Apocrypha: The Sumerians and Akkadians


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Associations Key:

Pink: Akkadian/Babylonian

Red: Babylonian

Rose: Assyrian

Dark Blue: Hindu

Blue: Persian

Teal: Asia Minor

Violet: Canaanite

Yellow: Jewish/Israelite

Orange: Egyptian

Brown: Hurrian

Green: Greek

Gray: Roman

Turquoise: Norse

Periwinkle: Saxon
abzu: (“abyss”; Apsu) Underground sea of freshwater and home to Enki; in later Babylonian stories, it is personified as Apsu, the first husband of Tiamat

Adab: An important Sumerian city between Lagash and Nippur

Adad: See Ishkur, Hadad

Agade: Lost capital of the Akkadian Empire; founded by Sharru-Kin (Sargon the Great); probably in or near Babylon; laid to waste by the Gutians during the reign of Naram-Suen and was said to be cursed forever afterwards

Akkadians: Semitic speaking inhabitants of Northern Babylonia; derived from the name given in Genesis

Amarru: See Amorites

Amorites: (Amarru; Martu) A nomadic tribe that spoke a Semitic language; they eventually infiltrated all of Mesopotamia and founded the Babylonian and Assyrian Empires; the name is derived from 86 references in the Old Testament, sometimes equating them with Canaanites or the ancestors of the Canaanites

An: (“Heaven”; Anu; Uranus; Brahma) God of the Sky/Heaven; an enigmatic figure who makes decrees from his place in heaven but never ventures out

Anshan: An Elamite city-state in southwestern Iran

Anshar: (“Firmament”; “Sky arch”; Ashur) Babylonian god; husband to Kishar and father to Lahmu and Lahamu

Annunaki: (“Those who came from Heaven to Earth”; Anunna) General name for the Sumerian and Akkadian pantheon

Anu: See An

Anzu: (“Raven”; “Sky-Wisdom”; Imdugud; Pazuzu; Zeus) Giant storm bird; Lugalbanda meets one after being left in the Zagros mountains; Another one steals the Tablets of Destiny from Enlil; Enlil’s son Ninurta finds him and slays him, returning the tablets to his father

Apsu: (abzu; Nun; Oceanus) Babylonian god killed by Ea (Enki); personifies the primeval waters that encircle the world

Aratta: Another name for Susa (Susin).

Aruru: See Ninmah

Asag: A demon that Ninurta slew while in the netherworld; possibly another version of Anzu

Ba’al: (“Lord”; “Husband”; Marduk; Hadad) Common name used throughout Mesopotamia for the storm god

Ashur: (Anshar; Marduk) “Father of the gods“; national deity of the Assyrian Empire

Babylon: A city in northern Sumer which an Amorite dynasty turned into the capital of an empire; the official language spoken was Akkadian

Bad-Tibira: A city in southern Sumer; it’s temple to Dumuzi was called E-Mushkalamma or E-Mush

Black-headed ones: See Sumerians

Chaldean: Neo-Babylonian; a nomadic people who invaded Mesopotamia in the 1000s B.C. and inhabited the Babylonian territory

Cronus: (Enlil; Kumarbi) Greek god of time and the upper sky

Dagan: (Dagon) Semitic fish god of the west; represented on statues as having the tail of a fish

Dead Sea Scrolls: Old Testament scrolls written by Jewish Essenes in a male-only sect near Qumran sometime around 200-68 B.C.; they were stored in clay jars and hidden in caves in the Judean desert near the Dead Sea where a young Bedouin found them in 1947 while looking for a lost goat; the scrolls found were 1000 years older than the earliest existing copies

Dilmun: (Bahrain; Eden) The Sumerian and Babylonian island of paradise where no one can age or get hurt

diorite: Very hard green or gray volcanic rock

Dumuzi: (Tammuz; Tammuz; Mithras; Osiris; Serapis; Attis; Odin; Adonis; Dionysus; Apollo; Bacchus) Shepherd god who is hung on a stake in the netherworld as a substitute for Inanna but rises in the spring to be replaced by his sister Geshtinanna; often given the title “Mother-Dragon-of-Heaven”

Dumuzi the Fisherman: King of Uruk I; first ruler to wed the goddess Inanna in the Sacred Marriage Rite5

Dumuzi the Shepherd: King of Bad-Tibira before the Flood; first to be called Dumuzi

Ea: (“House of Water”) Babylonian name for Enki; taken from the name of his temple

E-Abzu: (E-A; E-Engur) Enki’s temple in Eridu

E-Anna: (“House of Heaven”) Inanna’s temple in Uruk.

E-Babbar: (“House of White”) Temple to Utu

E-Temen-Ni-Guru: Temple to Nanna (Suen)

Edubba: (“Tablet House”) Sumerian school

E-Kish-Nugal: Temple in Ur to the moon god Nanna (Suen)

E-Kur: (“House of the Mountains“) Enlil’s temple in Nippur

Elamites: (Iran) People living in the land east of Sumer and Akkad

Ellil: See Enlil

Elohim: (“Lords”) Common name for God used in the Old Testament; translated “God” in the Bible

Emesh: (“Summer”) Son of Enlil who argues with his brother Enten

E-Mush: (E-Mush-Kalamma) Temple to Dumuzi in Bad-Tibira

en: (“Lord”): High priest or priestess who resided in the gipar shrine where the Sacred Marriage Rite took place

En-Heduanna: Sharru-Kin’s daughter and high priestess of Ur; First known author

Enki: (“Lord-Earth”; Nudimmud; Ea; Azaz-El; Prometheus; Vishnu) God of wisdom and water, who along with Ninmah, fashions man from clay

Enkidu: (“Creation of Enki”) Gilgamesh’s slave and best friend who accompanies him on all of his adventures

Enlil: (“Lord-Air“; Ellil; El the Bull; Kumarbi; Min; Chronos; Saturn; Shiva) God of the space between the earth and the sky (heaven); he plays a very active role on earth, and is usually the one to execute decrees made by An

ensi: (ishakku) Sumerian word for ruler of a city

Enten: (“Winter”) Son of Enlil who argues with his brother Emesh

Erech: See Uruk

Ereshkigal: (Persephone; Proserpina; Hel) Queen of the netherworld

Eridu: First town and temple said to be built in Sumer; it’s temple to Enki was called E-Abzu (“House of the Abyss”) or E-A (“House of Water”)

galla: Little demon from the netherworld

Geshtinanna: (Artemis) Dumuzi’s self-sacrificing sister who undergoes torture so as not to reveal Dumuzi’s location to the demons that are chasing him

Gilgamesh: (“Gilga the Hero”) A Hercules-like hero goes on many adventures; he ruled Uruk I around 2650 B.C. and was said to have become one of the judges in the netherworld after he died

gipar: Shrine where the Sacred Marriage Rite took place

Gugalanna: See Nergal

Gutians: Barbarous mountain people to the east who overwhelmed Sumer towards the end of the of the second millenium B.C.

Hadad: (Adad; Hadad-Rimmon) Canaanite storm god referred to as Ba’al; son of Dagan.

Hammurabi: Babylonian king who united all of Babylonia into an empire; famous for his law code that includes the “Eye for an eye” law.

Hittites: People who lived in northern Turkey near the Black Sea; they had two official languages: Arzawan (an language related to Indo-European) and Akkadian

huluppu tree: (Tree of Wisdom; Yggdrasil) A tree (possibly a willow) cut down by Gilgamesh in order to make a bed and chair 0for Inanna; Inanna then uses the wood to make a pikku
and mukku

Hurrians: A people who lived in Northern Syria and were eventually conquered by the Hittites

Hursag: (“Highland”) Mountainous region east of Sumer, named by the god Ninurta; also associated with Nin-Hursag (Ninmah).

Huwawa: (Humbaba) A monster who lives in the “Land of the Living” or “Land of Life” (Lebanon); Killed by Gilgamesh and Enkidu.

Imdugud: See Anzu

Inanna: (“Queen of Heaven”; Ishtar; Mylitta; Asherah; Astarte; Ashtoreth; Hathor; Eostre; Ostara; Aphrodite; Venus; Diana) Goddess of the morning star and Utu’s twin sister; goddess of love and fertility as well as the goddess of war; she and Dumuzi are the principle deities involved in the Sacred Marriage Rite.

: (ensi) Akkadian word for ruler of a city

Ishkur: (Adad; Hadad; Rimmon; Hadad-Rimmon) Sumerian storm god

Ishtar: See Inanna

Isimud: Enki’s vizier

Kalatur: (Kalaturru) Sexless creature created by Enki to save Inanna from the netherworld

Ki: (Gaea; Terra) Mother Earth; unless Ninmah is an incarnation of her, she takes no personal role other than giving birth to the gods.

Kur: (“Mountain”; “Land”; Kurnugia; Ganzir; Amenti; She‘ol; Hades; Tartarus) The nether world where dead souls descend to.

Kullab: Twin city of Uruk


lahama: Sea monster

lapus luzuli: A dense semi-precious blue gemstone

Lilith: (Lilitu) A female wind demon or succubus who causes children to die suddenly; Adam’s first wife in Jewish legend

lukur: An Inanna priestess who probably represented the goddess in the Sacred Marriage Rite

lumah: A type of priest

mah: A type of priest

Marduk: (Ninurta; Ashur) Storm god; often called Ba‘al (“Husband“); national deity of Babylon

Martu: See Amorites

Masoretic: The Hebrew Old Testament that Jews use today; the King James Old Testament is based on the Greek Septuagint; there is also a third Samaritan text.

mashmash: An exorcist

me: Divine arts, rules, and regulations that keeps the universe operating

mina: A measure of weight; about a pound

mukku: An unidentified object that Enkidu went into the netherworld to get; perhaps a musical instrument

mushhush: Serpent or dragon

Nammu: (Tiamat; Neith) Goddess of the primeval sea which surrounds heaven with saltwater; she gives birth to the first humans

Namtar: (“Fate” or “Death”) A netherworld demon

Nanna: (Suen) Moon god of Ur

Nebuchadnezzar: Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) king who ruled over Babylon (Sumer and Akkad) in the 700s B.C.; he laid siege to Jerusalem and destroyed the First Temple, built by Schlomo (Solomon); he then enslaved the people of Judah and took them back with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25)

Nephilim: Translated “giants” in most Bibles; the Book of 1 Enoch describes them as being the offspring of the “Watchers”, or angels; it is said that 200 of the Watchers made a pact and came down to the earth, impregnated human women, and taught their children the corruptions of the world such as warfare, makeup, and magic

Nergal: (Meslamtaea; Gugalanna; Hades) Ereshkigal’s husband; called the “Great Bull of Heaven”

Nimrod: (Sharru-Kin) Biblical emperor in Genesis 10:8-12; “A mighty hunter before Yahweh”

Ninazu: A god of the netherworld

Ningal: Wife of the moon god Nanna

Ningishzida: (Typhoeus; Hermes) God of the dawn whose symbol was the caduceus; associated with Dumuzi and the Sacred Marriage Rite.

Ninhursag: See Ninmah

Ninmah: (“Noble Queen”; Aruru; Ninhursag; Nintu; Nisaba) Mother goddess who helps Enki shape man from clay; Mother to Ninurta

Ninlil: (“Lady of Air”; Mullitu; Mylitta) Wife of Enlil; after being raped in Uruk by Enlil, she follows him into the underworld and gives birth to three gods to replace Suen so that he can return

Nisaba: See Ninmah

Ninshubur: Inanna’s vizier

Ninsun: (Sirtur) Wife of Lugal-Banda and divine mother of the Ur III rulers

Ninti: (“Lady of Life; Lady of the Rib”) Goddess that Ninmah gives birth to in order to heal Enki

Nintu: See Ninmah

Ninurta: (Ningirsu; Marduk; Teshub; Zeus) Warlike storm god in charge of the South Wind; son of Enlil and principle deity of Lagash; also called “Farmer of Enlil”

Nippur: City of Enlil; holiest city in Sumer and Akkad, holding the largest library of texts in the country

Nusku: Enlil’s vizier

pazuzu: (Anzu; Imdugud; Zeus) Assyrian sphinx-like demon with a lion’s head, large wings, and small goat horns ;they rise from beneath the stagnant waters of Kur and can possess bodies and must be exorcised

pikku: An unidentified object that Enkidu went into the netherworld to get; perhaps a musical instrument

Sagburru: Old crone that outwitted the Mashmash exorcist

Saggiga: (“Black-headed ones”) See Sumerians

Sargon the Great: See Sharru-Kin

Sargon II: See Sharru-Kin II

Semitic: Designating a major subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages which include: Northeastern (Akkadian), Northwestern (Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic, etc.), and Southwestern (Arabic, Ethiopic, etc.); derived from Noah’s son Shem (“Name”), who was said to be father of the Hebrews, Elamites, Assyrians and Arabians; commonly refers to the Jewish race

Shamayim: (An) Hebrew word for the sky and the heavens

Sharru-Kin: (“Legitimate-King”; Sargon; Nimrod) A former cup bearer to Ur-Zababa of Kish; he defeated Lugal-Zagesi to take over a unified Sumer and Akkad; founded the Akkadian Empire, centered in the lost city of Agade

Sharru-Kin II: (721-705 B.C.) An Assyrian king who made Ninevah his capital; derived from a translation in the book of Isaiah

Sharur: Ninurta’s personified weapon

shekel: 1/60 of a mina

She’ol: (Kur; Amenti; Hades; Tartarus) Hebrew term for the netherworld, although some scholars dispute this perception; listed as one of the names for Hell in the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia; translated as “grave” in most Bibles

Shubur-Hamazi: Lands to the north and northeast of Sumer

shugurra: A turban-like crown worn by Inanna

Shuruppuk: A city in south-central Sumer; home of the Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah

Sirtur: (Ninsun) Dumuzi’s mother; possibly a sheep goddess

Su: A people who helped the Elamites put an end to Ur

Suen: See Nanna

Sumerians: The first known civilization; established in Southern Babylonia in Iraq by 3500 B.C.

Susa: (Susin; Aratta) Elamite capital in western Iran

Susin: See Susa

Tammuz: See Dumuzi

tehom: Hebrew word for the primeval ocean; translated “deep” in the Bible

Teshub: (Ninurta; Marduk; Zeus) The Hurrian storm god; fights against his father Kumarbi and his brother Ullikummi

Tiamat: (Nammu; Yahm-Nahar; tehom; Leviathan; Rehab; Typhoeus; Illugankas) A multi-headed dragon that is killed by Marduk (or Ashur) to save the gods and man kind

Tidnum: Semitic land west of Sumer

tohu: (tehom) Hebrew word for formless

Torah: The first five books of the Bible: Beresheet (“In the Beginning”; Genesis), Shemot (Exodus), Va-Yikra (“And He Called”; Leviticus), Bamidbar (“In the Desert”; Numbers), and Devarim (“Words”; Deuteronomy); traditionally believed to have been dictated directly to Moshe (Moses) by God

Typhoeus: (Ningishzida; Typhon; Tiamat) Son of Tartarus and Gaea who fights with Zeus at Mt. Casius; has two snakes growing out of his shoulders

Ugarit: City state near the Mediterranean coast where tablets of alphabetic cuneiform have been excavated by a French expedition

Ullikummi: A diorite man conceived in order to kill the Hurrian storm god Teshub; he fights Teshub and the others gods at Mt. Casius

Umma: A city-state neighboring Lagash that was constantly at war with it

ummia: Sage or principal of the Sumerian edubba school

Ur: City of the moon god Nanna; capital of the Ur III empire

Uruk: (Unug; Erech) City of the Sky god Anu; The white temple in Kulaba is dedicated to Anu while the E-Anna (“House of Heaven”) sanctuary was dedicated to Inanna

ururu: a type of chant

Usaw: God of dusk

Utu: (Shamash; Apollo; Sol) The sun god and Inanna’s twin brother; he who had temples in Larsa and Sippar

Yahweh: (“I am that I am”) Proper name of the God of Israel and Judah; mistranslated by Christians as “Jehovah”; translated “the LORD” in the Bible; Jews use the word “Adonai” (“Lord”) instead when reading scripture aloud so as not to take the name in vain; Many Jews will not even write the words “Yahweh” or “God” on paper in case it is thrown away or otherwise destroyed

Yggdrasil (haluppu tree; Tree of Wisdom): Norse World Tree; a great ash tree that makes up the axis of the universe and whose roots spread out to nine worlds and are gnawed on by the serpent Nidhog; Odin hung on it for nine days and went through a spiritual death and rebirth

ziggurat: A pyramidal stage-tower temple; the one in Babylon is the Tower of Babel

There is about a 70 year discrepancy of opinion for some of the early dates.
Pliocene Epoch (5,000,000 - 1,800,000 years ago)

3,600,000 Bipedal hominid living in Tanzania, Africa

3,500,000 Australopithecus afarensis “Lucy” living in Hadar, Ethiopia

2,400,000 Stone tools used in Hadar

1,800,000 Homo erectus in Southeast Asia

Pleistocene Epoch (1,800,000 - 11,000 years ago)

1,600,000 Fire used in Chesowanja, Kenya and Swartkrans (S. Africa)

1,000,000 Beginning of the modern Pleistocene Ice Age

Homo erectus in Europe and Asia

400,000 Wooden spear used in Schoningen, Germany

300,000 A hut is used in Amata, France

150,000 Homo sapien neanderthalensis in Europe and Asia

135,000 Homo sapien sapien in Omo, Ethiopia

90,000 Homo sapien sapien in Qafzeh, Israel

45,000 A flute is played in north Africa

40,000 Modern humans and Neanderthals in Europe

35,000 Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer traditions emerge

32,000 Cave art in Europe

28,000 The last Neanderthals in southern Spain become extinct

25,000 “Willendorf Venus” carved in Germany

23,000 Mammoth tusk Boomerang in Poland

18,000 Height of the Pleistocene Ice Age

11,500 Clovis culture begins in North America
Holocene Epoch (11,000 years ago to Today)

11,000 Domesticated dogs in the Middle East

Humans in South America

10,500 Pottery in Japan

10,000 Agriculture in the Middle East

9,000 Mammoths become extinct

Farming in the Middle East

Sheep herding in the Zagros mountains, Iraq

Proto-Neolithic Age (“Old Stone Age”) (8500-7500 B.C.)

8500 Jericho first city

8000 End of the Pleistocene Ice Age

Large-scale Agriculture in the Middle East

7700 Wheat and barley in the Middle East

Neolithic Age (“New Stone Age”) (7500-3800 B.C.)

6700 Chatal Hyuk, Turkey settlement

6500 Hussuna culture begins

6200 Copper smelting in Turkey

6000 Cattle domesticated in the Middle East

Halafian and Samarran cultures replace Hussuna

Farming spreads to southern Europe

Bahrain island (Dilmun) breaks away from the Arabian mainland

5900 Ubaid culture begins

5500 Samarran cultures ends

Black Sea Flood

5400 Halafian culture ends

Farming used in central Europe

5000 First towns and temples are built

Irrigation begins in Mesopotamia

4500 Plow, sail, potter wheel used

Uruk Period (4300-3100 B.C.)

4300 Copper working practiced in Sumer

Ubaid culture ends

4004 Victorian date for Adam and Chavah

Early Bronze Age (3800-2000 B.C.)

3800 Bronze produced in Elam (Iran)

3500 First cities develop in Mesopotamia

Writing used on Indus Valley pottery

3474 Victorian date for Adam’s death

3400 Pictographs used in Sumer

Priests take a governmental role in Sumer

3300 Writing used in Egypt’s tomb of the Scorpion King

Jemdet Nasr Period (3100-2900 B.C.)

3100 Extensive irrigation used in Sumer

3000 Military rivalry between cities in Sumer

2948 Victorian date for Noach’s birth

Early Dynastic Period (2900-2334 B.C.)

2900 Euphrates river floods Shurrupuk

Defensive walls built around cities; Tin bronze is used

Development of cuneiform script

2780 First pyramid built by Imhotep in Egypt

2750 Secular rulers achieve increasing importance in Sumer

2680 Great Pyramid of Giza built by King Khufu

2650 Dumuzi the Fisherman rules Uruk

2625 King Gilgamesh rules Uruk

2600 Mass suicide burials take place in Ur’s “Royal Cemetery”

2400 Four-wheeled war wagons used

2350 Urukagina of Lagash promulgates law code

Lugal-Zagesi unites Sumer and Akkad

2348 Victorian date for Noach’s Flood

Akkadian Period (2334-2000 B.C.)

2334 Sharru-Kin (Sargon) conquers Mesopotamia

2193 Gutians invade and the Akkadian Empire falls

2112 Ur-Nammu founds Ur III

2100 Ur-Nammu builds ziggurats in Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur

2034 Amorites begin to infiltrate Mesopotamia

2004 Elamites sack Ur

Middle Bronze Age (2000-1600 B.C.)

1998 Victorian date for Noach’s death

1996 Victorian date for Avram’s birth

1921 Victorian date for Avram leaving Ur

1896 Victorian date for Yitchak’s (Isaac‘s) birth

1894 Amorite dynasty established in Babylon

1836 Victorian date for Yah-Akov’s (Jacob’s) birth

1821 Victorian date for Avraham’s death

1813 Shamshi-Adad ruler of Assyria

1800 Semitic alphabet in Egypt

1787 Hammurabi conquers Uruk and Isin

1757 Hammurabi destroys Mari

1763 Rim-Suen of Larsa is defeated by Hammurabi

1760 Yah-Akov (Jacob) takes the Israelites into Egypt

1750 Indus Valley civilization collapses

1745 Victorian date for Yosef’s (Joseph’s) birth

1700 Horse drawn chariots are used

1680 Hurrians occupy Assyria

1635 Victorian date for Yosef’s death

1600 Canaanites use alphabetic script

1595 King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon

Sumerian King Lists

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