Amaya Sawyers abc eog booklet a alliteration


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Amaya Sawyers





Alliteration-the repetition of the initial consonant sound in words that are close together

Example: The rain makes still pools on the sidewalk

Antagonist-a force working against the main character in a novel, story or play

Example: Dracula or The Wicked Witch of the West

Assonance-the repetition of vowel sounds in words

Example: I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless

Author’s Purpose-the ideas, values, feelings and beliefs that influence the way a writer looks at a topic

Example: to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to explain, and to describe

Autobiography-describes the subjects thoughts, feelings and opinions about his or her life

Example: Alex William’s Life By: Alex William


Bandwagon-taps into people’s desire to be in a group

Example: saying like “try it everyone is doing it”

Bias-something that you favor more than the other

Example: “I like this more than that because that one is prettier

Biography-(writer is NOT the subject), third person point of view (he, they, them), based on many sources of information

Example: Abraham Lincoln’s Life By: Amaya Sawyers


Captions-a short explanation accompanying an illustration


This is a Beautiful Picture of green Grapes


Cause and Effect-a way of organizing an entire piece of writing, helps readers show the relationship between events or ideas

Example: Cause-Bob locked himself out

Effect-He had to climb through the window

Chronological Order-shows the occurrence of events moving forward in time

Example: At 9:00am she woke-up. At 9:30am she was eating breakfast. Then at 10:30am she was on her way to work.

Climax-the point of greatest interest in a story or play


Connotation-ideas or feelings associated with a word

Example: Ugly-negotiate connotation Pretty- positive connotation

Consonance-the repetition of consonant sounds in a word

Example: He struck a streak of bad luck

Context Clues-when you encounter an unfamiliar word you often use context clues to figure out its meaning

Example: Nutritious foods, such as fruits and vegetables, help our bodies grow.


Denotation-the most specific or direct meaning of a word

Example: the definition

Diagram-a plan, drawing or sketch that shows how something works


Dialect-the language spoken in a certain place or by a certain group of people

Example: That’s where we women came in. Many o’ us went to work outside our homes for the very first time. Me older sister Maddy an’ I were already working for the GEC. (this excerpt has an Irish dialect)

Dialogue-a written conversation between two or more people

Example: “Good Morning,” says Bobby. “Hi Bobby,” says Maria.

Dynamic Character-a character who goes through an important interchange

Example: Scrooge


Excerpt-a passage or scene selected from a larger piece of work

Example: Sixty seconds. That's how long we're required to stand on our metal circles before the sound of a gong releases us. Step off before the minute is up, and land mines blow your legs off. –Excerpt From The Hunger Games

Exposition-the first stage of plot in a typical story


External Conflict-involves a character who struggles against a force outside of him or herself

Example: Man vs. Society, Man vs. Nature, Man vs. Man

Eye Witness Account-a report of an event from someone who saw the event take place

Example: diary entry


Fact vs. Opinion-fact: a statement that can be proved, opinion: a statement that can’t be proved

Example: fact-there are 7 continents, opinion-cheeseburgers are good

Falling Action-the stage of plot where the story begins to draw to a close


Fiction-writing that tells an imaginary story

Example: Cinderella, Snow White

Figurative Language-the use of imaginative comparisons to help you see the world in new ways

Example: simile, personification, metaphor, hyperbole

Figure-diagram (text feature in nonfiction)


Flow Chart-boxes that sequence events


Folktale/Legend-a story that has been passed down from generation to generation by word of mouth

Example: The origin of Fire, The Hare and the Turtle

a reference, explanation or comment placed below the main text on a printed page


Example: Many are small and exquisite, made to be held in the hand and admired at leisure.

of special beauty or charm, or rare and appealing excellence, as a face, a flower, coloring, music, or poetry

Form-the way a poem looks on the page


Free Verse-poems that don’t rhyme in any regular way



Graph-a diagram that shows the relationship between things


Graphics-visual representations of words that make difficult information easier to understand



Heading-a title or caption of a page


Homonym-words that have the same spelling and sound but have different meanings

Example: mean and mean

Homophone-pairs of words that sound the same but have different meanings

Example: piece and peace


Example: I am so hungry I could eat a horse.


Illustration-a picture; (v) to explain or make clear by using an example


Imagery-language that creates pictures

Example: He fumed and charged like an angry bull.

Internal Conflict-conflict that occurs within a character

Example: Man vs. Man

Interview-a face to face meeting for a specified purpose

Example: “Hello Dr. Williams my name is Catherine and I would like to interview you on your work with exotic animals,” says Catherine. “Okay Catherine come and let’s sit over here so that we can talk,” said Dr. Williams.

Irony-the contrast between what is suppose to happen and what really does happen

Example: An ambulance driver rushes to the scene of an accident, only to run the victim over, because the victim crawled into the middle of the street in the darkness of night. What you would have thought would happen is that the ambulance would have gotten to the scene and helped the victim.

Italics-a style of type where the letters are slanted to the right

Example: The chicken was delightful!


Line Break-the place where a line ends


Literal Language-the opposite of figurative language; actually states what it means

Example: That is a HUGE monkey!


Main Character-the most important character or characters in a story

Example: Cassia is the main character in Matched.

Main Idea-most important idea in a paragraph

Example: Native people in early North America liked to play games. Their favorite games were played with a stick and a ball, like lacrosse. In lacrosse the rule is that you can't touch the ball with your hands. You catch the ball in a net on the end of a stick and use the stick to throw the ball. The main idea of this paragraph is that Native people in early North America liked to play games.

Map-a drawing or chart of a region of the Earth


Memoir-autobiographical; an important event in a person’s life

Example: The Time That I Went To Italy. That could be the title of a memoir.

Metaphor-a comparison between two unlike things that doesn’t include the word like or as

Example: Her home was a prison.

Meter-a more or less regular pattern of stressed or unstressed syllables

Example: Shall.I..||..thee.TO..|..a.SUM..|..mer’s DAY?

Minor Character-the characters that aren’t the most important in the story

Example: Cato and Clove are the minor characters in the Hunger Games.

Mood-the feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader

Example: When Katniss and Petta win the Hunger Games the writer wanted the reader to feel happy for them.


Narrative-writing that tells a story

Example: Cinderella, The Hunger Games, Matched, The Lighting Thief

Nonfiction-writing that tells about real peoples, places, and events

Example: Essays, journals, diaries, documentaries, histories, scientific papers, photographs, biographies, textbooks, travel books, blueprints, technical documentation, user manuals, diagrams and some journalism

Butterfly, butterfly,
Why do you stay?
Butterfly, butterfly,
Please fly away!
Butterfly, butterfly,
Escape this place!
Butterfly, butterfly,
Fly, fly away!
...Butterfly, butterfly...
...Before it's too late...
umbered Line-
the lines that are pre-numbered in a poem





Onomatopoeia-using a word that sounds like what it means

Example: BOOM!, ZAP!, BANG!


Parenthesis-either or both of the upright curved lines

Example: ( )

Personification-a description of an object, an animal, or an idea as if it was human or had human qualities

Example: The tree waves at me as the wind blew.

Plot-a series of events in a story


Plot Mountain

Primary Source-the materials created by people who witnessed or took part in the event they supplied information about

Example: diary entries, book by the people who witnessed the event

Propaganda-a public message designed to sway political opinion

Example: Bias, logical appeal, emotional appeal, and ethical appeal

Protagonist-the main character in a story, play or novel

Example: Cassia is the protagonist in Matched


Refrain-a word or line that is repeated in a poem to create a certain effect

The Raven
Edgar Allan Poe

And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting

On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor
Shall be lifted nevermore.

Repetition-sounds, words, and phrases that are repeated for emphasize

Example: Humpty Dumpty

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the King's horses and all the King's men
couldn’t put Humpty together again

Resolution-the final outcome of the story


Rhyme-the repetition of accented vowel sounds

Example: "Way up North,

where there's ice and snow,

there lived a penguin
and his name was Joe."

Rhyme Scheme-a pattern of rhyme that repeats across different stanzas

Example: There once was a big brown cat a
That liked to eat a lot of mice. b
He got all round and fat a

Because they tasted so nice. b

Rising Action-the stage of plot that develops the conflict



Sarcasm-mocking comment intended to hurt someone’s feelings

Example: “You aren’t the brightest crayon in the box,” Maria said.

Secondary Source-materials made by people who were not directly involved in the event or even present when it occurred

Example: Encyclopedias, textbooks, biographies, and most news articles are secondary sources

Sequence-a following of one thing after another

Example: First, hit turned on the oven. Next, he got out the ingredients. Then, he mixed the ingredients together. Fourth, he put the batter in the pan and put the pan in the oven. Finally, his cake was done so he took it out of the oven, iced it and then served it to all of his guest.

Simile-a comparison between to unlike things that include the word like or as

Example: Her face was as red as a cherry.

Sound Devices-ways of using words for the sound qualities they create

Example: Alliteration, assonance, meter, onomatopoeia, repetition, rhyme and rhythm.

Spatial Order-a way of organizing text based on how objects are located in space

Example: The plate was place in the center of the place setting. Then the napkin was place to the right of the plate.

Speaker-the narrator in a poem

Example: In the poem Children of the Wind the narrator is an unnamed person.

school just school

School we need it
school, friends
school you have teachers
school is great
high school is even better
college, PARITES

school you might find your true love
new experiences everyday
school, dances
school just school
school who does not love it
school is fun

school, preps
school, classes
school, math, science, computer classes
school is great love it
school just school
we need school

groups of lines in a poem

Example: Yellow-Stanza 1

Pink-Stanza 2

Blue-Stanza 3

Static Character-a character in literary works that remains unchanged throughout the story

Example: In Cinderella the evil stepmother is the static character

Stereotype-people who are defined by a single trait

Example: Girls with blonde hair aren’t very smart.

Style-a writer’s unique way of communicating ideas

Example: Short lines; spaced stanza

Subheading-the heading or title of a subdivision of a printed subject


Subtitles-a secondary and usually explanatory title, as of literary work


Summary- a brief statement or account of the main points of the story

Example: Summary of The Hunger Games- In a dystopian future, the totalitarian nation of Panem is divided between 12 districts and the Capitol. Each year two young representatives from each district are selected by lottery to participate in The Hunger Games. Part entertainment, part brutal retribution for a past rebellion, the televised games are broadcast throughout Panem. The 24 participants are forced to eliminate their competitors while the citizens of Panem are required to watch. When 16-year-old Katniss's young sister, Prim, is selected as District 12's female representative, Katniss volunteers to take her place. She and her male counterpart Peeta, are pitted against bigger, stronger representatives who have trained for this their whole lives.

Supporting Detail-words, phrases, or sentences that tell more about the main idea

Example: The supporting details are italicized and bold-There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Symbol-something used for or regarded as representing something else

Example: At the time, it was a symbol of continuity and greatness.


Table- an arrangement of words, numbers, or signs, or combinations of them, as in parallel columns, to exhibit a set of facts or relations in a definite, compact, and comprehensive form


Testimonial- a recommendation of the character, ability, etc, of a person or of the quality of a consumer product or service, etc. by a person whose opinion is valued

Example: That's a message you can't convey any other way than by actually doing a testimonial and presenting it to them.

Theme-a message about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader

Example: The theme of Cinderella is when a person lives a life of goodness; he will be rewarded with good events

Timeline- a linear representation of important events in the order in which they occurred


Tone-expresses the writer’s attitude toward his or her subject

Example: The tone of Betsy Byars’s memoir “The First Skateboard in the History of the Word” is humorous

Topic-the subject of a conversation or discussion

Example: The topic of our conversation was art.


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