Are Muslims discriminated against in Canada Since September 2001 ?

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1 This text is part of a report submitted in May 2003 to partners in the study funded by the Sciences and Humanities Research Council (CRSH-IDR- 2003-2005) : The challenges facing the integration of Muslims in Canada and Quebec.

2 Canadian Charter governs relations between private individuals and the governments but not those between private individuals. Civil law remains a provincial jurisdiction according to the 1867 Constitutional Law and private relations are governed by the provincial charters of human rights. The Canadian Human Rights Act applies to the relations between private individuals in the fields of federal jurisdiction (government enterprises, Crown companies) and treats discrimination.

3 Andrews vs Law Society of British Columbia [1989] R.C.S. 143.

4 Three categories of hate crimes are defined in the section of the Criminal code on hate propaganda : inciting genocide (art.318), public incitement for hatred (art. 319, par. 1) and the voluntary fomenting of hatred other than in a private conversation. Hate propaganda has been criminalized since 1971.

5 The other 64 hate crimes targeted people for their cultural origin which most often attaches them to the Islamic culture : Pakistani, Somali, Afghan, Mddle-Eastern, Arab, etc.

6 A hate crime unit was created after September 11, 2001.

7 This fact must incite us to interpret the results with caution.

8 In Ottawa, women wearing the hijab were refused jobs.

9 Not all feminist movements protested the Commission's opinion : the Council of the Status of Women, for instance, shared the view of the Commission.

10 In some respects, this law is similar to the American Patriot Act passed in October 2001 and to the British Crime and Security Act passed in December 2001.

11 A terrorist activity is defined by Bill C-36 as an act made "in the name of a goal, an objective or a cause of a political, religious or ideological nature" and which "seriously compromises the health or the safety of the whole population or part of it".

12 This clause raised fears of having the properties of people of Islamic culture seized without evidence and of a drop in donations to places of worship and other organizations for fear of seeing the funds diverted to activities prohibited by the law.

13 40% of immigrants aged 25 to 54 years, and arrived in the 1990s held a university diploma compared to 23% natives of the same age.

14 These are possible but very expensive because they require special orders of census data from Statistics Canada.

15 Without taking account of the circulation factor, La Presse was the most biased newspaper in 1999. In 1998, the most biased daily newspapers were The Toronto Star, followed by The Globe and Mail.

16 A poll in Montreal during the fall of 2001 indicated that 83% of Montrealers wished for a tightening of immigration laws and 77% wanted an increase in border control (p.

17 This argument has no basis because the Canadian State is not laique. Furthermore, it grants privileges to the Catholic and Protestant churches.

18 According to a Compas Inc. poll, 26% of Quebecers and 10% of other Canadians think that Jews have too much power in Canada and 15% of Canadians (including 26% of Francophones and 39% of those with high school or lower education levels) that « the persecution suffered by Jews before and during WWII was in part or mostly their fault », The Gazette, September 25 2002.

19 10% of the 30.000 students at Concordia are Muslims.

20 84% of Canadian exports go to the U.S. and manufacturers and industrial pressure groups that have stakes in this market have their say in the debates on Islam and the control of Canadian borders.

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