Atlanta Urban Debate League Evidence Packet



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Atlanta Urban Debate League

Evidence Packet

Aquaculture Affirmative and Negative





Topic – Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military exploration and/or development of the Earth’s oceans.








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Table of Contents
2014 Topic -- Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military exploration and/or development of the Earth’s oceans.

***Sample 1AC and 1NC*** 4

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 5

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 6

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 7

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 8

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 9

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 10

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative 11

Sample 1NC – Environment DA 12

Sample 1NC – Environment DA 13

Sample 1NC – Environment DA 14

Sample 1NC – Case Answer 15

***Templates*** 16

How To Use The Templates 17

1st Affirmative Constructive (1AC) Template 18

1st Affirmative Constructive (1AC) Template 19

1st Affirmative Constructive (1AC) Template 20

1st Affirmative Constructive (1AC) Template 21

1st Negative Constructive (1NC) Template: Disadvantages 22

1st Negative Constructive (1NC) Template: Disadvantages 23

1st Negative Constructive (1NC) Template: On-Case Arguments 24

1st Negative Constructive (1NC) Template: On-Case Arguments 25

***Affirmative and Article Summaries*** 26

Aquaculture Affirmative Summary 27

Environment Disadvantage Summary 28

Article Summaries – Affirmative 29

Article Summaries – Negative 30

***Affirmative Articles*** 31

Affirmative Plan Text 32

Affirmative Article 1: “The End of the Line” 33

Affirmative Article 2: “Efficient Aquaculture Needed for Food Security, Particularly in Asia” 34

Affirmative Article 3: “The New, Innovative And More Efficient Way Of Feeding People” 36

Affirmative Article 4: “Declining Ocean Health Threatens Food Security” 37

Affirmative Article 5: “The New Geopolitics of Food” 38

Affirmative Article 6: “Offshore Aquaculture Fills the Supply Gap” 40

Affirmative Article 7: “Gaps In Federal Regulation of Offshore Aquaculture” 42

Affirmative Article 8: “Aquaculture Made Safe” 43

***Negative Articles*** 44

Negative Article 1: “How the US Stopped Its Fisheries From Collapsing” 45

Negative Article 2: “The Negative Impacts of Aquaculture” 47

Negative Article 3: “Aquaculture Problems: Fish Feed” 48

Negative Article 4: “The Legal Implications of Aquaculture In The United States” 49

Negative Article 5: “Why Fish Farming is Unsustainable and Harming the Planet” 50

Negative Article 6: “White House Could Announce World's Largest Marine Reserve Soon” 52

Negative Article 7: “A Hungry World: Lots of Food, in Too Few Places” 53

Negative Article 8: “In Deep Water” 54

***Offshore Wind Environment Updates*** 56

Negative Article: “Artificial Reef Effect In Relation To Offshore Renewable Energy Conversion” 57

Negative Article: “Marine Invasive Alien Species: A Threat to Global Biodiversity” 58

Affirmative Article: “Offshore Wind Farms Are Good For Wildlife” 59

Affirmative Article: “Human Assault Pushes Ocean to Limit Unseen in 300 Million Years” 60

***Glossary*** 62

Glossary (1/2) 63

Glossary (2/2) 64

More Resources: Articles, Books, and Videos 65

***Sample 1AC and 1NC***

Sample 1AC – Aquaculture Affirmative


Contention 1 is Inherency –
Overfishing has led to catastrophic declines in fish populations – aquaculture is the only sustainable way to produce fish

Walsh, 11 (Bryan, senior writer for TIME Magazine covering energy and the environment. Published July 7, 2011. Available at http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2081796,00.html)

But we may be coming to that realization too late, because it turns out that even the fathomless depths of the oceans have limits. The U.N. reports that 32% of global fish stocks are overexploited or depleted and as much as 90% of large species like tuna and marlin have been fished out in the past half-century. Once-plentiful species like Atlantic cod have been fished to near oblivion, and delicacies like bluefin tuna are on an arc toward extinction. A recent report by the International Programme on the State of the Ocean found that the world's marine species faced threats "unprecedented in human history" — and overfishing is part of the problem.

Meanwhile, the worldwide catch seems to have plateaued at about 90 million tons a year since the mid-1990s. That's a lot of fish, but even if those levels prove sustainable, it's not enough to keep up with global seafood consumption, which has risen from 22 lb. per person per year in the 1960s to nearly 38 lb. today. With hundreds of millions of people joining the middle class in the developing world and fish increasingly seen as a tasty and heart-healthy form of protein, that trend will continue. The inescapable conclusion: there just isn't enough seafood in the seas. "The wild stocks are not going to keep up," says Stephen Hall, director general of the WorldFish Center. "Something else has to fill that gap."


Something else already does: aquaculture. Humans have been raising some fish in farms for almost as long as we've been fishing, beginning with Chinese fishponds 4,000 years ago. But it's only in the past 50 years that aquaculture has become a true industry. Global aquacultural production increased from less than 1 million tons in 1950 to 52.5 million tons in 2008, and over the past few decades, aquaculture has grown faster than any other form of food production. Today about half the seafood consumed around the world comes from farms, and with the projected rise in global seafood consumption, that proportion will surely increase. Without aquaculture, the pressure to overfish the oceans would be even greater. "It's no longer a question about whether aquaculture is something we should or shouldn't embrace," says Ned Daly, senior projects adviser at the Seafood Choices Alliance. "It's here. The question is how we'll do it."




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