Amst 554/history 554 readings in chicano/latino history

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AMST 554/HISTORY 554

READINGS IN CHICANO/LATINO HISTORY

Professor George J. Sanchez Fall 2009

Office: SOS B15E Room: WPH 104

Email: georges@usc.edu Time: Wednesdays, 2-5 pm

Phone: (213) 740-2426 Office hours: W, 10-12 & by app’t

This course is intended to survey some of the best and most recent works in the field of Chicano/ Latino history, paying particular attention to various approaches, topics, or genres in the field. We will explore the contributions made by scholars writing at the "cutting edge" of Chicano/Latino history in order to analyze the methods they have employed and the theoretical underpinnings of their work. It is impossible to be exhaustive in one semester, although this course should serve to point students in the direction of further reading and study. Students are encouraged to consult with me to further their own particular interests.



Course Objectives


After completing this course, each student will be able to:

  • Understand a wide range of the most recent literature in Chicano/Latino history and place new works in the wider frameworks of the field

  • Begin the process of preparing for a field examination in Chicano/Latino history having read a substantial amount of new literature and acquired lists and reviews of other works to be read later

  • Place recent work in Chicano/Latino history in dialogue with works in other relevant fields, such as immigration history, history of the American West, Chicano/Latino Studies, and general U.S. history
  • Extensively explore and understand one particular aspect of Chicano/Latino history through the historiographical essay


  • Discuss possible future directions in the field of Chicano/Latino history and place their own possible research topic in the wider context of the field

Seminar requirements: (1) You are expected to attend all class sessions and be prepared to participate in the discussions. Each student will also be required to lead one week's discussion. You need to submit your discussion questions to the class as a whole on Blackboard’s discussion page at least 24 hours before our session. Attendance, participation, and leading discussion will make up 20% of your grade; (2) Two 2-3 page book reviews of one of the books from the supplementary lists for Weeks 2 thru 7, and one from Weeks 8 thru 13. Good models for this assignment are the book reviews in the Journal of American History, Latino Studies, or Aztlán; 20% of your grade; (3) A historiography paper on a topic you and I have chosen together. A one-page précis of your paper is due in class on September 23rd, a bibliography on October 21st, five pages from the paper on November 18th, and the final paper on December 9th. The paper should be about 15 to 20 pages in length; 60% of your final grade.


For further guidelines and instructions on these requirements, see “Leading Discussion in AMST/HIST 554,” “How to write a Seminar Book Review,” and “Writing a Historiographical Essay,” pages 16-18 below.

Each week's discussion centers around a required book and two or three articles (with the exception of one week where we will be discussing two books). All required books for this course are available for purchase at the USC Bookstore. All required articles are available electronically on-line in Blackboard. Texts from the supplemental reading lists have not been ordered, so students should purchase them from area bookstores or obtain them from the library or through inter-library loan. Particular attention should be given to dissertations, since invariably they are unavailable here and need to be purchased from UMI or obtained through inter-library loan well in advance.

Two guides might help your thinking through the course. Rodolfo Acuña's Occupied America is a good introductory textbook that you can use to follow the course in chronological fashion. It has had six editions (the latest in 2006 by Longman), and is particularly good at putting Chicano historical events and personalities in a larger context. A very different sort of guide is the Dictionary of Mexican American History, eds. Matt Meier & Feliciano Rivera (Greenwood Press, 1981). It contains descriptive accounts of people, places and events in Chicano history that can help you explore some unknown or confusing fact of information. For Latino history more broadly, see Ilan Stavans, Encyclopedia Latina: History, Culture, and Society in the United States (Grollier, 2005) or Suzanne Oboler and Deena Gonzalez, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States (Oxford Univ. Press, 2005)
STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES:

Any student requesting academic accommodations based on a disability is required to register with the Disability Services and Programs (DSP) each semester. A letter of verification for approved accommodations can be obtained from DSP. Please be sure the letter is delivered to me as early in the semester as possible. DSP is located in STU 301 and can be contacted at (213) 740-0776.



August 26: Thinking About Latino History & Historiography

*Introductions

*Review of syllabus

*Bibliographic aids

*Discussion of historiographic essays

*Come prepared to discuss major themes, issues, and problems in Latino history as discussed in the assigned articles.

Required Reading

George J. Sanchez, “Back to the Future: Latino History As A Predictor of the Future of U.S. Society,” Latinos: Past Influence, Future Power (Los Angeles: Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, 2004)

Pablo Mitchell, “Playing the Pivot: Teaching Latina/o History in Good Times and Bad” and “Syllabus,” Journal of American History 93:4 (March 2007).

Vicki L. Ruiz, “Nuestra America: Latino History as United States History,” Journal of American History 93:3 (December 2006), pp. 655-672.

Frances R. Aparicio, “(Re)constructing Latinidad: The Challenge of Latina/o Studies,” in A Companion to Latina/o Studies, eds. Juan Flores and Renato Rosaldo (Blackwell Publishing, 2007), pp. 39-48.

Virginia Scharff, “What’s Love Got to Do with It?: A New Turner Thesis,” Western Historical Quarterly 40:1 (Spring 2009), pp. 5-21.




Recommended Reading


Juan Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America (Viking, 2000)

Earl Shorris, Latinos: A Biography of the People (W.W. Norton, 1992)

Manuel G. Gonzalez, Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States (Indiana Univ. Press, 1999)

Gilbert Gonzalez and Raul Fernandez, A Century of Chicano History: Empire, Nations, and Migration (Routledge, 2003)

Oscar J. Martinez, Mexican-origin People in the United States: A Topical History (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2001)

Arnoldo DeLeon and Richard Griswold del Castillo, North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States, 2nd ed. (Harlan Davidson, 2006)

Juan Flores and Renato Rosaldo, eds., A Companion to Latina/o Studies (Blackwell Publishing, 2007)

Adrian Burgos, Jr., “Teaching Migration, Race, and Place: A U.S. Latino Historians’s Perspective,” Journal of American Ethnic History 28:2 (Winter 2009), p. 65.


September 2: Nations, Identities, and the Foundations of Chicano Society

This session will address the question of where “Chicano history” actually begins by exploring the world of nineteenth century Texas borderlands, and the resulting changes in national and ethnic identities by the peoples that lived in the region. The larger question of conquest as a starting point for Chicano history will be addressed, and comparisons will be made to other starting points in other areas that would become the American Southwest.

Required Reading

Raul A. Ramos, Beyond the Alamo: Forging Mexican Ethnicity in San Antonio, 1821-1861 (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2008)

Omar Valerio-Jimenez, “Neglected Citizens and Willing Traders: The Villas del Norte (Tamaulipas) in Mexico’s Northern Borderlands, 1749-1846,” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 18:2 (Summer 2002).

Jesus F. De La Teja, “Why Urbano and Maria Trinidad Can’t Get Married: Social Relations in Late Colonial San Antonio,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly CXII: 2 (October 2008), pp. 120-146.

Ramon A. Gutierrez, “Hispanic Identities in the Southwestern United States” in Race and Classification: The Case of Mexican America, eds. Ilona Katzew and Susan Dean-Smith (Stanford Univ. Press, 2009), pp. 174-193.

Supplemental Reading

Ramón Gutiérrez, When Jesus Came, The Corn Mother Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (Stanford University Press, 1991).

David Montejano, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1987).

Andres Resendez, Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New Mexico, 1800-1850 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004)

Arnoldo de León, They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821-1900 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1983).

Gerald E. Poyo and Gilberto M. Hinojosa, eds., Tejano Origins in Eighteenth-Century San Antonio (Univ. of Texas Press, 1991).

Daniel Arreola, Tejano South Texas: A Mexican American Cultural Province (Univ. of Texas Press, 2002)

Ricardo Griswold del Castillo, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of Conflict (Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1990).

Gerald Poyo, "With All and for the Good of All": The Emergence of Popular Nationalism in the Cuban Communities of the United States, 1848-1898 (Duke Univ. Press, 1989).



September 9: Conquest, Gender and Class in California


This week we look specifically at the issue of class difference in the emerging Mexican/ American community, specifically between mestizo, Spanish and Indio women negotiating issues of conquest in nineteenth century California. A key consideration is how class differences were shaped during conquest, how they are connected to issues of indigeneity, and how they might remain as central into contemporary society.
Required Reading

Miroslava Chavez-Garcia, Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s-1880s (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2004)

Louise Pubols, “Fathers of the Pueblo: Patriarchy and Power in Mexican California, 1800-1880,” in Continental Crossroads: Remapping U.S.-Mexico Borderlands History, eds. Samuel Truett and Elliott Young (Duke Univ. Press, 2004), pp. 67-93.

Barbara O. Reyes, “Race, Agency and Memory in a Baja California Mission,” in Continental Crossroads: Remapping U.S.-Mexico Borderlands History, eds. Samuel Truett and Elliott Young (Duke Univ. Press, 2004), pp. 159-185.

Nicole M. Guidotti-Hernandez, “Gender, epistemology and cooking: Rethinking Encarnacion Pinedo’s El cocinero espanol,” Women’s Studies International Forum 31 (2008), pp. 449-456.

Supplemental Reading

Douglas Monroy, Thrown Among Strangers: The Making of Mexican Culture in Frontier California (Univ. of California Press, 1991).

Antonia I. Castañeda, "Presidarias y Pobladoras: Spanish-Mexican Women in Frontier Monterey, Alta California, 1770-1821," (Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1990).

Lisbeth Haas, Conquests and Historical Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Univ. of California Press, 1995)

Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios (Univ. of California Press, 1998)

Richard Griswold del Castillo, The Los Angeles Barrio, 1850-1890: A Social History (Univ. of California, 1980)

Michael J. Gonzalez, “This Small City Will Be a Mexican Paradise”: Exploring the Origins of Mexican Culture in Los Angeles, 1821-1846 (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2005)

Barbara O. Reyes, Private Women/Public Lives: Gender and the Missions of the Californias (Univ. of Texas Press, 2008)

Maria Raquel Casas, Married to a Daughter of the Land: Spanish-Mexican Women and Interethnic Marriage in California, 1820-1880 (Univ. of Nevada Press, 2007)

Louise Pubols, The Father of All: The de la Guerra Family, Power, and Patriarchy in Mexican California (Huntington Library Press, 2009)


September 16: Race, Conquest and Identity in New Mexico

From an excursion into another state, we will consider the issue of race and its construction in the multiracial society of northern New Mexico of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Framing their own identity in relation to fighting for land, water rights, and cultural recognition, often against the Pueblo people of the region and incoming Anglos, we will explore the curious history which helped frame the identity of “Spanish Americans” in New Mexico, and what we can learn in comparison to other regions of the Southwest.


Required Reading

Laura Gomez, Manifest Destinies: The Making of the Mexican American Race (NYU Press, 2008)

John Nieto-Phillips, “When Tourists Came, the Mestizos Went Away: Hispanophilia and the Racial Whitening of New Mexico, 1880s-1940s” in Interpreting Spanish Colonialism: Empires, Nations, and Legends, eds. Christopher Schmidt-Nowara and John M. Nieto-Phillips (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2005), pp. 187-212..

Phillip B. Gonzalez, “’History Hits the Heart’: Albuquerque’s Great Cuartocentenario Controversy, 1997-2005,” in Expressing New Mexico: Nuevomexicano Creativity, Ritual, and Memory, ed. Phillip B. Gonzalez (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2007), pp. 207-232.

Charles Montgomery, “Becoming ‘Spanish American’: Race and Rhetoric in New Mexico Politics, 1880-1928,” Journal of American Ethnic History 20:4 (Summer 2001), pp. 59-84.

Supplemental Reading

John Nieto-Phillips, The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s-1930s (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2004)

Neil F. Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Univ. of California Press, 1997)

Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz, Roots of Resistance: Land Tenure in New Mexico, 1680-1980 (UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center, 1980).

Suzanne Forest, The Preservation of the Village: New Mexico's Hispanics and the New Deal (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1989).

Thomas E. Sheridan, Los Tucsonenses: The Mexican Community in Tucson, 1854-1941 (Univ. of Arizona Press, 1986).

Mario T. García, Desert Immigrants: The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880-1920 (Yale Univ. Press, 1981)

Julie K. Blackwelder, Women in the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio: 1929-1939 (Texas A & M Press, 1984).

Richard A. García, Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941 (Texas A&M Univ. Press, 1991)

Samuel Truett, Fugitive Landscapes: The Forgotten History of the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands (Yale Univ. Press, 2006)

Phillip B. Gonzalez, ed., Expressing New Mexico: Nuevomexicano Creativity, Ritual, and Memory, (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2007)

Maria Montoya, Translating Property: The Maxwell Land Grant and the Conflict Over Land in the American West, 1840-1900 (Univ. Press of Kansas, 2005)

Ilona Katzew and Susan Dean-Smith, eds., Race and Classification: The Case of Mexican America (Stanford Univ. Press, 2009)


September 23: Sexuality, Race and Modernity at the Turn of the Century

We continue the discussion of New Mexico to look at the complicated relationship between gender relations, sexuality, and modernity at the turn of the twentieth century. Modernity continues to loom large in discussions over nationalism, gender and race in the early twentieth century, particularly as it operates in evaluating the increased border crossings and the future of racial identification among Mexican-origin people.


Required Reading

Pablo Mitchell, Coyote Nation: Sexuality, Race, and Conquest in Modernizing New Mexico, 1880-1920 (Chicago, 2005)

Alexandra Minna Stern, “Nationalism on the Line: Masculinity, Race, and the Creation of the U.S. Border Patrol, 1910-1940” in Continental Crossroads: Remapping U.S.-Mexico Borderlands History, eds. Samuel Truett and Elliott Young (Duke Univ. Press, 2004), pp. 299-323.

Vicki Ruiz, “Coloring Class: Racial Constructions in Twentieth-Century Chicana/o Historiography,” in A Companion to Latina/o Studies, eds. Juan Flores and Renato Rosaldo (Blackwell Publishing, 2007), pp. 169-179.

Julie M. Weise, “Mexican Nationalisms, Southern Racisms: Mexicans and Mexican Americans in the U.S. South, 1908-1939,” American Quarterly 60:3 (September 2008), pp. 749-778.

Supplemental Reading

Deena J. Gonzalez, Refusing the Favor: The Spanish-Mexican Women of Santa Fe, 1820-1880 (Oxford Univ. Press, 1999)

Sarah Deutsch, No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on an Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940 (Oxford Univ. Press, 1987).

Vicki Ruiz, From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998)

Patricia Preciado Martin, Songs My Mother Sang to Me: An Oral History of Mexican-American Women (Univ. of Arizona Press, 1992).

Emma Pérez, The Decolonial Imaginary: Writing Chicanas into History (Indiana Univ. Press, 1999)

Elizabeth Salas, Soldaderas in the Mexican Military: Myth and History (Univ. of Texas Press, 1990).

Alexandra Minna Stern, Eugenic Nation: Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America (Univ. of California Press, 2005)

Cynthia E. Orozco, “The Origins of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement in Texas with an Analysis of Women’s Political Participation in a Gendered Context, 1919-1927” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1992)

Ken Gonzales-Day, Lynching in the West, 1850-1935 (Duke Univ. Press, 2006)


September 30: Masculinity, Migration and Modernity

Migration from Mexico in the early twentieth century begins to reshape communities throughout the United States in such a way that new identities and relationships are formed. While the U.S. begins to clamp down on border crossings, Mexico itself transforms the identity through revolution and movement to the north. This week we will explore new scholarship on the issues that migration presents in the unfolding of history, including in new areas outside the Southwest.


Required Reading

Gabriela F. Arredondo, Mexican Chicago: Race, Identity and Nation, 1916-1939 (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2008)

Kelly Lytle Hernandez, “’Persecuted Like Criminals’: The Politics of Labor Emigration and Mexican Migration Controls in the 1920s and 1930s,” Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies 34:1 (Spring 2009), pp. 219-239.

Deborah Cohen, “From Peasant to Worker: Migration, Masculinity, and the Making of Mexican Workers in the U.S.,” International Labor and Working-Class History 69 (2006), pp. 81-103.

Vicki L. Ruiz, “Confronting ‘America’: Mexican Women and the Rose Gregory Houchen Settlement,” in American Dreaming, Global Realities: Rethinking U.S. Immigration History, eds. Donna R. Gabaccia and Vicki L. Ruiz (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 343-360.

Supplemental Reading

Rodolfo A. Acuna, Corridors of Migration: The Odyssey of Mexican Laborers, 1600-1933 (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2007)

Stephen J. Pitti, The Devil in the Silicon Valley: Northern California, Race, and Mexican Americans (Princeton, 2003)

Robert R. Trevino, The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2006)

Dennis Nodín Valdés, Al Norte: Agricultural Workers in the Great Lakes Region, 1917-1970 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1990).

Camille Guerín-Gonzales, Mexican Workers and the American Dreams: Immigration, Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939 (Rutgers Univ. Press, 1994)

Zaragoza Vargas, Proletarians of the North: A History of the Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933 (Univ. of California Press, 1993).

October 7: Contesting Space and the Politics of Memory in the City of Angels

This week we turn to the issues of space, memory and the built environment by exploring the history of the central plaza in downtown Los Angeles. Public historians have led the way in unearthing the way that memory is embedded in urban space through the uses of tourism and culture-making. We will explore how this interdisciplinary area of architecture, tourism, identity and public history impacts our knowledge of Chicano/Latino history and the ways it reaches and does not reach a wider public.


Required Reading

William David Estrada, The Los Angeles Plaza: Sacred and Contested Space (Univ. of Texas Press, 2008)

Roberto Lint-Sagarena, “Building California’s Past: Mission Revival Architecture and Regional Identity,” Journal of Urban History 28:4 (2002), pp. 429-44.

Phoebe S. Kropp, “Citizens of the Past?: Olvera Street and the Construction of Race and Memory in 1930s Los Angeles,” Radical History Review 81 (Fall 2001), pp. 35-60.

Dolores Hayden, “The Power of Place: A Proposal for Los Angeles,” The Public Historian 10:3 (Summer 1988), pp. 5-18.

Supplemental Reading

William Deverell, Whitewashed Adobe: The Rise of Los Angeles and the Remaking of its Mexican Past (Univ. of California Press, 2004).

Phoebe S. Kropp, California Vieja: Culture and Memory in a Modern American Place (Univ. of California Press, 2006)

Albert Camarillo, Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (Harvard Univ. Press, 1979)

Carey McWilliams, Southern California Country: An Island on the Land (Gibbs Smith, 1946, 1973)

Dolores Hayden, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History (The MIT Press, 1995)

Richard R. Flores, Remembering the Alamo: Memory, Modernity, and the Master Symbol (Univ. of Texas Press, 2002)

Chris Wilson, The Myth of Santa Fe: Creating a Modern Regional Tradition (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1997)


October 14: Multiracial History and the Formation of Chicanos

The growing role of writing history of Chicanos in their formation in multiracial settings will be the focus this week, particularly the way that identities among Chicanos in Los Angeles have been constructed. We will explore the relationships of Mexican Americans to other specific groups, especially Asian and Black immigrants to the West, as well as ideologies at work to racialize across specific ethnic backgrounds.


Required Reading

Natalia Molina, Fit To Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1939 (Univ. of California Press, 2006)

Robert Chao Romero, “’El destierro de los Chinos’: Popular Perspectives on Chinese-Mexican Intermarriage in the Early Twentieth Century,” Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies 32:1 (Spring 2007), pp. 113-144.

Dara Orenstein, “Void for Vagueness: Mexicans and the Collapse of Miscegenation Law in California,” Pacific Historical Review 74:3 (August 2005), pp. 367-407.

Neil Foley, “Partly Colored or Other White: Mexican Americans and Their Problem with the Color Line,” in American Dreaming, Global Realities: Rethinking U.S. Immigration History, eds. Donna R. Gabaccia and Vicki L. Ruiz (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 361-378.

Supplemental Reading

Ricardo Romo, East Los Angeles: A History of a Barrio (Univ. of Texas Press, 1983).

George J. Sánchez, Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (Oxford Univ. Press, 1993).

Francisco E. Balderrama, In Defense of La Raza: The Los Angeles Mexican Consulate, 1929 to 1936 (Univ. of Arizona Press, 1982).

Douglas Monroy, Rebirth: Mexican Los Angeles from the Great Migration to the Great Depression (Univ. of California Press, 1999)

Peggy Pascoe, What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America (Oxford Univ. Press, 2009)


October 21: Race, Sports, and Transnational Crossings

The color line operating in the United States, and Latinos relationship to it, is the topic of this week’s class. We look at the participation of Latinos in the institution of baseball over time, and the unique role they played in the major leagues, the Negro leagues, and in winter baseball in the Caribbean. The racial formation of Latinos and their relationship to African Americans is a key concept to discuss this week, as well as the various racial paradigms across the multiple regions of the United States. Moreover, racial difference within the Latino community will be discussed. What race are Latinos?


Required Reading

Adrian Burgos, Jr., Playing America’s Game: Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line (Univ. of California Press, 2007).

Juan Flores, “Island and Enclaves: Caribbean Latinos in Historical Perspective,” in Latinos: Remaking America, eds. Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco and Mariela M. Paez (Univ. of California Press, 2002), pp. 59-74.

Sam Erman, “Meanings of Citizenship in the U.S. Empire: Puerto Rico, Isabel Gonzalez, and the Supreme Court, 1898 to 1905,” Journal of American Ethnic History 27:4 (Summer 2008), pp. 5-33.

Jesse Hoffnung-Garskof, “The Migrations of Arturo Schomburg: On Being Antillano, Negro, and Puerto Rican in New York, 1891-1938,” Journal of American Ethnic History 21:1 (Fall 2001), pp. 3-49.

Supplemental Reading

Jorge Iber and Samuel O. Regalado, Mexican Americans and Sports: A Reader on Athletics and Barrio Life (Texas A&M Univ. Press, 2007).

Virginia Sánchez-Korrol, From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City (Univ. of California Press, 1994/1983).

Adalberto López and James Petras, eds., Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans: Studies in History and Society (John Wiley & Sons, 1974).

History Task Force, Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños, Labor Migration Under Capitalism: The Puerto Rican Experience (Monthly Review Press, 1979).

Edna Acosta-Belen, ed., The Puerto Rican Woman: Perspectives on Culture, History, and Society, 2nd ed. (Praeger, 1986).

Juan Flores, Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican Identity (Arte Público Press, 1993).

Ruth Glasser, My Music is My Flag: Puerto Rican Musicians and Their New York Communities, 1917-1940 (Univ. of California Press, 1995)

Gary R. Mormino and George Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City: Italians and their Latino Neighbors in Tampa, 1885-1985 (Univ. of Illinois Press, 1987).

Maria Cristina Garcia, Havana USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959-1994 (Univ. of California Press, 1996)

Carmen Theresa Whalen, From Puerto Rico to Philadelphia: Puerto Rican Workers and Postwar Economies (Temple Univ. Press, 2001)


October 28: Youth, Gender and the Power of the Zoot Suit

We begin by continuing our focus on Los Angeles this week, but expand out by using youth culture among Mexican Americans and discuss it across other urban arenas in the World War II era. These two books are representative of the flurry of recent work on the Zoot Suit era, and we will specifically explore the meaning of this phenomenon in terms of gender, national identity, and culture in developing Chicano/Latino communities.


Required Reading

Luis Alvarez, The Power of the Zoot: Youth Culture and Resistance during World War II (Univ. of California Press, 2008)

Catherine Ramirez, The Woman in the Zoot Suit: Gender, Nationalism, and the Cultural Politics of Memory (Duke Univ. Press, 2009)

NO ARTICLES THIS WEEK; JUST THESE TWO BOOKS!


Supplemental Reading

Eduardo Pagan, Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A. (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2003)

Mauricio Mazón, The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Univ. of Texas Press, 1984).

Edward Escobar, Race, Police, and the Making of a Political Identity: Mexican Americans and the Los Angeles Police Department, 1900-1945 (Univ. of California Press, 1999)

Patrick Carroll, Felix Longoria’s Wake: Bereavement, Racism, and the Rise of Mexican American Activism (Univ. of Texas Press, 2003)

Steven Rosales, “Soldados Razos: Chicano Politics, Identity, and Masculinity in the U.S. Military, 1940-1980” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 2006)


November 4: Music, Style, and Cultural History

We explore the field of cultural history of Latinos by examining a community study on music and dance culture in urban southern California. The construction of identity, issues of cultural assimilation, and the role of popular culture and leisure activities in shaping twentieth century experiences, especially through youth culture, will be discussed, but so will the connections of the immediate post-World War II era with developments at the turn of the twenty-first century.

Required Reading

Anthony Macias, Mexican American Mojo: Popular Music, Dance, and Urban Culture in Los Angeles, 1935-1968 (Duke Univ. Press, 2008)

Victor Hugo Viesca, “The Battle of Los Angeles: The Cultural Politics of Chicana/o Music in the Greater Eastside” in Los Angeles and the Future of Urban Cultures, eds. Raul Homero Villa and George J. Sanchez (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2005, pp. 221-242.

Josh Kun, “What Is an MC If He Can’t Rap to Banda?: Making Music in Nuevo L.A.” in Los Angeles and the Future of Urban Cultures, eds. Raul Homero Villa and George J. Sanchez (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2005, pp. 243-260.

George Lipsitz, “Banda: The Hidden History of Greater Mexico” in Footsteps in the Dark: The Hidden Histories of Popular Music (Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2007), pp. 54-78.

Supplemental Reading

Jose M. Alamillo, Making Lemonade Out of Lemons: Mexican American Labor and Leisure in a California Town, 1880-1960 (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006).

Matt Garcia, A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2001)

Gilbert G. Gonzalez, Labor and Community: Mexican Citrus Worker Villages in a Southern California County, 1900-1950 (Univ. of Illinois Press, 1994)

Linda Gordon, The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction (Harvard Univ. Press, 1999)

Manuel Peña, The Texas-Mexican Conjunto: History of a Working Class Music (Univ. of Texas Press, 1985).

John R. Chávez, The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1984).

Steven Loza, Barrio Rhythm: Mexican American Music in Los Angeles (Univ. of Illinois Press, 1993).

Francisco Balderrama, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1995)

Nicholas J. Cull and David Carrasco, eds., Alambrista and the U.S. Mexico Border: Film, Music, and Stories of Undocumented Immigrants (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2006)

Nicolás Kanellos, A History of Hispanic Theatre in the United States: Origins to 1940 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1990)

Deborah Rose Ramos Vargas, “Las tracaleras: Texas-Mexican Women, Music, and Place” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz, 2003)

Mary Ann Villarreal, “Cantantes y Cantineras: Mexican American Communities and the Mapping of Public Space” (Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University, 2003)

Josh Kun, Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America (Univ. of California Press, 2005)

George Lipsitz, Footsteps in the Dark: The Hidden Histories of Popular Music (Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2007)



November 11: The Intersection of Labor, Cultural and Political History

Labor history was probably the largest sub-field of Chicano/Latino history until the 1990s, but has declined recently in relative importance. What has replaced it, to a large extent are studies which bridge labor history with cultural and/or political history, like the one that will center this week’s discussion. In addition, we will examine the growing literature on the Bracero Program and gendered labor activism during the 1940s and 1950s, arenas which linked Mexico and the United States more tightly around restricted migration patterns and new cultural patterns of interaction during the conservative McCarthy period of American history.


Required Reading

Ellen Baker, On Strike and On Film: Mexican American Families and Blacklisted Filmmakers in Cold War America (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2007)



  1. Gabriel Melendez, “Who Are the ‘Salt of the Earth’?: Competing Images of Mexican Americans in Salt of the Earth and And Now, Miguel,” in Expressing New Mexico: Nuevomexicano Creativity, Ritual, and Memory, ed. Phillip B. Gonzalez (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2007), pp.115-138.

Matthew Garcia, “Intraethnic Conflict and the Bracero Program during World War II,” in American Dreaming, Global Realities: Rethinking U.S. Immigration History, eds. Donna R. Gabaccia and Vicki L. Ruiz (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 399-410.

Lori A. Flores, “An Unladylike Strike Fashionably Clothed: Mexicana and Anglo Women Garment Workers Against Tex-Son, 1959-1963,” Pacific Historical Review 78:3 (August 2009), pp. 367-402.

Supplemental Reading

Zaragoza Vargas, Labor Rights are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton Univ. Press, 2005)

David G. Gutierrez, Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity (Univ. of California Press, 1995)

Cletus Daniel, Chicano Workers and the Politics of Fairness: The FEPC in the Southwest, 1941-1945 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1991).

Vicki L. Ruiz, Cannery Women/Cannery Lives: Mexican Women, Unionization, and the California Food Processing Industry, 1930-1950 (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1987).

Emilio Zamora, The World of the Mexican Worker in Texas (Texas A&M Univ. Press, 1993)

Mario T. García, Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology, & Identity, 1930-1960 (Yale Univ. Press, 1989).

Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr., "Let All of Them Take Heed": Mexican Americans and the Campaign for Educational Equality in Texas, 1910-1981 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1987).

Juan Ramón García, Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954 (Westport Press, 1980).

Erasmo Gamboa, Mexican Labor & World War II: Braceros in the Pacific Northwest, 1942-1947 (Univ. of Texas Press, 1990).

Ana Elizabeth Rosas, “Flexible Families: Bracero Families’ Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries, 1942-1964” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 2006)

Camilla Fojas, Border Bandits: Hollywood on the Southern Frontier (Univ. of Texas Press, 2008)



November 18: The Chicano Movement

The more recent and various political movements of the 1960s and 1970s will be explored to note the growing historical literature that tries to gauge the successes and failures of the Chicano Movement. As a recently developed historical literature, we will discuss the role of participant-written history with that of younger scholars who were not part of the political movements they now write about.


Required Reading

Lorena Oropeza, Raza si!, guera no!: Chicano Protest and Patriotism during the Vietnam Era (Univ. of California Press, 2005)

Nancy MacLean, “The Civil Rights Act and the Transformation of Mexican American Identity and Politics,” Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 18 (U.C. Berkeley School of Law, 2007), pp. 123-133.

Ramon A. Gutierrez, “Chicano Struggles for Racial Justice: The Movement’s Contribution to Social Theory,” in Mexicans in California: Transformations and Challenges, eds. Ramon A. Gutierrez and Patricia Zavella (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2009), pp. 94-110.

Luis D. Leon, “Cesar Chavez in American Religious Politics: Mapping the New Spiritual Line,” American Quarterly 59:3 (September 2007), pp. 857-882.

Supplemental Reading

Ernesto Chavez, “Mi raza primero!” (“My people first!”): Nationalism, Identity and Insurgency in the Chicano Movement in Los Angeles, 1966-1978 (Univ. of California Press, 2002)

Carlos Muñoz, Jr., Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement (Verso Press, 1989).

Juan Gómez-Quiñones, Chicano Politics: Reality & Promise, 1940-1990 (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1990).

Ignacio García, United We Win: The Rise and Fall of La Raza Unida Party (Univ. of Arizona Press, 1989).

Marguerite V. Marin, Social Protest in an Urban Barrio: A Study of the Chicano Movement, 1966-1974 (University Press of America, 1991).

Felix M. Padilla, Latino Ethnic Consciousness: The Case of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in Chicago (Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1985).

Ruben Donato, The Other Struggle for Equal Schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights Era (State Univ. of New York Press, 1997)

Ian Haney-Lopez, Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice (Harvard Univ. Press, 2003)

Rodolfo Acuña, A Community Under Siege: A Chronicle of Chicanos East of the Los Angeles River, 1945-1975 (UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center, 1984)

Marisela R. Chavez, “Despierten Hermanas y Hermanos: Women, the Chicano Movement, and Chicana Feminisms in California, 1966-1978” (Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 2004)

Jose Antonio Orosco, Cesar Chavez and the Common Sense of Nonviolence (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2008)

Rudy V. Busto, King Tiger: The Religious Vision of Reies Lopez Tijerina (Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2007)

Marco G. Prouty, Cesar Chavez, the Catholic Bishops, and the Farmworkers’ Struggle for Social Justice (Univ. of Arizona Press, 2006)


November 25: New Migrations

This week, we will consider the beginnings of a historical literature related to more recent immigrants from Latin America in the United States. Usually the province of social scientists and not historians, we will explore the ways in which a longer lens for viewing the formation of new Latino communities may create new perspectives on these populations from historians as they begin to venture into writing these histories.



Required Reading


Jesse Hoffnung-Garskof, A Tale of Two Cities: Santo Domingo and New York After 1950 (Princeton Univ. Press, 2007)

David Gutierrez, “Demography and the Shifting Boundaries of ‘Community’: Reflections on ‘U.S. Latinos’ and the Evolution of Latino Studies,” in David Gutierrez, ed., The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960 (Columbia Univ. Press, 2004), pp. 1-42.

Albert M. Camarillo, “Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California’s Minority-Majority Cities,” Pacific Historical Review 76:1 (February 2007), pp. 1-28.

Nancy Raquel Mirabal, “’Ser De Aqui’: Beyond the Cuban Exile Model,” in American Dreaming, Global Realities: Rethinking U.S. Immigration History, eds. Donna R. Gabaccia and Vicki L. Ruiz (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 441-456.



Recommended Reading

Maria Cristina Garcia, Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, the United States, and Canada (Univ. of California Press, 2006)

David G. Gutierrez, ed., The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960 (Columbia Univ. Press, 2004)

Arleen Davila, Barrio Dreams: Puerto Ricans, Latinos, and the Neoliberal City (Univ. of California Press, 2004)

Robert Smith, Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants (Univ. of California Press, 2005)

Nicolas C. Vaca, The Presumed Alliance: The Unspoken Conflict Between Latinos and Blacks and What It Means for America (Harper Collins Publishers, 2004)



December 2: Conditions of Illegality and National Identity in Modern U.S. Society

In our final week together, we will consider historicizing recent anti-immigrant events in the United States through discussion of how historians should approach writing about contemporary society. In particular, we will look at the current contestation over public space in American cities and ask whether these are new phenomena borne of recent large-scale demographic shifts or linked to previous examples of attacks on immigrants, Mexicans, and Latinos as a whole.


Required Reading

Nicholas De Genova, Working the Boundaries: Race, Space, and “Illegality” in Mexican Chicago (Duke Univ. Press, 2005)

Vicki L. Ruiz, “Citizen Restaurant: American Imaginaries, American Communities,” American Quarterly 60:1 (March 2008), pp. 1-21.

Leo R. Chavez, “The Quebec Metaphor, Invasion, and Reconquest in Public Discourse on Mexican Immigration,” in Mexicans in California: Transformations and Challenges, eds. Ramon A. Gutierrez and Patricia Zavella (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2009), pp. 133-154.

Luis Leon, “Born Again in East L.A.: The Congregation as Border Space,” in American Dreaming, Global Realities: Rethinking U.S. Immigration History, eds. Donna R. Gabaccia and Vicki L. Ruiz (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2006), pp. 504-529.

Supplemental Reading

Oscar Martinez, Troublesome Border (rev. ed., Univ. of Arizona Press, 2006)

Roberto Suro, Strangers Among Us: How Latino Immigration is Transforming America (Knopf, 1998)

Marilyn P. Davis, Mexican Voices/American Dreams: An Oral History of Mexican Immigration to the United States (Henry Holt, 1990)

Daniel Kanstroom, Deportation Nation: Outsiders in American History (Harvard Univ. Press, 2007)

Bill Ong Hing, Deporting Our Souls: Values, Morality and Immigration Policy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)

Rachel Buff, ed., Immigrant Rights in the Shadows of Citizenship (NYU Press, 2008)

Gregory Rodriguez, Mongrels, Bastards, Orphans, and Vagabonds: Mexican Immigration and the Future of Race in America (Vintage, 2009)


December 9: Historiographical Paper Due

Please submit your paper to me electronically and in printed form in one of my mailboxes (ASE: WPH 303; HIST: SOS 153) no later than 5 pm.



LEADING DISCUSSION IN AMST/HIST 554

These points are intended as helpful suggestions to prepare you to lead discussion among your graduate peers. Do not hesitate to use your own ideas or to contact me before your turn if you have any questions or concerns. Your major responsibility is to lead the discussion involving the required book that is assigned; however, feel free to venture beyond that if you think it is appropriate.


In Preparation

  • Read the week’s readings as early as possible in order to have plenty of time to contact the professor and/or your peers with questions and ideas.

  • Be sure to take notes during your readings of the main points of each of the assigned texts, but particularly of the assigned book.

  • Form questions during your reading of points that you think are unclear and of crucial issues that you want to be sure and discuss.

Framing a Discussion



  • Know where you want to start, but also where you want to end up. Be willing to be flexible in your guidance, but be sure to cover those points you think are crucial.

  • Decide whether you want to give a brief synopsis of the main points of the book, or whether you want the class as a whole to do this.
  • Have a ready list of questions for your peers to answer, in an order that makes sense intellectually. If you have a set of points or issues (as opposed to questions), you may end up talking more than your peers.


  • Remember that if everyone is talking (a good sign!), 1 and ½ hours will go by quickly. Be sure you allow enough time to cover major points. Don’t leave everything important for the end!

Suggestions for Questions



  • Let students begin by giving their general impression of the book. This can often serve to launch discussions into unexpected, but productive areas.

  • What evidence does the author use to make his/her point? Is it convincing?

  • Move in the general direction of questions that reach across the whole text, jumping off from specific questions about particular points in one chapter/section.

  • Have questions that refer back to a previous week’s readings and/or points raised in the required articles.

  • PLEASE SUBMIT YOUR QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION TO THE WHOLE CLASS ON BLACKBOARD AT LEAST 24 HOURS BEFORE OUR SESSION (Tuesday at 2 pm).

In the Classroom



  • Don’t be afraid to follow up a comment with a relevant question to that specific speaker.

  • On the other hand, be careful not to stop an exciting discussion that has not yet run its course by asking a diverting question.

  • Give each separate chapter or section its due time, but gauge your peers’ interest and disinterest in certain sections and shift accordingly.

  • Feel free to incorporate the assigned articles or supplementary readings at appropriate times in the discussion if this makes sense to you. I will adjust my half of the discussion to accommodate what you have already covered.

  • Feel free to hand the discussion over to me at any time. I will undoubtedly have other issues that I will want to raise and will do so in the second half of each session.

HOW TO WRITE A SEMINAR BOOK REVIEW


Book Reviews and the Profession:

One of the duties you will be called upon as a professor is to write book reviews for scholarly journals. Most journals will ask you to review and evaluate a new book in the space of 500-800 words (or 2 to 3 pages), while others may allow you to write a longer review essay. In any case, you will probably find yourself writing one or two reviews every year, and this is one way for you to get published early in one’s career.


So what should you do in these reviews? How much space should you devote to placing the book in its larger context? To summarizing the author’s arguments? To offering your own praise and criticism of the book? There are not hard and fast rules about writing reviews. One gets a feel for them over time, particularly if one is reading them regularly. However, I believe that there is a general formula one can apply when writing reviews, but how you apply it will vary from individual to individuals. Nevertheless, all class reviews should have three basic components:


  1. The Context: If you read through reviews in history journals you will see that most reviewers devote their opening paragraph(s) to placing the book in its larger historiographical framework. The author you are reviewing is probably attempting to use their work to address larger debates within their field. In short, you want to tell the reader the “big picture” into which this book fits.
  2. Summary: My own belief is that the greatest service a review can do is offer an intelligent summary of the book’s main themes and arguments. This means trying to be fair to the author. You can praise, condemn, or equivocate in your conclusion. But the bulk of the review (3-4 paragraphs) should provide the reader with an insightful summary of what this book is about. It means distilling several hundred pages into a few paragraphs. How does the author prove his/her case? What kind of evidence does he/she provide? What kinds of sources and methodologies? This section should provide the reader with a clear summary of the book’s thesis and main arguments.


  3. Analysis: It is difficult to know when to intrude with your own voice and analysis. Sometimes it can be mingled throughout a text. However, I find that in mastering the review, the easiest way to begin is placing your analysis at the end. Spend the last paragraph(s) offering us your critical scholarly opinion of the book and its ideas. Many of you will find this the most difficult part of writing a review. Analysis is a difficult skill to master and the only way to master it is to do it.

All these are merely suggestions. You will find that writing reviews will get easier over time. You will learn by writing, by reading the reviews of your classmates, and by reading the reviews in journals. For the purposes of this course, look at reviews in the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History, but also in the American Quarterly, the Western Historical Quarterly, Aztlan and Latino Studies.


One special note:**Save all the reviews from class; they will help you prepare for your qualifying exams and help when you have to teach a class and prepare a syllabus.

WRITING A HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY
Each student is required to write one major paper for the course. This paper is a historiography paper, 15 to 20 pages in length, on a topic you and I have chosen together. This paper is an examination of the assumptions, methods, and findings of the body of literature on a topic relevant to the course. “Relevant” can mean either an elaboration of one of the formal themes introduced in the course, an analysis of a thematic issue drawn from across the course, or an analysis of one neglected in the seminar. Whatever topic chosen, you should be willing to read deeply in the literature and to discuss its place in the field of Chicano/Latino history.

Every three to four weeks you will be asked to submit written work delineating the progress of your final paper: 1) a one page statement describing the historiographical topic your paper will address (due September 28); 2) a working bibliography of the books and articles central to your paper (due October 19); 3) a five page draft of text taken from anywhere in the essay (due November 9); 4) the final project (due December 7). You will receive feedback on each of these assignments from me, insuring that you are on the right track for the final project. It has been my twenty year experience that if you make each of these deadlines, you will do well with this final paper; if, on the other hand, you miss one of these deadlines, you will indeed struggle to complete an adequate version of this historiography paper.

The class syllabus of required and recommended readings is a guide to various works and historiographical debates in the study of Chicano/Latino history, but issues and specific works germane to the topic to be reviewed will be approved by Prof. Sanchez through the one page statement and the working bibliography. This historiography paper should focus on how various writers have represented some significant aspect of Chicano/Latino life in the United States in the past, exploring the intellectual debates, methodological issues and directions in the study of Chicano/Latino history. As a guide to framing your historiography paper, I offer the following guidelines:


  1. While it is fine to start with a general topic in mind, you should move forward quickly with a more formal statement of the intellectual problem you hope to study. This statement is probably best put in the context of a question. While you should state this question early in the statement due in September, inevitably that question can and should be further refined as you complete more of the reading for the course and the paper.

  2. If you are having trouble coming up with a framing question for your paper, you should read some of the latest review essays of work in Chicano/Latino history available in the leading journals for ideas. Moreover, you should see me in office hours as early in the semester as possible to discuss potential paper topics.

  3. This statement/question must be placed in the context of a thorough review of most relevant secondary literature surrounding your problem. Therefore, it is critical to pick a question that is not so large that the reading for the paper is overwhelming; on the other hand, it is important that your question is large enough to have sufficient literature already written by various authors addressing the topic.
  4. Try to avoid a historiography paper that is simply a series of book reviews with an introduction and conclusion. Framing your question well will allow you to organize a historiography paper with various sub-questions, each of which can help drive the main sections of your final project.


  5. You should select your two book reviews from the supplementary reading list as works that can also be used in your final paper. Do not hesitate to incorporate as much of the required reading for the course as possible for your final paper. This will substantially cut down on the additional reading you will need to do to successfully address your topic.

  6. Because Chicano/Latino history is still a young field that is growing, many topics have yet to be exhaustively addressed. Therefore, it is usually important to incorporate your own thoughts about pathways to new research in the future on your topic within your conclusion.




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