Assignment term paper natural resource management of orissa
MAHANADI:THE SORROW OF ORISSA
The ‘Mahanadi’ which was known as pride of Orissa has now very sadly turned into the sorrow of Orissa.To understand this we have to compare the pre Hirakund and post Hirakund situation. The number of life affected due to flood in post dam session is more than in pre dam session. Actually year after year flood plain have been encroached and the floods of moderate magnitude flow steadily for days together,and another flood in quick succession coupled with phase of the moon , which keeps the sea level high , particularly during full moon days and new moon days. As per the Sadhan Satpathy of Center for Development Studies ,major changes in post Hirakund is the frequency of flood. As to her from 1951 to 1957 flood occurred in 78% of the year as compared to 44% from 1958-1984. The share of large and very large floods went down from 76% to 42% after the dam. The share of small and medium floods went up from 24% to 58% . The average intensity declined from 33,220 to 30,250 cumecs. So in this regard dam has positive impact. But , storage capacity of Hirahund Reservior is going out due to siltation .The dead storage level has come down to 0.15mham from 0.23mham by 1981. And the gross storage has been reduced to 0.66mham from 0.81mham at the beginning. In addition to this , filling of the reservoir in July for electricity generation purpose , leaves no space to accumulate excess main water towards end of August or September. Again , continuous and heavy rain fall in addition to excess release of water from the reservoir,creates flood havoc which would not have been the case in absence of dam
Orissa , owning to its peculiar geographical location and wide range of physical features , embraces a diversified floristic composition and consequently a vast economic potential.
The extensive ranges of hilly forests , several lofty peaks , long stretch of coastline extensive river system ,brackish waters and coastal plains altogether have endowed the state with a wide range of ecological habitats for a diverse and broad spectrum of vegetation , but over the time forest have degraded, and degradation of forest is largely responsible for the changes in climate over the land , variation in rainfall patterns , global warming and rendering
The KBK districts have been historically rich in forest resources. Though the people have been using these forests very intensively and eking out their livelihood from this source, forests of this region have not received adequate investments and managerial inputs over time. Intensive use of forests for sustenance coupled with lack of insufficient investments and managerial inputs are, thus, continuously leading to forest degradation.The KBK region has still some of the natural wonderful forests. The old koraput district is covered by the eastern ghats while the old bolanghir district and kalahandi are the parts of the chattisgarh plateu.The forest are of dry deciduous type comprising of natural sal forests ,mixed forest and small area growing natural teak. Bamboo species are prevalent in great density over large areas.
The Eight re-organized districts comprising the KBK region have a total geographical area of 47,646 sq kms.Out of this 16,857sq kms is variously recorded as forest land. However due to various reasons, these forests have degraded both in quality and quantity over the years. Some forest lands are now devoid of vegetal cover. Proportion of dense forest is considerably reduced.
An analysis of the satellite imaginary data (1997), one third (16,131 sq.km.) of the geographical area of this region is recorded as forests, only 11.3% (5,473 sq.km) is actually dense forest (i.e., with crown density over 40%) as per satellite imagery data. It has been further ascertained that 9% (4,332 sq.km.) forest area is completely devoid of vegetal cover. Another 13.5% (6,327 sq.km.) forests are open having crown density more than 10% but less than 40%.
In due course, it was felt that short term strategies were not appropriate to address the multi-faceted backwardness of the region. Therefore, a Long Term Action Plan (LTAP) for the three undivided districts of KBK (Koraput, Bolangir and Kalahandi) was prepared in 1993 in consultation with Govt. of India. The LTAP was conceptualized for a period of seven years from 1995-96 to 2001-02 with two objectives in view: (a) drought and distress proofing, and (b) poverty alleviation and development saturation. LTAP envisaged an outlay of Rs. 4557.03 crores. However, LTAP did not take off for want of availability of sufficient funds.
In 1998, a Revised Long Term Action Plan (RLTAP) was submitted to Government of India as per their advice. The revised project was envisaged for a period of nine years from 1998-99 to 2006-07 with an outlay of Rs. 6251.06 crores.
Looking to the sea changes that RLTAP has produced in the KBK region by implementing various strategies we can say that RLTAP has been able to meet its objectives.
Achievements in last seven years due to implementation of RLTAP are as follows:-
1. INCREASED FOREST COVER
The afforestation programme in KBK district under RLTAP started since 1998-1999 and 1,25,167ha area has brought under afforestation by the end of 2004-2005.
2. GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Under RLTAP ,144.13lakh man-day have been created in KBK districts since 1998.
3.Cultivation of medicinal plants over 95ha through 19 VSS have been completed to provide self employment through cultivation of medicinal plants.
4. Twenty five godowns have been constructed all over the districts for extending the involvement under Food for work programme.
5. Improved site condition –Plantation programme along with soil and water conservation method.
6. Conflict between foresters and community decreased.
7. Shifting cultivation decreased and fodder produce increased.
8. Engaged in procurement and selling of minor forest produce.
RECOMMENDATION AND ACTIVITIES NEED TO BE TAKEN
We, in India, in participation of the community and people must rededicate ourselves to the protection and wise management of our life sustaining environment.
It will be saved with changed minds,
People with anew vision
With old minds and new programs
It will not be saved by people
With the old vision but anew program
We began this paper with a story of Bhagwau sahoo , a story of environmental degradation leading to economic deprivation and migration .We like to end it with a another story of same region This is the story of hope , of what is possible when a community gets together to save the environment.
The story of Kudupatti tells us how the village folk took interest and started reviving the forest .It also demonstrates the hurdles they had to face from the government but still tried to maintain their efforts.
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