Arbor, arboris (f) campus, -ī(m)



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STAGE 39 – STUDIA

VOCABULARY


NOUNS

  1. arbor, arboris (f)

  1. campus, -ī(m)

  1. capillī, -ōrum (m pl)

  1. discrīmen, discrīminis, (n)

  1. fragor, fragōris, (m)

  1. genus, generis (n)

  1. littera, -ae (f)

  1. litterae, -ārum(f pl)

  1. mēnsis, mēnsis (m)

  1. ōrātiō, ōrātiōnis (f)

  1. stilus, -ī (m):

  1. studium, -ī (n):

ADJECTIVES

  1. ūllus, -a, -um:

VERBS

  1. cadō, -ere, cecidī, cāsum

  1. fallō, -ere, fefellī, falsum

  1. iuvō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum

  1. perdō, -ere, perdidī, perditum

  1. respiciō, -ere, respexī, respectum


  1. simulō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum

  1. spargō, -ere, sparsī, sparsum

PREPOSITIONS

  1. ad + acc. : for the purpose of

  1. causā + genitive: for the sake of (causā comes after its object)

  1. suprā + acc:

MISCELLANEOUS

  1. aut

  1. ergō

  1. hinc

HEREDES PRINCIPIS



In aulā Imperātōris, duo puerī in studiīs litterārum sunt occupātī. Alter puer, Titus nōmine, fābulam nārrāre cōnātur; alter nōmine Pūblius, intentē audit. Adest quoque puerōrum rhētor, Fabius Quīntiliānus. Titus Pūbliusque, fīliī Clēmentis ac frātrēs Pōllae, nūper hērēdēs Imperātōris factī sunt.

TITUS: (fābulam nārrans) deinde Iuppiter, rēx deōrum, sceleribus hominum valdē offēnsus, genus mortāle dēlēre cōnstituit. Prīmō eī placuit dē caelō fulmina spargere, quae tōtam terram cremārent. Timēbat tamen nē deī ipsī sī flammae ad caelum ā terrā ascendissent, eōdem ignī cremārentur. Dīversam ergō poenam impōnere māluit; nimbōs ingentēs dē caelō dēmittere cōnstituit ad genus mortāle dīluviō perdendum.



Titō nārrante, iānua subitō aperītur. Ingreditur Epaphrodītus. Puerī anxiī

inter sē aspiciunt; Quīntiliānus, cui Epaphrodītus odiō est, nihilōminus eum


cōmiter salūtat

QUINTILIANUS: libenter tē vidēmus, Epaphro ---

EPAPHRODITUS: (interpellāns) salvēte, puerī. Salvē tū, M. Fabī. Hūc missus sum ut mandāta

prīncipis nūntiem. Prīnceps vōbīs imperat ut ad sē quam celerrimē contendātis.

QUINTILIANUS verba tua, mī Epaphrodīte, nōn intellegō. cūr nōs ad Imperātorem

arcessimur?



Epaphrodītus, nūllō respōnsō datō, puerōs Quīntilānumque per aulam ad Imperātōris tablīnum dūcit. puerī, timōre commōtī, extrā tablīnum haesitant.

QUINTILIANUS: (timōrem suum dissimulāns) cūr perturbāmini puerī?

PUBLIUS: bonā causā perturbāmur. Imperātor enim nōs sine dubiō castīgābit vel

pūniet.


QUINTILIANUS: nimis timidus es, Pūblī. Sī prūdenter vōs gesseritis, neque castīgābiminī

neque puniēminī.



Studium, -ī: study

Litterae, -ārum: literature (letters)

Genus mortāle : the mortal race

Fulmen, fulminis: thunderbolt

Cremō, -āre: burn, destroy by fire

Dīversus, -a, -um: different

Nimbus, -ī: cloud

Dīluvium, -ī: flood

Perdō, perdere: destroy

Prūdenter: prudently

vōs gesseritis: sē gerere: to conduct oneself


INQUISITIO

Quintiliānus et puerī, tablīnum ingressī, Domitiānum ad mēnsam sedentem muscāsque stilō

cōnfigere temptantem inveniunt. Adventum eōrum neque respicendō neque quidquam dīcendō

agnōscit.

DOMITIANUS: (tandem respiciēns) nōlīte timēre, puerī. Vōs nōn pūniturus sum – nisi mihi

displicueritis. (muscam aliam cōnfīgit; dēnique, stilō dēpositō, puerōs subitō interrogat:) quam diū discipulī M. Fabiī iam estis?

TITUS: (haesitāns) d-duōs mēnsēs, domine.

DOMITIANUS: nōbīs ergō tempus est cognōscere quid didiceritis. (ad Pūblium repentē conversus) Pūblī, quid heri docēbāmini?

PUBLIUS: versūs quōsdam legēbāmus, domine, quōs Ovidius poēta dē illō dīluviō fābulōsō composuit.

DOMITIANUS: Ovidius? Fācundus vērō erat ille poēta. Meritō tamen ex Italiā relēgātus est; nam nōn modo vītam impūram ēgit sed etiam prīncipem offendit. (Epaphrodītus rīdet.) itaque, versibus Ovidiānīs heri lēctīs, quid hodiē facitis?


Inquīsītiō: examination, investigation

Musca, -ae: fly

Cōnfīgō, -ere:; stab, skerer

Respiciō, -ere: look up

Displiceō, -ēre: displease

Discō, -ere: learn

Repentē: suddenly

Fābulōsus, -a, -um ; legendary (fabulous)

Fācundus, -a, -um: fluent, eloquent

Meritus, -a, -um: deservedly,

Ovidiānus, -a, -um: of Ovid


PUBLIUS: hodiē cōnāmur eandem fābulam verbīs nostrīs atque ōrātiōne solūtā nārrāre.

QUINTILIANUS: ubi tū nōs arcessīvistī, domine, Titus dē īrā Iovis nārrātūrus erat.

DOMITIANUS: fābula scīlicet aptissima! Eam audīre velim. Tite, nārrātiōnem tuam renovā!

TITUS: (fābulam cūnctanter renovāns) Iu-Iuppiter igitur Aquilōnem in ca-cavernis Aeoliīs

inclūsit, et Notum līberāvit. Quī madidīs ālīs ēvolāvit; ba-barba nimbīs gravābātur, undae dē capillīs fluēbant. Simulatque Notus ēvolāvit, nimbī dēnsī ex aethere cum ingentī fragōre effūsī sunt. Sed tanta erat Iovis īra ut imbribus caelī contentus nōn esset;

auxilium ergō ā frātre Neptūnō petīvit. Quī cum terram tridente percussisset, illa

valdē tremuit viamque patefēcit ubi fluerent. Statim flūmina ingentia per campōs

apertōs ruēbant.


DOMITIANUS: satis nārrāvistī, Tite. Nunc tū, Pūblī, nārrātiōnem excipe.

Quintiliānus verētur nē Pūblius, quod minor nātū est, nārrātiōnem excipere nōn possit. Ille tamen fortius frātre incipit.

PUBLIUS: iamque inter mare et tellūrem nūllum discrīmen erat; mare ubīque erat, neque ūlla

lītora habēbat. Hominēs exitium effugere cōnābantur. Aliī montēs ascendērunt;

aliī in nāvibus sedentēs, per agrōs illōs rēmigāvērunt quōs nūper arābant;

hic suprā segetēs aut tēcta vīllārum mersārum nāvigāvit; ille in summīs arboribus

piscēs invēnit. Lupī inter ovēs natābant; leōnēs vulvī undīs vehēbantur.

Avēs postquam terram diū quaerēbant ubi cōnsistere possent, tandem in mare fessīs Alīs dēcidērunt. Capellae gracilēs . ..


Pūbliō hoc nārrāntī Domitiānus manū significat ut dēsistat. Diū tacet. Puerīs anxiīs expectantibus. Quīntiliānus timet nē puerī Imperātōrī nōn placuerint. Tandem ille loquitur.

DOMITIANUS: fortūnāt estis, Pūblī ac Tite; nam, ut decet prīncipis hērēdēs, ab optimō rhētore docēmini, quī optima exempla vōbīs prōposuit. Sī vōs, puerī, causās vestrās tam fācundē dīxēritis quam Ovidius versūs composuit, saepe victōrēs ē basilicā discēdētis; ab omnibus laudābiminī.

TITUS: (timōre iam dēpositō) nōnne ūna rēs tē fallit, domine? Nōs sumus hērēdēs tuī;

nōnne igitur nōs cum causās nostrās dīxerimus, nōn saepe sed semper victōrēs



discēdēmus et ab omnibus laudābimur?

Quīntiliānus ērubēscit. Domitiānus, audāciā Titī obstupefactus, nihil dīcit. Tandem rīdēns vel

rīsum simulāns, puerōs rhētoremque dīmittit; deinde, stilō resūmptō, muscās iterum captāre

incipit.

Ōrātionō solute: prose speech

Nārrātiōneō, -iōnis: narration

Cūnctanter: slowly, hesitantly

Caverna, -ae: cave

Aeolius: Aeolian

Inclūdō, -ere, inclusī: shut up

Notus: South Wind

Gravō, -āre, -āvī, ­ātum: load, weigh down

Imber, rain

Tridēns, tridentis: trident

Campu: plain

Excipō, -ere: take over

Tellūs, tellūris: land

Discrīmen:, boundary

Rēmigō, -āre, -āvī-, ātum: row

Arō, , -āre, -āvī-, ātum: plow

Hic . . . ille: this man. . . that an

Suprā: over, on top of

Aut: or

Mergō, -ere, mersī: submerge


Piscis, piscis: fish

Ovis, ovis: sheep

Vulvus, -a, -um: tawny, light brown

Capella, -ae: she-goat

Gracilis: graceful

Causam dīcere: to plead a case

Fācundē: fluently\

Fallō, -ere: escape notice of

Resūmō, -ere: resumpsī, resūmptūm: pck up again,

Captō, -āre, -āvī-, ātum: try to catch



Iamque erat in tōtās sparsūrus fulmina terrās:

Sed timuit, nē forte sacer tot ab ignibus aethēr

Conciperet flammās, longusque ardēsceret axis.

Poena placet dīversa, genus mortāle sub undīs

Perdere et ex omnī nimbōs dēmittere caelō.

Protinus Aeoliīs Aquilōnem claudit in antrīs

Ēmittitque Nōtum; madidīs Notus ēvolat ālīs;

Barba gravis nimbīs, cānīs fluit unda capillīs.

Fit fragor; hinc dēnsī funduntur ab aethere nimbī.

Nec caelō contenta suō est Iovis īra, sed illum

Caeruleus frāter iuvat auxiliāribus undīs.

Ipse tridente suō terram percussit, at illa

intremuit mōtūque viās patefēcit aquārum.

Exspatiāta ruunt per apertōs flūmina campōs.

Iamque mare et tellūs nūllum discrīmen habēbant:

Omnia Pontus erant, dēerant quoque lītora pontō.

Occupant hic collem, cumbā sedet alter aduncā

et dūcit rēmōs illīc, ubi nūper arābat;


ille suprā sagetēs aut mersae culmina vīllae

nāvigat, hic summā piscem dēprendit in ulmō.

Nat lupus inter ovēs, fulvōs vehit unda leōnēs,

Quaesītīsque diū terrīs, ubi sistere possit,

In mare lassātīs volucris vaga dēcidit ālīs.

Et, modo quā gracilēs grāmen carpsēre capellae,

Nunc ibi dēfōrmēs pōnunt sua corpora phōcae.


Concipere flammās : to burst into flame

Ardēscō, -ere: catch fire

Axis: arched vault of heaven

Antrum, -ī: cave

Cānus, -a, -um: white

Fiō, fierī: be made

Hinc: then

Caeruleus, -ae, -a: from the deep blue sea

Iuvō, -āre, -āvī, -ūtum: help

Auxiliāris: additional

Intremō,- ere, intremuī: shake

Exspatior, -ārī: extend, spread out

Pontus, -ī: sea

Dēsum, dēesse,dēfuīL: be lacking

Collis: hill

Cumba, -ae: boat

Aduncus, -a, -um: curved

Illīc: there

Culmen, culminis: roof

Ulmus, -I: elm tree

Nō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum: swim

Lassō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum: tire

Volucris: wandering

Vagus, -a, -um: wandering

Quā where

Gramen, graminis: grass

Carpō, -ere, carps: chew (carpēre=carpsērunt

Dēfōrmis: ugly

Phōca, -ae: seal


GERUNDIVE - The Future Passive Participle (Read p. 84)


VIDEOS: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qB5-UI2tvUc&NR=1 – review of Latin participles (Benjamin Johnson)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddDoU_ZhwGE&feature=related – Gerundives Stage 39 (Benjamin Johnson)


  • The “gerundive” is the future passive participle. It is an adjective of the 1st-2nd Declension. It agrees with a noun in case, number and gender.

  • A geruNDive is easily identified by the ND in the Latin form. How one uses it is more complex that recognizing the form.

  • The gerundive is formed by adding -ndus, -nda, -ndum to the present stem.

    • 1st conjugation: Amandus, -a, -um: about to be loved

    • 2nd conjugation: Terrendus, -a, -um: about to be feared

    • 3rd conjugation: Agendus, -a, -um: about to be done; 3rd io: Capiendus, -a, --um: about to be taken

    • Audiendus, -a, -um: about to be heard

  • The gerundive can often be translated 'about to be ___ed ' or 'to be ___ed': epistula legenda = the letter (about) to be read. Sometimes it can be translated as a simple adjective: homo abominandus = 'horrible man' in place of 'man about to be abominated.'

SOME COMMON WAYS THE GERUNDIVE IS USED
  • When the gerundive is combined with a 3rd person form of esse. This combination expresses obligation or necessity: haec epistula est scribenda = this letter must be written. This gerundive of obligation is also called the passive periphrastic!


    • Carthago delenda est. Carthage must be destroyed.

    • Mihi fābula nārranda est. The story must be told by me. I must tell the story.

  • Here are some examples without est, where it does not express obligation or necessity:

  • In the genitive case with “causā”. “causā” means “for the sake of”. It comes after its noun.

    • Pōlla postēs iānuae unguit fascinātiōnis āvertendae causā

    • Literally: Polla anoints the doorposts for the sake of the evil eye to be averted.

    • We have a noun (fascinātiōnis – evil eye) in the genitive case and the gerundive (āvertendae – to be averted) modifies it and agrees with it.

    • To give a more natural translation, we usually turn the noun (evil eye) into a direct object, like this: Polla anoints the doorposts for the sake of averting the evil eye. or Polla anoints the doorposts to avert the evil eye.

  • In the accusative case with “ad”. In this usage, “ad” means “for the purpose of”

    • Nimbōs ingentēs dēmīsit ad genus mortāle perdendum.

    • Literally: He sent down huge clouds for the purpose of the human race to be destroyed.

    • There is a noun (genus – race) in the accusative case, modified by a gerundive (perdendum) in the accusative case.

    • To give a more natural translation, we usually turn it around and make the noun a direct object, like this: He sent down huge clouds for the purpose of destroying the human race. or He sent down huge clouds to destroy the human race.

  • In the ablative case, as an ablative of means without a preposition.
    • Meīs fīliīs ascīscendīs mē magnopere honōrās.


    • Literally: By my sons to be adopted, you honor me greatly.

    • More natural English: By adopting my sons, you honor me greatly.

TRANSLATE:

        1. Ex urbe effūgī discrīminis vītandī causā.

        2. Aliīs iuvandīs tē ipsum iuvās.

        3. Mīlitēs facēs ferēbant ad arborēs incendendās

        4. Nūlla erit occāsiō ōrātionis Imperātōris audiendae.

        5. Clade vītās cīvium multōrum servāvistis.

        6. Exercitus ad Calēdoniam bellī contrā barbarōs gerendī causā mittētur.

        7. Haec verba dīcit ad tē perturbandum.

        8. Agricolae cupiditās Rōmae rēgendae cavenda est nōbīs.

The Gerund, a verbal noun


  • In form only the gerund resembles a future passive participle, but it is a verbal noun rather than a verbal adjective.

  • The gerund's meaning is always active, rather than passive, and always in the present tense.

  • It is always neuter in gender, always singular in number, and it never appears in the nominative case. (If you want a verbal as the subject of a sentence, you must use an infinitive rather than a gerund. Example: Errāre est humanum. To make a mistake is human).

  • It is formed like the future passive participle and declined like a 2nd declension noun:
    Genitive: -ndi   clamandi, docendi, ducendi, capiendi, audiendi
    Dative: -ndo   clamando, docendo, ducendo, capiendo, audiendo
    Accusative: -ndum    clamandum, docendum, ducendum, capiendum, audiendum
    Ablative: -ndo   clamando, docendo, ducendo, capiendo, audiendo
  • It is translated into English as a verbal noun ending in -ing: ars docendi = the art of teaching; modus vivendi = way of living.


  • Like the gerundive, the gerund is often used with ad (for the purpose of) and causā (for the sake of)

VIDEOS: (1st 3 by Benjamin Johnson)



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qB5-UI2tvUc&NR=1 – review of Latin participles

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddDoU_ZhwGE&feature=related – Gerundives Stage 39

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guLvSgdYtyY - Gerunds & Gerundives

http://vimeo.com/1266024 star trek video about gerund & gerundive

Watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KlH0WeNb_4 - Stage 39 Fearing Clauses

FEARING CLAUSES (READ P. 88)

Verbs and phrases that express fear of an anticipated situation are followed by a subjunctive clause. Most fearing clauses are introduced by ne. These are the only ones introduced in this chapter.



Timeo ne cadat
I fear lest he fall. Or I fear that he may/will fall (i.e., I hope he does NOT fall)

This can actually be more complicated. Fearing clauses may be introduced by ne or ut. This type of construction gives insight into the speaker's attitude towards the anticipated condition:



Timeo ne cadat

I fearlest/ that he may/will fall (i.e., I hope he does NOT fall)

Timeo ut cadat = I fear lest/ that he may/will NOT fall (i.e., I hope that he DOES fall).

Notice how the last two sentences are translated. What you would expect after ut and ne is REVERSED. That's the trickiest part of such clauses. Ut implies fear that it may NOT happen; ne implies fear that it will happen! Ut is negative; ne is positive. Thinking of "fear" as a form of indirect wish may help you to remember this reversal of these two introductory words.


ut = HOPE it will happen = FEAR lest it may NOT happen

ne = HOPE it will NOT happen = FEAR lest may happen

In English attention is concentrated on the positive or negative of what might happen, whereas in Latin one focuses on the positive or negative concept of what one wishes and anticipates. Thus, what the speaker fears may happen is introduced by ne. What he fears may not happen is introduced by ut.



WORD ORDER Read p. 92-93

Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8HaXu4tRew - Word Order Stage 39

NOMEN_________________________

Translate, and figure out what thing or machine is being described.

1. res ad fumum sentiendum

2. machina ad residua cenarum destruendam

3. locus ad lignum igne cremandum

4. machina ad aquam bibendo calefaciendam

5. machina ad cibum undis parvissimis coquendum

6. machina singula ad musicam audiendam

7. vehiculum ad multos homines per viam quattuor aut sex rotis movendas

8. machina ad portam carri loci aperiendam

9. machina ad vestimenta purganda

10. machina ad pondera hominum monstranda

11. machina ad homines excitandos

12. machina ad frutas in sucum convertendas

13. machina ad vehicula in via coercenda

14. machina ad cibos frigore conservandos

15. domo relicto, machina ad mandata vocantium recipienda

16. machina ad barbam faciei removendam

17. machina ad pecuniam dandam (casu = by chance)

18. machina ad herbam caedendam

19. machina ad capillos siccandos

20. machina occulta ad sermones hostium audiendos

21. machina ad nives tollendas (tolendas = removendas)

22. machina ad literras scriptas ipsas statim mittendas

23. machina ad plures homines viis ferreis movendos

24. machina ad homines capiendos in area ab una urbe ad alteram urbem

25. machine ad hominem monendum quod aliquis eius carrum capere temptat

PAGE 94: PRACTICING THE LANGUAGE. For A. & B, do 1,2 & 3 in writing, and the rest orally. For C., do all sentences in writing.


  1. 1. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________

2. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________

3. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________


  1. 1. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________

2. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________

3. Lat:______________________________________________________________

Eng:______________________________________________________________


  1. 1. Translate a. into English_______________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________



  1. Translate a. into English______________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________



  1. Translate a. into English_____________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________

4. Translate a. into English_______________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________


  1. Translate a. into English______________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________



  1. Translate a. into English_____________________________________________

Write b. in Latin____________________________________________________

Translate b. into English_____________________________________________

WORD STUDY:


  1. copy the words and put parentheses around the Latin root. Give the Latin word and its meaning from which the derivative comes.
    1.

2.

3.

4.



5.

6.

7.



8.
B. Match the derivatives with their meaning.

  1. 1.

2.

3.

4.



5.

6.

7.



8.

9.

10.



  1. Give an English derivative from a stage 39 Vocab Checklist word.

1.

2.

3.



4.

5.

6.


NOMEN______________________________________________________________


1. ad with a gerundive means: _________ and it takes its object in the ______ case

causā with a gerundive means: ________ and it takes its object in the _____ case

2. Iuppiter nimbōs ingentēs dēmīsit ad genus mortāle perdendum: nimbus: cloud;

Genus, generis: race

Perdō, -ere: destroy

Trans. _______________________________________________________________

3. Polla postēs iānuae unguit fascinātiōnis āvertendae causae: fascinatiō, -tiōnis: evil eye


unquō, -ere: anoint

Trans. _______________________________________________________________

4. Iamque erat in tōtās sparsūrus fulmina terrās: fulmen, fulminis: thunderbolt

spargō, -ere, sparsī, sparsus: scatter

Translate:

What kind of participle is sparsūrus? ____________

What is the “separated” noun adjective pair?_________ _________

5. Sed timuit, nē forte sacer tot ab ignibus aethēr forte: by chance; ardēscō, -ere: catch fire

Conciperet flammās, longusque ardēsceret axis. Conciperet flammas:burst into flame

Translate: axis: arched vault of heaven

What tense are the subjunctive verbs conciperet & ardesceret? ______________


6. occupat hic collem, cumbā sedet alter aduncā collis: hill; cumba: boat

et dūcit rēmōs illīc, ubi nūper arābat; adunca, -a, -um: curved; illīc there

TRANSLATE

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What is the “separated” noun adjective pair?

Give a pair of words in the first line that imply contrast: ___________ _____________

Give a pair of words in the second line that imply contrast: ____________ _____________

5. ille suprā sagetēs aut mersae culmina vīllae seges, segetis: crop


nāvigat, hic summā piscem dēprendit in ulmō. Dēprendō, -ere: catch; ulmus: elm tree (f, although it is 2nd decl)

Transl: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Give a separated noun/adjective pair in the first line: ____________ ____________

Give a separated noun/adjective pair in the 2nd line: ____________ ______________

6. Nat lupus inter ovēs, fulvōs vehit unda leōnēs, fulvus, -a, -um: tawny; vehō, -ere: carry, convey

Translate: ___________________________________________________

Give the separated noun/adjective pair: _______________ ____________

What is the implied contrast? ______________________________________________________________________
7. Quaesītīsque diū terrīs, ubi sistere possit, lassō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus: tire, make weary

In mare lassātīs volucris vaga dēcidit ālīs sistō, -ere: stop; volucris: bird; vagus, -a, --um: wandering

Translate: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Give the separated noun/adjective (it’s a participle) pair: _______________ ____________

Give the ablative absolute: _____________________________________________



Give the indirect question with subjunctive verb: ________________________________________________


  1. Which of the following is the term for an event at which an author read his works? Bibliōpōlae, librāriī, recitātiō, legiō

  2. Which of the following was known was a famous educator (rhetor) and orator?

Ovid? Pliny the Younger, Martial Quintilian






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