 6 Anchal Adhikaris and Block Development Officers(all 2nd class except one 3rd class). At that time the six blocks were Alauli, Khagaria, Chautham, Gogari. Parvatta and Simari-Bakhtiarpur. There were seven police thanas, namely Alauli, Khagaria,Choutham, Gogri, Parvatta, Beldaur and Bakhtiarpur. Beldaur was constituted into C.D. Block in the 2nd phase and Simari-Bakhtiarpur was transferred to the district of Saharsa. Khagaria was made a separate district in the year 1981, with one subdivision and six C.D. blocks. In the year 1992, vide notification No. 143 dated 13th May 1992; of Personnel and Administrative Reforms Department of Govt. of Bihar, Gogri was notified as a separate subdivision with three blocks, namely Gogari, Parvatta and Beldaur. In the year 1995, Mansi block-cum-anchal was created by carving out six panchayats from Choutham. Thus presently Khagaria consists of two subdivision and seven anchal-cum-blocks.
A perusal of the history of local self-government reveals that District Board of Munger was established in 1887, under Bengal local self Government Act, 1885. The Board originally consisted of 25 members. The District Magistrate was an ex-officio member of the Board and was invariably its Chairman; there were six other ex-officio members, and twelve were elected and six nominated by the Government. From the constitution of the Board in 1887 till 1917 the European District Magistrates used to be invariably the chairman of the Board; the first being I.E.Kaunshead.The first two Indian chairmen were Rai Bahadur G.C.Banarjee (1918) and Raja Deoki Nandan Prasad (1922). Non-official Chairmen presided over the board, for the first time after 1924,when the District Boards were reconstituted on an elective basis under the provisions of the Bihar and Orissa local self-Government (Amendment) Act of 1924-25.Under the District Boards of Munger, there were four local Boards, situated at the subdivisional headquarters.While the Local Boards at Munger, Jamui and Begusarai were formed in 1887,that at Khagaria was established in 1948. Initially the Local Board at Khagaria consisted of eight members six elected and two nominated. The Local Board used to get allotment of funds from the District Board for maintenance of village roads, upkeep of pounds, water supply and village sanitation. Under the District Board, there were eight Union Committees, one of them being Khagaria. Under the Municipal Act, four of these, including Khagaria was converted into Notified Area Committees. Khagaria Union Committee was converted into the Notified Area Committee in 1950, with 12 members. Khagaria became a municipality in the year, while Gogri was converted into a notified area committee in the year.
After independence, Bihar Panchayat Raj Act, 1947 brought a great leap towards local self-government in the form of panchayats, which were initially formed with a population of around 2000 persons. In 1957-1958, in the entire Munger district, there were 159 panchayats. Later on a three-tier panchayat system was established.
The local self government in rural areas was reorganised vide Bihar Panchayati Raj Act, 1994. Under the new act, Khagaria has 129 panchayats, 185 panchayat Samiti members, 1859 Gram Panchayat ward members and 18 Zilla Parishad members. However the elections could not be held till 31st Dec.1999. The last panchayat elections were held in Bihar in the year 1978.
Khagaria sub divisional hospital was provincialised in the year 1949 under the Kosi and Kamla Relief Scheme. That time, it had 30 beds for male and 12 beds for female. In 1959, apart from the sub divisional hospital, Khagaria subdivision had dispensaries at Gogri, Chautham, Simri Bakhtiarpur, Alouli, Parbatta, Bahadurpur, Bharatkhand, Chapraon and Beldaur. Khagaria sub divisional hospital has still the same status, even almost twenty years after Khagaria became district. The present capacity of this hospital is of 82 beds. Apart from this hospital, Khagaria has 1 Referral hospital, 6 PHCs, 15 Additional PHCs and 149 Health sub-centres.
Places of Importance:
As mentioned earlier, Khagaria does not have places of historical importance. Yet there are certain places which has traditionally held importance, mostly from religious point of view and they also find mention in the earlier Gazetteers.
Katyayani Asthan: 9; 9; Katyayani Asthan is situated at distance of approximately 12 kms. From the District headquaters, on the bank of river Koshi, between the stations Badlaghat and Dhamaraghat , which are stations on Mansi-Saharsa metergauge rail line. Temples of Ma Katyayani , as well as of Ram, Lakshman and Ma Janaki is situated at this place. Every Monday and Friday , large number of devotees come to this place for offering puja. As per the local folk traditions, Ma Katyayani is worshiped in two forms in this area. Some devotees worship Ma Katyayani as Sidh Peeth, while a large number of devotees worshiped as Lok Devi- Devi of Milk Cattles. That is why devotees offer raw milk to the deity.
It is said that Rishi Katyayan was performing Tapasya on the bank of river Kaushiki(now Koshi) when Ma Durga- the deity of Shakti took ‘avtar’ in child form and was accepted by Rishi as his daughter. Hence she is called Katyayani. Another story says that around 300 years ago, this place used to be dense forest. One day a devotee Shripat Maharaj saw Ma Katyayani in dream and as per her directions constructed an earthen Temple at that place and started worshiping her. In the year 1951, the temple was reconstructed. Lack of proper communication and the inaccessibility of the place by road has hampered the development of this area.
Shyamlal National High School:
This high school was established in 1910. Late Shri Shyamlal donated his entire property and formed a trust board under inspiration from Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. S.K. Sinha. The students and teacher of this school played a very important role in the freedom movement. The school used to be a meeting ground of the Krantikaris.
Ajgaibinath Mahadeo : This place though currently, in Sultanganj of Bhagalpur district, is very near to Aguanighat of Khagaria district and the temple of Lord Shiva on a hillock has traditionally been a centre of attraction for devotees. The importance of this place situated on the bank of river Ganga, stems from the fact, that Ganga flows northwards(Uttarayan) at this place and devotees after taking bath at this place, lift the Ganga water in ‘Kanwar’ for offering to Baba Baidyanath in Deoghar, covering a distance of around 105 Kms on foot. The 1960 Gazetteer describes this temple in Parbatta thana.
KHAGARIA AT A GLANCE
1. Geographical Status
a. Longitude - Khagaria District - 250 15" to 250 44"
b. Latitude - Khagaria District - 860 17.14 " to 860 52.5. "
c. Area -1485.8 Sq.K.m. or 147798.64 Hectare or 369037 Acre
Extended Length and Width of the District& North to South - 23 K.m
East to west - 48 K.m
District Establishment Year- 10.05.1981 as per vide letter no.-07/T-01-207/79 dated 30th April 1981