Australian Human Rights Commission



Download 378.03 Kb.
Page1/24
Date conversion04.09.2017
Size378.03 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   24



Australian

Human Rights

Commission

everyone, everywhere, everyday













Literature review

…………………………
Background paper for African Australians: A review of human rights and social inclusion issues

Ann Wayne Reiner



January 2010

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 5

2 Structure of review 5

3 Approach 6

3.1 Newly- arrived and established communities 6

4 Important terms and definitions 7

4.1 Migrants, refugees and humanitarian entrants 7

4.2 Resettlement 10

4.3 Integration 10

5 Previously successful refugee assistance programs 11

6 Support services 15

7 Common barriers to using services and understanding systems 16

7.1 Adjusting to a different way of life 16


7.2 Impacts of mismatched services offered and services accessed 16

7.3 Information overload 17

7.4 Barriers in the health system 17

7.5 Examples of cultural barriers in the health system 18

8 Issues of law enforcement 18

8.1 Mistrust of government and authority, including police 18

8.2 Perceptions and misconceptions of African young people 20

9 Language barriers 21

10 Interpreters 23

11 Barriers to employment 23

11.1 Visible Difference 24

11.2 English language skills and discrimination 24

11.3 Lack of local experience and lack of recognition of overseas qualification 24

11.4 Discrimination in the workplace 24

12 Barriers that can affect employability 25

12.1 Experiences of trauma and its effects 25

12.2 Level of skills 25

12.3 Unemployment and under-employment 26

12.4 Employability difference and the need for further research 26


12.5 Interrelationship between unemployment, employment and well-being 26

12.6 Gender differences in securing employment 26

13 Education and young people 27

13.1 Schools as a foundation for young people 27

13.2 Lack of understanding of complex refugee experiences 28

13.3 Understanding differences in youth development in Australian and African contexts 28

13.4 Imbalance between socialisation and education needs with respect to age 28

13.5 Adjusting to a formal education system and environment 29

13.6 Parental concerns 29

13.7 Support from educators 29

13.8 Inadequate period of adjustment – example 30

13.9 Need for tailored programs to assist refugee students 30

13.10 Benefits of after-school programs 30

14 Social pressures on young people 31

15 Family and culture 31

15.1 Balancing culturally-sensitive services and information on Australian cultural norms 31

15.2 Effects of shifting male/female household roles 32

15.3 The role of schools in a child’s upbringing in Australia and its effects on African families 33


16 Women’s isolation 33

16.1 Changes to women’s social environment and networks 33

16.2 Impact of men’s concerns on women’s socialising 34

16.3 Health consequences 34

17 Issues for Muslim women 34

18 Women and violence 36

19 Housing 38

19.1 Challenges of the current situation 38

19.2 Changes to housing assistance 38

19.3 Discrimination in the housing market 39

19.4 Housing market does not meet needs of African communities 39

19.5 Search for housing can compromise other important needs 40

19.6 Need for better education in the housing market 40

20 Health issues 40

20.1 The culture link to health 40

20.2 Meeting the health needs of refugees 41

20.3 The need for health promotion for care providers and the refugee community 41

20.4 Culture effect on dispensing medicine versus other health care 42

20.5 Need to address barriers to accessing health services 42

20.6 Limitations of pre-arrival health screening 43


20.7 Need for a comprehensive, compulsory medical exam upon arrival 43

20.8 Learning how to access Australian health services 44

20.9 Specific health concerns for African refugees 44

20.10 Shortcomings of the Australian health care system (especially GPs) to manage complex refugee health concerns 46

20.11 A lack of patient follow-up and its consequences 46

21 Diet 47

21.1 A case study example 47

22 Trauma and mental health 48

22.1 The experience of PTSD 48

22.2 Accessing treatment for torture and trauma 49

22.3 The culture effect 49

22.4 Mental health issues 50

22.5 Substance misuse 50

23 Impact on communities, families and social support networks 51

24 Clearly articulated desire for community cohesion and support 51

24.1 Peer support networks 51

24.2 A community of support 52

24.3 Youth peer mentoring 52

25 Social inclusion and associated discrimination 53


25.1 No agreed definition of social inclusion 53

25.2 Social inclusion in practice 53

25.3 Finding a balance between challenges to inclusion and benefits of inclusion 55

25.4 High levels of life satisfaction 56

25.5 Need for mutual cultural education 56

26 Case management approach 57









  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   24


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page