Consonance-the repetition of consonant sounds in a word
Example: He struck a streak of bad luck
Context Clues-when you encounter an unfamiliar word you often use context clues to figure out its meaning
Example: Nutritious foods, such as fruits and vegetables, help our bodies grow.
Denotation-the most specific or direct meaning of a word
Example: the definition
Diagram-a plan, drawing or sketch that shows how something works
Dialect-the language spoken in a certain place or by a certain group of people
Example: That’s where we women came in. Many o’ us went to work outside our homes for the very first time. Me older sister Maddy an’ I were already working for the GEC. (this excerpt has an Irish dialect)
Dialogue-a written conversation between two or more people
Dynamic Character-a character who goes through an important interchange
Excerpt-a passage or scene selected from a larger piece of work
Example: Sixty seconds. That's how long we're required to stand on our metal circles before the sound of a gong releases us. Step off before the minute is up, and land mines blow your legs off. –Excerpt From The Hunger Games
of special beauty or charm, or rare and appealing excellence, as a face, a flower, coloring, music, or poetry
Form-the way a poem looks on the page
Free Verse-poems that don’t rhyme in any regular way
Graph-a diagram that shows the relationship between things
Graphics-visual representations of words that make difficult information easier to understand
Heading-a title or caption of a page
Homonym-words that have the same spelling and sound but have different meanings
Example: mean and mean
Homophone-pairs of words that sound the same but have different meanings
Example: piece and peace
Example: I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
Illustration-a picture; (v) to explain or make clear by using an example
Imagery-language that creates pictures
Example: He fumed and charged like an angry bull.
Internal Conflict-conflict that occurs within a character
Example: Man vs. Man
Interview-a face to face meeting for a specified purpose
Example: “Hello Dr. Williams my name is Catherine and I would like to interview you on your work with exotic animals,” says Catherine. “Okay Catherine come and let’s sit over here so that we can talk,” said Dr. Williams.
Irony-the contrast between what is suppose to happen and what really does happen
Example: An ambulance driver rushes to the scene of an accident, only to run the victim over, because the victim crawled into the middle of the street in the darkness of night. What you would have thought would happen is that the ambulance would have gotten to the scene and helped the victim.
Italics-a style of type where the letters are slanted to the right
Example: The chicken was delightful!
Line Break-the place where a line ends
Literal Language-the opposite of figurative language; actually states what it means
Example: That is a HUGE monkey!
Main Character-the most important character or characters in a story
Example: Cassia is the main character in Matched.
Main Idea-most important idea in a paragraph
Example: Native people in early North America liked to play games. Their favorite games were played with a stick and a ball, like lacrosse. In lacrosse the rule is that you can't touch the ball with your hands. You catch the ball in a net on the end of a stick and use the stick to throw the ball. The main idea of this paragraph is that Native people in early North America liked to play games.
Map-a drawing or chart of a region of the Earth
Memoir-autobiographical; an important event in a person’s life
Example: The Time That I Went To Italy. That could be the title of a memoir.
Metaphor-a comparison between two unlike things that doesn’t include the word like or as
Example: Her home was a prison.
Meter-a more or less regular pattern of stressed or unstressed syllables
Example: Shall.I..|..com.PARE..|..thee.TO..|..a.SUM..|..mer’s DAY?
Minor Character-the characters that aren’t the most important in the story
Example: Cato and Clove are the minor characters in the Hunger Games.
Mood-the feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader
Example: When Katniss and Petta win the Hunger Games the writer wanted the reader to feel happy for them.
Narrative-writing that tells a story
Example: Cinderella, The Hunger Games, Matched, The Lighting Thief
Nonfiction-writing that tells about real peoples, places, and events
Example: Essays, journals, diaries, documentaries, histories, scientific papers, photographs, biographies, textbooks, travel books, blueprints, technical documentation, user manuals, diagrams and some journalism
N Butterfly, butterfly,
Why do you stay?
Please fly away!
Escape this place!
Fly, fly away!
...Before it's too late...
umbered Line-the lines that are pre-numbered in a poem
Onomatopoeia-using a word that sounds like what it means
Example: BOOM!, ZAP!, BANG!
Parenthesis-either or both of the upright curved lines
Example: ( )
Personification-a description of an object, an animal, or an idea as if it was human or had human qualities
Example: The tree waves at me as the wind blew.
Plot-a series of events in a story
Primary Source-the materials created by people who witnessed or took part in the event they supplied information about
Example: diary entries, book by the people who witnessed the event
Propaganda-a public message designed to sway political opinion
Example: Bias, logical appeal, emotional appeal, and ethical appeal
Protagonist-the main character in a story, play or novel
Example: Cassia is the protagonist in Matched
Refrain-a word or line that is repeated in a poem to create a certain effect
And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted nevermore.
Repetition-sounds, words, and phrases that are repeated for emphasize
Example: Humpty Dumpty
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the King's horses and all the King's men
couldn’t put Humpty together again
Resolution-the final outcome of the story
Rhyme-the repetition of accented vowel sounds
Example: "Way up North,
where there's ice and snow,
there lived a penguin
and his name was Joe."
Rhyme Scheme-a pattern of rhyme that repeats across different stanzas
Example: There once was a big brown cat a That liked to eat a lot of mice. b
He got all round and fat a Because they tasted so nice. b
Rising Action-the stage of plot that develops the conflict
Sarcasm-mocking comment intended to hurt someone’s feelings
Example: “You aren’t the brightest crayon in the box,” Maria said.
Secondary Source-materials made by people who were not directly involved in the event or even present when it occurred
Example: Encyclopedias, textbooks, biographies, and most news articles are secondary sources
Sequence-a following of one thing after another
Example: First, hit turned on the oven. Next, he got out the ingredients. Then, he mixed the ingredients together. Fourth, he put the batter in the pan and put the pan in the oven. Finally, his cake was done so he took it out of the oven, iced it and then served it to all of his guest.
Simile-a comparison between to unlike things that include the word like or as
Example: Her face was as red as a cherry.
Sound Devices-ways of using words for the sound qualities they create
Example: Alliteration, assonance, meter, onomatopoeia, repetition, rhyme and rhythm.
Spatial Order-a way of organizing text based on how objects are located in space
Example: The plate was place in the center of the place setting. Then the napkin was place to the right of the plate.
Speaker-the narrator in a poem
Example: In the poem Children of the Wind the narrator is an unnamed person.
S school just school
School we need it
school you have teachers
school is great
high school is even better
school, math, science, computer classes
school is great love it
school just school
we need school tanza-groups of lines in a poem
Example: Yellow-Stanza 1
Static Character-a character in literary works that remains unchanged throughout the story
Example: In Cinderella the evil stepmother is the static character
Stereotype-people who are defined by a single trait
Example: Girls with blonde hair aren’t very smart.
Style-a writer’s unique way of communicating ideas
Example: Short lines; spaced stanza
Subheading-the heading or title of a subdivision of a printed subject
Subtitles-a secondary and usually explanatory title, as of literary work
Summary- a brief statement or account of the main points of the story
Example: Summary of The Hunger Games- In a dystopian future, the totalitarian nation of Panem is divided between 12 districts and the Capitol. Each year two young representatives from each district are selected by lottery to participate in The Hunger Games. Part entertainment, part brutal retribution for a past rebellion, the televised games are broadcast throughout Panem. The 24 participants are forced to eliminate their competitors while the citizens of Panem are required to watch. When 16-year-old Katniss's young sister, Prim, is selected as District 12's female representative, Katniss volunteers to take her place. She and her male counterpart Peeta, are pitted against bigger, stronger representatives who have trained for this their whole lives.
Supporting Detail-words, phrases, or sentences that tell more about the main idea
Example: The supporting details are italicized and bold-There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.
Symbol-something used for or regarded as representing something else
Example: At the time, it was a symbol of continuity and greatness.
Table- an arrangement of words, numbers, or signs, or combinations of them, as in parallel columns, to exhibit a set of facts or relations in a definite, compact, and comprehensive form
Testimonial- a recommendation of the character, ability, etc, of a person or of the quality of a consumer product or service, etc. by a person whose opinion is valued
Example: That's a message you can't convey any other way than by actually doing a testimonial and presenting it to them.
Theme-a message about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader
Example: The theme of Cinderella is when a person lives a life of goodness; he will be rewarded with good events
Timeline- a linear representation of important events in the order in which they occurred
Tone-expresses the writer’s attitude toward his or her subject
Example: The tone of Betsy Byars’s memoir “The First Skateboard in the History of the Word” is humorous
Topic-the subject of a conversation or discussion
Example: The topic of our conversation was art.