Appendix a



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APPENDIX A





Codebook

Year: year of the news segment (1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990)
Date: date of the news segment (2/14, 2/15, 2/16)
Position: the order of the news segment (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …)
Anchor/Reporter: Anchor story = 0; Reporter story = 1
Name: the name of anchor or reporter
Length: the length of time of the news segment (minutes: seconds)
Types of stories:

(for all stories, not including “other”, no = 0 and yes = 1)


Political-Campaign: news story involving a political campaign, can include stories the follow a campaign trail during the campaign season and after-the-fact campaign scandals or campaign legislation

Political-Economy: news story concerning the economy.

Political-Military: a news story concerning military or defense issues

Political-Social: a political news story concerning social issues in the United States, i.e., abortion, race, and poverty.

Political-FP: news stories regarding U.S. foreign policy (i.e., U.S. policy in on Iraq, diplomatic relations with China)

Political-IA: news stories regarding the domestic or international affairs of foreign countries

Political-Congress: news story features Congress as a primary actor, i.e. a filibuster in the Senate over a bill or nomination (there may be one primary actor)

Political-President: news story features the president as a primary actor

Political-Court: news story features the Supreme Court or one of the federal courts as a primary actor

Political-Agencies: news story features a federal agency as a primary actor, i.e. Securities Exchange Commission, Environmental Protection Agency

Political-Groups: news story features an interest or community group as a primary actor, i.e. Sierra Club, NRA, AARP, NAACP.

Political-State: news story features a state governor, legislature, or court as the primary actor. This category may also include local political news (city council and mayor).

Business: news stories about businesses

Human-Interest: “soft” news stories that include celebrity deaths, the life of an “average” American, sports, etc…

Alert: news stories that urge watchers to beware (i.e., credit card fraud, terrorist alerts, etc…)

Crime: news stories about either violent crimes or white-collar crimes, i.e. identity fraud, rape, fire code violations, etc…

Catastrophe: natural or human related disasters involving the death of more than one person and/or major damages to property, i.e. earthquakes, hurricanes, nightclub fires, space shuttle accidents, wars. May include just mentions of possible/future catastrophes.


Race: race-related news stories, can be positive or negative and can be portraying problems or solutions.

National: the news story physically affects people on a nationwide scale; nationwide would imply that more than one region of the U.S. is affected

State/Local: the news story physically affects people on a state/local level.

Political Scandal: a news story that exposes a political actor or a branch of the government.

Other: specify what type
Strategic/Issue: strategic frames focus on the strategy of a political actor in a campaign or regarding a certain issue. Issue frames explore a particular issue more in-depth. Strategic frames = 0; Issue frames = 1; Both = 2; Neither = 3.
Episodic/Thematic: as described by Iyengar, episodic frames portray public issues as concrete events (e.g. story of a homeless person, bombing of an airliner, public protest) and thematic frames show issues in a general or abstract context (e.g., congressional debate over funding of welfare programs). Episodic frames = 0; Thematic frames = 1; Both = 2; Neither = 3.
Individual/Group: individual-oriented frames show individual actors as the main characters in a news story; group-oriented frames show individuals working in groups of three or more and feature the groups as the main characters in a story. Individual-oriented frames = 0; Group-oriented frames = 1; Both = 2; Neither = 3.

Interference: a news story that shows government interference against a group or individual action, i.e., police interference at a protest (police presence is not interference but arrests and pepper spraying of the crowd is considered interference). No interference = 0; interference = 1.

Formal/Informal: an informal group includes family dinners, chatting with neighbors, etc… A formal group is an organized voluntary or community association. Informal = 0; Formal = 1; Both = 2; N/A = 3.
# of Informal: add up the number of times informal groups and bonds are mentioned.
# of Organizations: add up the number of voluntary/community organizations mentioned (i.e. AARP, ACLU, fraternity, PTA, gardening club).
Organizations: list the names of the organizations mentioned in the news story. After each organization, record if it was a positive, negative, or neutral portrayal of the organization (Negative = 0; Positive = 1; Neutral = 2). Example: ACLU-1; NAACP-2; Gardening Association of Nashville-0.
Tone: the overall tone of the news story. Negative = 0; Positive = 1; Neutral = 2.
Images:

(count number of different camera shots)



Individual: number of images of people working alone (does not include headshots of people being interviewed)

Group: number of images of people working together or socializing together

Informal: number of images of people working in informal groups, i.e., family dinner, family reunions, etc…

Formal: number of images of people working in formal groups.

Political: number of images of people meeting and working in political or diplomatic relations

Catastrophes: number of images of death and destruction

Interference: number of images of government interference against people working together. No interference = 0; interference = 1.








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