AIPD objectives have been formulated with a view to establishing a logical hierarchy of desired objectives (or results), which can be measured and managed, namely:
Impact: The longer term developmental objective to which all AIPD initiatives should eventually contribute.
Outcome: The medium term objective, which supports the desired ‘impact’ and to which all ‘outputs’ should contribute.
Outputs: The more specific objectives that will support the achievement of the outcome, and which are the result of implementing activities ‘on the ground’; and
Indicative Activities: The actions/initiatives that need to be developed and then implemented to deliver outputs.
The AIPD’s objective statements are profiled in Figure 5 in the form of an ‘objective tree’.
It is important to note that AIPD’s planned ‘impact’ is not poverty reduction, but rather ‘improved service delivery’. This is in order to help keep AIPD’s objectives realistic and more measurable. It is implicitly assumed that improved service delivery (particularly in health, education and infrastructure) will make a positive contribution to addressing poverty.
AIPD will directly contribute to achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the targeted provinces, specifically with respect to: (i) achieve universal primary education; (ii) promote gender equality and empower women; (iii) reduce child mortality; (iv) improve maternal health; and (v) combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases. The monitoring and evaluation framework (which outlines the recommended approach for assessing progress and performance) is provided at Annex 4, and briefly summarised in section 4.4.
Figure 5 – AIPD objective tree and component structure
3.4Vision of success
The vision of success at the end of 2015 has five elements, as follows:
P/LGs are allocating and managing their available financial resources in a way that links planning to expenditure and stated service delivery improvement targets, particularly for health, education and infrastructure.
Improved P/LG decision making, resource allocation and management systems are contributing to improved health, education and infrastructure service delivery, particularly regarding access to these services by poor and marginalised groups, including women.
Demand side stakeholders are playing an integral role in P/LG planning, budgeting and service delivery monitoring processes and fora; and there is evidence that community aspirations are reflected in the budget.
Lessons learnt from AIPD supported reform initiatives are being effectively shared, replicated as appropriate and are influencing national level policy making and resource allocation decisions in support of decentralisation reforms.
Lessons learnt from AIPD are being fed into our health, education and infrastructure sectoral programs to improve their efficiency.
Partners are kept informed of the work being undertaken through the AIPD, and regard Australia (AusAID) as an effective partner offering streamlined and coherent support for improved service delivery.
3.5Differentiating the scope of support at different levels of government
AIPD will work with and support national, provincial and local level government partners. It will also facilitate the exchange of knowledge/information between the different levels, including with/to village level government.
The scope/type of support will also vary between the different levels of government. At the national level, the main focus will be on supporting improvements in policy, regulations and financial allocation mechanisms (in close collaboration with other GOA funded programs such as for Economic Governance). At the provincial level, it will be on supporting the development of their capacity to support and monitor LGs. At the district level it will on building service delivery capacity, through improved resource allocation and management systems. And at the village/community level, it will be on supporting their capacity to ‘demand’ better services.
Nevertheless, the main focus of all supporting actions will be to improve the capacity of Districts to allocate and manage resources for improved service delivery outcomes. It is therefore anticipated that the bulk of AIPD resources and efforts will be directed to the District level. The rationale for this P/LG focus includes: (i) it is consistent with GOI decentralisation policy; (ii) it is consistent with AusAID’s country strategy, to focus on the needs of poorer areas in Eastern Indonesia; (iii) AusAID already has a well established presence (and strong local partnerships) in the targeted provinces; (iv) there are already a range of donor supported programs working at the national level on governance reform, including AIPEG (e.g. it is a relatively ‘crowded’ field); and (v) there is a need to base national level policy and regulatory improvements on better evidence of what is working and what is not in ‘the field’. Figure 5 provides an overview of how the scope of AIPD support will be differentiated at these different levels.
Figure 5 – Differentiating AIPD support at different levels
3.6Description of outputs and indicative activities
This section provides a description of each of the anticipated outputs, as well as indicative activities that will be developed and implemented to support output delivery. The activities are described as ‘indicative’, because if AIPD is to be a demand driven, flexible and responsive mechanism, all activities cannot be prescribed in advance. Also, it is not until the required analytical work has been carried out on each P/LGs PFM systems (e.g. Public Expenditure Analysis) that the specific capacity development requirements can be determined.
During the preliminary phase of AIPD implementation (or indeed as part of the ongoing ANTARA program) it is also expected that the fiduciary risks of working through partner government systems will be assessed in more detail, based on an assessment framework currently being trialed by AusAID in Papua New Guinea. Lessons from the HIV program will also be considered and integrated into AIPD activities where appropriate.
COMPONENT 1 – SUPPLY SIDE
Output 1.1 – Clear mechanisms applied for improved allocation of funds both between different levels of government and within P/LGs
As noted in the situation analysis, there is significant scope for improving the mechanisms used to more effectively allocate resources between different levels of government and within P/LGs.
The following indicative activities will therefore contribute to the achievement of this output.
Activity 1.1.1 Implementation of Public Expenditure Analysis (PEA).
Public expenditure analysis provides critical information on which to base the development of resource management and allocation improvement plans within P/LGs. It also provides baseline data and (if undertaken in an appropriately participatory manner) is an important learning and capacity building activity in itself.
Among the targeted provinces, PEA has already been undertaken in Papua (2005, and is currently being updated), NTT (2009) and is currently being implemented in NTB. Despite high “buy-in” from the Provincial Governments, there are several lessons learned about the effective design and implementation of PEA, namely: (i) the overall process – from data collection to launch of the report – should not exceed 1 year; (ii) in addition to academics from local universities, various other stakeholders such as local CSO/NGOs, including women’s organisations, and government officials need to be actively involved in the process; and (iii) the PEA should focus on pressing issues rather than addressing all normative compliance issues. Several areas of analyses, such as comparative analysis deconcentrated/Tugas Pembantuan funds vis-à-vis local budget, quality of expenditure, and operations and maintenance (O&M) vs. capital expenditure, need to be enhanced; (iv) a PEA that focuses on the provincial level and only includes a few districts is of limited benefit for district governments, and therefore full coverage of all (interested) districts/municipalities in each province is recommended; and (v) limited efforts have been made to follow-up PEA results, particularly at the district level (see Activity 3.1.1 on the demand side).
AIPD will therefore support the implementation of ‘improved’ PEAs (as outlined above), based on commitment and demand of the PGs and LGs in Papua Barat and remaining districts of NTT in 2010-11. PEAs will be used as an important reference to help target assistance, and will then be implemented again in all targeted provinces and districts in 2015 to help measure changes in the quality of resource allocation and management.25
Activity 1.1.2 Improvement of budget preparation and allocation mechanisms.
The program will assist participating P/LGs to reform their planning, budgeting and budget execution monitoring processes, so that their health, education and infrastructure priorities and targets are more effectively translated into expenditure priorities, and are then appropriately monitored. AIPD will focus its support on the following particular areas:
Inclusion within RPJMD and health and education Renstras of a set of clear priorities, performance indicators and targets and annual budget estimates. One tool that can be used to support improved budget preparation is the ‘Consolidated Planning and Budgeting Matrix’, known as MKPP+ (see also Activity 1.3.1 below), already successfully piloted under ANTARA;
The provision of budget ceilings prior to the start of the sectoral planning process (based on enhanced RPJMD and Renstras as discussed above);
Enhancement of public participation in sectoral planning discussion (e.g. Forum SKPD on health and education) and budget deliberations by DPRD;
Enhancement of budget execution monitoring processes and capacity; and
National and provincial-level advocacy to improve the allocation and transfer of funds to the district budget for activities under the authority of LGs.
Activities to support the transparency of the budget and budgeting process (public access to information) will also be supported under Activity 3.1.1.
Activity 1.1.3 Development of systems to integrate community driven-development (CDD) programs into district planning and budgeting processes.
Currently there are various CDD programs implemented in most districts in Indonesia. The most significant of these is the nationally managed ‘National Community Empowerment Program’ (PNPM) which was launched in 2008 to cover all sub-districts in Indonesia. Most districts also provide village block grants (ADD) and some provincial governments also implement other CDD programs. Most of these programs have their own procedures and mechanisms, mainly running parallel to LG planning and budgeting processes.
With the strategy to integrate PNPM into local government processes by 2015, AIPD will support piloting this integration in some of the participating districts and municipalities, starting in 2011-12. National government ministries implementing PNPM (mainly MOHA and Public Works), PGs implementing CDD program(s) and LGs will be facilitated to review existing mechanisms and adopt demonstrated good practices (e.g. transparent, participatory, pro-poor and gender-sensitive planning and budgeting mechanisms) into their own processes.26 This activity will be integrated with enhancement of the budgeting mechanism implemented under Activity 1.1.2 and will be complemented by Activity 3.1.1 on the demand side. It will also be integrated with the larger capacity building program to be delivered under AusAID’s strategy for engagement with PNPM.
Output 1.2 – Performance-based incentive mechanisms piloted for improved service delivery
A lack of performance-based incentives for P/LGs to improve resource allocation and management and service delivery standards is one of the key weaknesses of the current decentralisation funding system, because the equalization formula effectively “punishes” efforts for improved efficiency.
Activity 1.2.1 Development of institutional performance-based incentive mechanisms.
AIPD will engage with the Ministry of Finance (MOF), particularly the Directorate General for Fiscal Balance (DGFB), as the key counterpart responsible for performance-based incentives in intergovernmental fiscal transfers.
AIPD will work with DGFB to support the piloting of an incentive mechanism based on the existing ‘Delivery Improvement and Local Governance’ (DIALOG) program design.27 During the preparatory phase of DIALOG, three LGs have already been selected in both Gorontalo and Papua based on their PFM Assessment ratings (see Activity 1.4.1).28 These LGs have already signed a Memorandum of Understanding to participate in the program (in September 2008), and have agreed to develop medium term strategies and investment plans to improve access to and quality of health and education services. These plans are expected to be finalized by the end of 2010. Efforts will be made to ensure that these plans are gender responsive.
Based on DIALOG’s Performance Agreement, successful preparation and adoption of the plans, improvement in PFM score, improvement in budget transparency and preparation process, and improvement of spending mix in the health and education sectors will make the LGs eligible to access financial incentives and further capacity building/TA support. The performance of participating districts will be evaluated on an annual basis.
A financial incentive grant (a total amount of IDR 12-16 billion per district) for LGs (not including those in Papua) would be provided jointly by AIPD and the provincial government, with the share covered by the provincial government increasing over time for three years. In Papua, the grant will come from the special autonomy (otsus) funds, with support from AIPD to design and implement the performance-based incentive mechanism. In addition, support will be provided to the PG of Papua to improve the allocation formula for general grants (non performance-based) from the province to districts. It is envisaged that AIPD will support this activity from Year 2 to Year 5 in Papua (after elections for the Papuan Governor have been completed in late 2010).
A review of this activity in 2013 (as part of an AIPD mid-term review) will help decide whether or not the pilot should be expanded to other districts/municipalities in the two provinces and/or to also expand to other AIPD provinces. Based on lessons learned from this pilot (and other relevant initiatives), the DGFB will also be supported to design a systemic inter-governmental performance-based incentive (financial allocation) mechanism.
For the case of Special Autonomy Funds in Papua and Papua Barat, AIPD will assist the provincial governments in developing a distribution formula that is in line with the existing legislation, partially earmarking these funds. Currently, the provincial government does not allocate these funds based on needs or progress in achieving development outcomes, leaving a question mark over the effectiveness of how these funds are being used.
Activity 1.2.2 Performance Monitoring.
AIPD will pilot the utilization of MKPP+ in NTT (and probably NTB) as a tool to monitor and determine performance based funding allocation for provincial governments. The original tool will be utilized in Papua, where it has already been partially implemented. Provincial governments will also be supported in utilizing MKPP+ as a tool for monitoring LGs’ institutionalisation of MKPP.
In addition, support will be provided for developing and piloting ‘new’ performance monitoring mechanisms as and when required, based on the lessons learned from the application of the MKPP tool. These could include performance monitoring mechanisms related to pro poor and gender responsive service delivery.
Activity 1.2.3 Support access to training and learning activities.
In addition to the financial ‘institutionally based’ performance incentives that will be provided under activity 1.2.1, access for civil servants to pursue post-graduate degree and specific training in various areas of regional development will be offered as an incentive for selected (high performing) government employees. P/LGs will understand that both women and men will be considered wherever possible and that gender equality is a principle to be applied in participant selection. It is envisaged that AIPD will work with the participating PGs to facilitate opportunities for officials from high performing P/LGs to access: (i) scholarships for in-Indonesia master/doctoral education; (ii) specific training courses in the area of public finance, economics, public policy, etc.; and (iii) English preparation courses to increase competitiveness for obtaining out-of-country scholarships such as Australian Development Scholarships (ADS) and Australian Leadership Awards (ALA).
This activity will be implemented in all participating provinces, in cooperation with reputable Indonesian universities and relevant GOA agencies, in years 3-5 of AIPD implementation.
Output 1.3 – P/LG (internal) information management systems improved for planning, budgeting and monitoring
Improving resource allocation and management requires that relevant data of adequate quality is available to the right people at the right time. Many P/LGs are struggling to do this. In most cases, the issue is not that there is no information available, but rather that the information is not adequately analysed, exchanged and then acted on in an appropriate or timely manner.
Activity 1.3.1 Support for developing management information systems.
AIPD will support participating P/LGs to build their capacity to organise and manage important data/information that is needed for planning, budgeting and for monitoring budget execution and public service delivery. In each P/LG, the various units responsible for collecting and managing data/information and the primary users of the data29 will be facilitated to discuss and agree on data needs, management processes and responsibilities.
Based on the consensus, AIPD will then support the process of collecting, documenting, and managing existing data/information with regard to plans, budgets, expenditure and service delivery standards. It is important to note that AIPD does not intend to develop a computerised and integrated information management system, but rather work with/on existing systems and computer software. Making the most of existing BPS data will also be given a high priority.
This activity will be supported on an ongoing basis, but with particular emphasis in the early years of AIPD implementation.
Output 1.4 - Knowledge and skills of PFM improved within P/LGs
The introduction of new GOI regulations on PFM systems (e.g. performance based budgeting and accrual accounting) increases the need to improve the capacity of P/LG officials and, to some extent, local legislative (DPRD) members, to comply with requirements. In addition, increased BPK (State Audit Agency) activity (and the dissemination and use of audit results) is driving demand from P/LGs to improve their PFM.
The MOF responded to this demand by establishing a local university network to provide Regional Financial Training (Latihan Keuangan Daerah, LKD) for high level echelon staff and Financial Training Courses (Kursus Keuangan Daerah, KKD) for lower level staff. However, the coverage and capacity of the existing LKD/KKD does not yet adequately cover the high demand from P/LGs in Eastern Indonesia.
This output will establish an enabling environment for P/LGs to achieve other “supply side outputs” (particularly Outputs 1.1 and 1.2) and will be implemented through the following three activities:
Activity 1.4.1 Implementation of Public Financial Management (PFM) Assessment.
This assessment provides detailed information on the PFM performance of P/LGs that can be used to both identify strengths and weaknesses of each PG/LG (and identify areas for improvement) as well as to monitor and evaluate progress made over time. The tool, developed by MOHA and the World Bank, covers nine aspects of PFM – from regulatory framework to auditing – with around 120 indicators. Local universities (see also Activity 1.4.2 below) will be trained to implement the assessment that will cover all participating P/LGs. The Provincial Government will then be facilitated to disseminate the results of the assessments to all LGs and discuss measures to improve the scores. These assessments will be conducted in Years 1 and 5 of the Program to provide baseline and evaluation data.
Activity 1.4.2 Expansion LKD/KKD university network, curricula, training modules, and training delivery.
In Year 1 of AIPD, MOF and the Expert Team of the University network will be supported to review its current program, expand its coverage to other PFM aspects currently not covered, and standardise LKD/KKD curricula and training modules, including ensuring that they address gender issues where appropriate. In addition, the mechanisms used for quality control and certification of training participants will also be reviewed and refined.
One or two of the university network members will be selected to expand the network to cover local universities in the participating provinces, such as Cendrawasih University in Papua, Nusa Cendana University in NTT and Mataram University in NTB. Staff of the universities in the participating provinces will be trained to be able to deliver the LKD/KKD to P/LG officials in their respective provinces. These new universities will be assisted to implement the initial LKD/KKD training by the original universities network member(s) to help ensure the quality of training/course delivered. It is expected that LKD/KKD training will cover all relevant government officials in all participating provinces and districts between Years 2 to 4 of AIPD implementation.
Participating P/LGs will be facilitated to discuss the results of PFM Assessments, together with other information such as from the results of BPK and Provincial/Local Inspectorate audits, and to identify practical measures that can be implemented to improve their performance. As required, local sources of expertise (e.g. universities) will be used to assist the P/LGs to undertake the required analytical and planning work, the setting of reform ‘targets’, implementation of reform plans, and the monitoring and review of progress in meeting agreed targets. Support could also be provided in the form of knowledge sharing (e.g. peer to peer learning opportunities) as described further in Component 2.
Supporting the development of the knowledge, skills and systems that will allow PG’s to more effectively take on their responsibilities for monitoring and supporting LGs, would also be given particular attention.
The focus of AIPD support will be responsive to need/demand, and could cover any area of PFM improvement that P/LGs identify as a priority, as long as it is clearly linked to improved service delivery targets.
COMPONENT 2 – KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND COMMUNICATION
This component will support the implementation of components 1 and 3, as well as adding value in its own right, by developing and further strengthening mechanisms for knowledge generation, sharing and use among key stakeholders, specifically on decentralisation and service delivery improvement issues in Eastern Indonesia.
It is anticipated that BaKTI will be an important (although not exclusive) partner, particularly in undertaking some of the activities under outputs 2.1 and 2.2.
Output 2.1 – Information and research results shared on key/common decentralisation issues, including lessons learned and good practices
LGs as well as provincial and national stakeholders are hampered by a lack of information on what works and smart practices which can be adopted and adapted. Lessons learnt are not disseminated and too often rotations of staff mean that prior experiences must be re-learnt.
Activity 2.1.1 Generate high quality knowledge products for national, provincial and district level stakeholders.
Specific initiatives that could be supported under this activity could include:
Support for identification of key research topics relevant to improving essential service delivery at LG level, including with respect to poverty focused and gender responsive services.
Support for implementation of practical action-research projects and reviews aimed at generating evidence to inform and influence specific policy review and development processes at national or local level. Priority topics might include:
the use of performance-based incentive systems/mechanisms,
regulatory impact assessment,
clarification of functions and responsibilities of different levels of government,
resource allocation mechanisms, etc.
Investigate the potential for, and then support, joint work on economic policy issues with other AIP programs.
Activity 2.1.2 Disseminate high quality knowledge products to national, provincial and district level stakeholders.
Specific initiatives that could be supported would include:
Support the dissemination of information on the core commitments made by P/LGs in such areas as education, health and infrastructure services, so that CSOs and the public in general can monitor their implementation, and engage in more informed dialogue with P/LG authorities on their performance. Attention will be paid to gender issues in information dissemination and subsequent dialogue.
Support the publication of BaKTI News, a development-oriented monthly magazine in two languages and distributed to 2,500 recipients. Content comes from local development practitioners and provides practical information on good development practices. Information relevant to improving P/LG service delivery would be given particular focus/support. Encouragement would also be given for development practitioners to highlight how they have integrated gender equality initiatives into their work.
Support for production and dissemination of contextually appropriate and user-friendly publications, including “plain” Indonesian/English publications of P/LG plans and reports, guides to P/LG planning and budgeting systems, gender mainstreaming at P/LG levels, etc.
Support the production and broadcasting of radio or television programs that help raise public awareness and understanding of how P/LG service delivery can be improved, success stories, the commitments made by P/LG leaders, the rights and responsibilities of citizens with respect to improving service delivery, etc.
Output 2.2 – Peer to peer learning opportunities provided and strategic partnerships on decentralisation/reform established or strengthened
Specific activities that could be supported would include:
Activity 2.2.1 Eastern Indonesia Forum Development Conference
This is an annual event hosted by the Eastern Indonesia Forum which provides a platform for discussing, showcasing and recognising innovative local development initiatives and policies. It includes participation from all twelve eastern provinces, central government and international development partners. AIPD could specifically support participants from the four targeted provinces to present on service delivery reforms/improvement programs that they are engaged in (success stories and constraints being faced) as well as then facilitating follow-up action based on conference outcomes.
Activity 2.2.2 Heads of BAPPEDA Forum
This is a sub-network of the Eastern Indonesia Forum comprising Heads of Provincial BAPPEDA from the twelve provinces in eastern Indonesia. The Heads meet semi-annually and focus on improving province-centre and inter-province development coordination. Once again, AIPD could specifically support participants from the four targeted provinces to present on service delivery reforms/improvement programs that they are engaged in, as well as then facilitating follow-up action based on forum outcomes. Particular focus could be given to generating ideas and information directly relevant to policy / regulatory reform priorities that need to be addressed at the national level.
Activity 2.2.3 Preparation and implementation of seminars, workshops and comparative study tours
This subset of activities would help disseminate knowledge and support learning on improved resource allocation and management mechanisms, service delivery improvements, and other decentralisation reform issues. It would target relevant government officers, parliamentarians as well as CSOs (with attention to gender equality in opportunities to participate). The experience of the LOGICA program in Aceh would be drawn on with respect to organising/facilitating district to district study tours/learning events, aimed at sharing experiences and good practices on service delivery reforms.
Activity 2.2.4 Engagement with the media
AIPD will look for opportunities to engage the media more actively in investigating and reporting on service delivery issues in the targeted provinces, as a means by which to help raise public awareness of key issues, ‘monitor’ government performance and support demand side pressures for improved service delivery. The AJI (Association of Indonesian Journalists) will be the first point of call to discuss opportunities for partnership.
Output 2.3 – Improved P/LG-led donor coordination mechanisms established
This output focuses on enhancing P/LG capacity to take a lead in coordinating donor support to their respective provinces/districts/municipalities.
Activity 2.3.1 P/LG Donor Coordination Support
Specific initiatives that AIPD could support would include:
Strengthening P/LG donor coordination units (e.g. Joint Secretariats), for example by sharing good practices/lessons learned and helping to develop operational guidelines.
Ensuring P/LGs have clear and up to date information on all GOA funded programs that are operating in their provinces/districts.
Providing opportunities for P/LG officials to learn more about how donors and donor supported programs (including AIPD) operate, including for example through short-term secondments to work in AIPD’s P/LG based offices.
Promoting good practices among the donor community (who are operating in the targeted provinces/districts) with respect to supporting P/LG-led donor coordination mechanisms; and
Support for implementation of an open data policy for all Australia Indonesia Partnership programs.
Output 2.4 – Enhanced coherence and coordination of AusAID support to decentralisation / governance capacity building
A key role of AIPD is to promote enhanced coherence and coordination of AusAID support at the P/LG level. This will be supported through such activities as:
Activity 2.4.1 Collaboration to establish parameters and/or conditions for effective support to improved decentralised service delivery
The AIPD Director taking a lead role in organising coordination and information sharing meetings/fora with the managers of other GOA (sectoral) programs that are working in eastern Indonesia to improve LG service delivery. Priority programs will include ACCESS, SADI 2, AIBEP and AIPMNH.
Providing a source of lessons and guidance to AusAID on how it can better design and manage its ‘sectoral’ programs (primarily regarding who should be engaged and how at the sub-national level), so they are supportive of decentralisation policies and local capacity building.
Provision of information/guidance directly to AusAID’s managing contractors on how to most effectively engage at the P/LG level.
Development of a common results framework for measuring the effectiveness of P/LG service delivery capacity building initiatives (‘horizontal’ indicators); and
Provision of direct points of contact in the four targeted provinces (and in targeted districts) through which other sectoral programs can engage in a more coordinated manner with key stakeholders involved in resource allocation and management decision making.
Output 2.3 will also contribute to this objective, by enhancing P/LG capacity to take a lead in determining what external support is needed from whom, and how it should be provided.
COMPONENT 3 – DEMAND SIDE Output 3.1 – Improved LG public information programs and mechanisms established
Law No. 14/2008 on Freedom of Information requires any public entity to provide maximum access (with limited exemption) to public data and information.
Output 1.3 (improved local P/LG information systems) will be used as a basis to then establish institutional arrangements, mechanisms and procedures for external clients (CSO/NGOs and the public in general) to access public data and information and, on the other hand, for the government to actively disseminate data/information based on a sound strategy. It is expected that non-government stakeholders will thus have improved access to data and information needed to participate, advocate and provide feedback to the government that in turn will lead to more effective demand for better services.
Two indicative activities have so far been identified that will contribute to achieving this output.
Activity 3.1.1 Support for establishment of P/LG public information units.
As discussed under Activity 1.3.1, there are various PG and LG units responsible for internally managing data/information, and there are also several units that are responsible for disseminating and providing public access to data/information, such as the Public Relation (Humas) Unit and the Public Library. Law No. 14/2008 also calls for every “public entity” to have a data/information officer who is responsible for serving the public. One interpretation of this law could be that each P/LG unit (dinas/badan/kantor) should appoint at least one data/information officer to manage data/information and disseminate this information to the public. Another option is to have a “one stop shop” for public information that is responsible for collecting and managing all public data/information and disseminating it to different audiences.
AIPD would not promote any ‘new’ units to be established, but would rather help to clarify the roles of, and/or upgrade, one or two of the existing units. BaKTI could also provide technical support to the centres to embrace modern principles of knowledge management and satisfy community needs for information. Working closely with BPS will also be critical.
The public information unit(s) would be further supported to enhance the coverage and quality of information dissemination, such as through:
Promoting the development and application of ‘minimum standards’ by P/LGs with respect to transparency of budgets, budget realisation reports, gender disaggregated service delivery outcome data, etc.
Establishment of help desk services at P/LG levels through which development stakeholders from other government agencies, donors and civil society could obtain information and contacts on P/LG development plans, budgets and activities.
Support for collection, collation, storing and distribution of LG plans, budgets, expenditures and results; and
Development of knowledge and skills among P/LG partners on improved information management and sharing practices/methods.
This activity would be implemented in each P/LG only if (and after) Activity 1.3.1 has been effectively supported.
Activity 3.1.2 Support for the establishment of Information Commissions.
Law No. 14/2008 requires the establishment of an Information Commission in each province (and, where necessary, district/municipality) to establish general and technical guidelines on public information provision and to resolve disputes on public information through mediation and adjudication. Each Independent Commission will have five members that will be selected by the provincial executive and legislative. AIPD will help organise CSOs interested in access to information to advocate for establishment of the Commission and will also facilitate interested PGs to establish their Commissions, select its members and establish its workplan.
Output 3.2 – CSO networks/alliances strengthened (which focus on improving government service delivery)
The effectiveness of local-level advocacy for improving service delivery relies on the strength of CSOs and their capacity to identify specific issues, formulate a reform agenda and negotiate the agenda with public service providers and policy-makers. The establishment of networks of CSOs with similar or common interests has also been shown to increase their lobbying and negotiation powers. AIPD (or where already active/engaged – other GOA supported programs such as ACCESS, SADI 2 or AIPMNH) will therefore support interested communities and CSOs in promoting reforms in public service delivery, with agreement of the relevant P/LGs.
P/LG level CSOs that have experience in advocating service delivery reform would implement the following proposed activities.
Activity 3.2.1 Facilitation of establishment or strengthening CSO networks to advocate for specific public service delivery improvements/reform agendas.
There are several embryonic CSO networks that advocate public service improvements and reforms on particular ‘sectoral’ issues. For example, the MOH promotes the establishment of Advocacy Teams for “District Team Problem Solving” (DTPS) to promote evidence-based health sector planning and budgeting, particularly in Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH). The Ministry of Education has also been promoting the establishment of an “Education Commission” in each district/municipality. However, these teams/commissions have not yet been particularly effective in advocating reforms for several reasons. Often, these teams were established by the LG without adequate analysis and consultations, memberships are often limited to local universities and ‘selected’ NGOs, there is lack of access to government data and information on which to formulate specific proposals, and limited support is provided to build the capacity of these teams/commissions.
ANTARA and ACCESS (in particular) have already been supporting the development of CSO networks, and this work will be built on and further supported.
AIPD will therefore support strengthening of existing CSO networks through the following steps:
conducting stakeholder analysis to identify important stakeholders, including the existing teams/commissions and networks, and assessing their interest, power and capacity;
facilitating different stakeholders to organise, through informal and formal meetings/workshops; and
facilitating and building the capacity of stakeholders to discuss public service delivery issues in each sector, and to develop action plans to address identified reform priorities.
Citizen report cards (CRC) and user-based surveys (UBS) could be utilised to help identify key issues and monitor changes in service user satisfaction, ensuring that both women and men are able to express their respective concerns and satisfaction levels through these or other related initiatives.
The activity will focus particularly on identified health, education and infrastructure service delivery issues.
Activity 3.2.2 Development of district-level CSO capacity on budget issues.
There are several provincial-level NGOs/universities that have experience in reviewing budget preparation processes, budget analysis, and budget monitoring, such as regional universities involved in preparation of PEA and NGO networks working on budget issues. However, the capacity of district-level CSOs in understanding the budget preparation process, analysing the budget and monitoring budget implementation is still limited.
AIPD will therefore support existing provincial organisations (with experience in budget analysis) to deliver capacity building for local CSOs in targeted districts. Several manuals and training modules developed by other programs will be utilised.30 The steps for Activity 3.2.1 on organising local CSOs on public service delivery will be used to organise local CSOs on budget issues. The capacity building program will focus on budget preparation processes, integration of community-driven development programs into government planning and budgeting processes, and expenditure tracking/monitoring.
Output 3.3 – Enhanced mechanisms / fora established for multi-stakeholder dialogue on budget preparation processes, execution and monitoring
Activity 3.3.1 Support development of multi-stakeholder mechanisms/fora to discuss improved resource allocation and management.
To complement Activity 3.2.1 above, AIPD will also advocate for strengthening existing fora/mechanisms to allow different stakeholders, mainly CSOs, the local executive and legislative to discuss and agree on specific reform agendas, particularly for health, education and infrastructure service delivery.
Based on agreements with LGs, AIPD will facilitate the implementation of budget analysis, involvement of CSOs in the budgeting process, and the monitoring of budget implementation (including procurement monitoring). It is expected that this will contribute to improved effectiveness of budget allocations, acceleration of budget implementation, and help reduce corruption in procurement.
For example, as discussed under Activity 1.1.2, the annual sectoral planning process (Forum SKPD) and the budgeting process in DPRD provide opportunities for more effective multi-stakeholder dialogue on resource allocation and management issues. AIPD will therefore work with the respective SKPD and DPRD to promote substantial multi-stakeholder discussions through these existing fora. Other possibilities also include: (i) establishing specific fora to discuss PEA results in the health and education sectors; and (ii) promoting enhanced sectoral mid-term strategic plan development processes, which include substantive discussions with CSOs.
Output 3.4 – Knowledge and skills of DPRD members enhanced on resource allocation and management issues
AIPD will provide support to enhance the knowledge and skills of DPRD members in targeted provinces and districts on planning and budgeting processes, monitoring service delivery standards and the review and formulation of regulations. The fact that all provincial and district-level DPRD members have been recently elected (with their term in office being 2009-2014) provides an excellent window of opportunity for AIPD to provide support.
Activity 3.4.1 Capacity building workshops/training for DPRD members on planning, budgeting, service delivery monitoring and the formulation of regulations.
In partnership with P/LG executives and local CSOs (such as Universities), as well as the Parliamentary Secretariats, AIPD will support a review/assessment of DPRD member knowledge/skill development needs, existing learning/training resources, and the development of new learning materials and methods as required.
In addition to basic knowledge about the budget and its preparation process, several specific issues would be addressed. For example, how to more effectively integrate the ‘community aspiration collection’ process (jaring aspirasi masyarakat or “jaring asmara”) with the executive planning process. Real experiences and solution from other districts (such as Kabupaten Sumedang in West Java Province) would be used as a basis for the workshops / training activities.
With respect to drafting/preparation of regulations, training curricula and modules would be developed utilising a simplified regulatory impact assessment (RIA) method, drawing on real examples and provincial/local-level case studies.
Activity 3.4.2 Strengthening of DPRD support system.
To sustainably support DPRD members in implementing their functions, it is necessary to build support systems that will help them to make informed and evidence-based decisions on an ongoing basis. In NTT, for example, a “Parliamentary Forum” has been established to link DPRD members with various CSOs, which has resulted in the issuance of six local regulations on various issues such as HIV/AIDS, natural disaster management, minimum service standards and human trafficking. AIPD will work with local and provincial governments, mainly the DPRD Secretariats, to facilitate the establishment and effective functioning of such DRPD support systems.