Australian Human Rights Commission


High levels of life satisfaction



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25.4High levels of life satisfaction

    Despite the many difficulties and barriers facing refugee communities, they still tend to report high levels of life satisfaction in Australia.293 A recent study of the Sudanese community in Murray Bridge, South Australia, found they enjoy 100% employment and are well-integrated into the community. “This is a result of the great work of the local community in supporting new migrants. The community aims to attract new settlers like these, and to retain them.”294

    As a group, refugees are a resilient population. Given their common experiences of discrimination in everyday life and in employment, it might be expected that they would feel that life in their adopted homeland is less than satisfactory, that they are alienated and disconnected from mainstream society, that they are not made to feel welcome or valued, that they cannot reach their potential in terms of work opportunities and are relatively poorer off than the rest of the population. However, a study by Fozdar and Torezani found that while refugee’s reported a lower level of life satisfaction than other groups, it was not as low as might be expected.295


25.5Need for mutual cultural education

    Misinformation surrounding African refugees and other humanitarian entrants features prominently and periodically in both the media and public debate. This has implications in terms of ongoing community and bipartisan political support for Australia’s refugee and humanitarian program.296

    Understanding cultural differences and two-way cultural education are key elements in fostering greater social cohesion and inclusion.297 Many settlement problems stem from a lack of understanding on both sides. Migrant communities are often not adequately informed about what they should expect of Australian culture.

    Following a 2009 review of settlement services, which highlighted issues around cultural orientation, the Australian Government has developed a comprehensive national orientation curriculum framework covering a range of topics, from health care and nutrition to family life in Australia.298

    On the other side, the Australian community has not been well-informed about the cultural differences among Africans, or the differences between African refugees and previous waves of non-African refugees. “There is an urgent need for there to be training and education for all those involved in any way with African-Australian communities, in particular the media, educational institutions/schools, the police, and all those involved in any way in the justice system. They need to learn about the huge variety of African-Australian communities and cultures; the realities and traumas of African-Australian backgrounds; the realities and difficulties of the refugee and migration experience; and the difficulties and genuine issues facing the communities in regards to integration.”299

    Understanding African culture and the communal approach to life could also help lessen the tension between African people and service providers and law enforcement agencies.300

    Of particular concern is the lack of consistent and wide-spread information to convey positive messages about the contribution of refugees to Australia. In Victoria, refugees have cited educational campaigns that highlight their value, skills and contributions as a key component in improving their overall experience.301

26Case management approach


    Literature from all disciplines has mentioned the need for a case management approach to better support newly-arrived refugees. The 2007-2008 Federal Budget recognised the need for complex case support services to provide intensive case management for humanitarian entrants with a history of extreme torture, trauma or crisis. This was in part a response to a perceived failure of the Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy and Settlement Grants Program to fully meet the needs of these individuals.302

    Under this new approach, a designated case worker would be responsible for guiding a refugee or refugee family through their first year of settlement in Australia. They would be the family’s point of contact and their means of liaising with service providers, especially in the early days after arrival. The case worker would also be the family’s source of information on all services available to them.

    Having one specific person to provide information and assistance when navigating settlement services, government agencies, health providers and so on would provide refugees with a strong sense of being supported during the settlement process.



1 V Mapedzahama, Lost in Translation? A Researcher’s Challenges and Dilemmas Conducting PhD Research in Two Languages (Paper presented at the African Studies Association of Australasia and The Pacific Postgraduate Seminar, Australian National University, Canberra, January 2008)

2 V Mapedzahama, (2007), Vol 17, “The Crisis of Representation: An African Researcher’s Dilemmas in Doing Feminist Cross-Cultural Research in Africa and in the West”, Outskirts: Feminism on the Edge Online Journal


3 Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIaC); Fact Sheet 24 - Overview of Skilled Migration to Australia. At http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/24overview_skilled.htm

4 Access Economics, Migrants Fiscal Impact Model: 2008 Update (2008). At http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/_pdf/migrants-fiscal-impact-april-2008.pdf (viewed December 2008)

5 DIaC, Migration Program Statistics, viewed 22 October 2008, <http://www.immi.gov.au/media/statistics/statistical-info/visa-grants/

6 Minister for Immigration and Citizenship (DIaC), ‘Budget 2009-10 – Humanitarian Program’, (Media release, 12 May 2009). At http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/media/media-releases/2009/ce03-budget-09.htm

7 L Ferguson, Parliamentary Secretary announcement of the Strategic Settlement Framework, (Speech delivered in Brisbane on 25 September 2009). At http://www.minister.immi.gov.au/parlsec/media/speeches/2009/lf090925.htm

8 Refugee Council of Australia, Current Issues – Refugee Resettlement. At http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/current/settlement.html (viewed October 2009)

9 T Vinson, Dropping off the Edge; summary report; Jesuit Social Services and Catholic Social Services Australia (2007). At http://www.australiandisadvantage.org.au/


10 K Valtonen, ‘From the Margin to the Mainstream: Conceptualising Refugee Resettlement Processes’ (2004) 17(1), Journal of Refugee Studies, p70

11 African Think Tank, Maximizing the potential of African-Australian Youth: A Community Model to bolster health and legal support, (Forum held 10 March 2009)

12 H Gebre-Selassie, Integration Strategies of Migrants and Refugees, The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia, (2008). At http://www.att.org.au/pdf/Report%20-%20integration%20strategies%20of%20migrant%20and%20refugees%20-%201.1.pdf

13 H Gebre-Selassie, Integration Strategies of Migrants and Refugees, The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia, (2008), p 4. At http://www.att.org.au/pdf/Report%20-%20integration%20strategies%20of%20migrant%20and%20refugees%20-%201.1.pdf

14 Refugee Council of Australia, Australia’s Refugee & Humanitarian Program: Community views on current challenges and future directions 2009-2010, (2009). At http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/resources/submissions/2009-10_intakesub.pdf

15 H Spinks, Australia's settlement services for migrants and refugees (2009)

16 For example in its 2009 submission the Refugee Council notes that Australia’s settlement services for humanitarian entrants are among the best in the world, but that there is still room for improvement – See: Australia’s Refugee & Humanitarian Program: Community views on current challenges and future directions 2009-2010, (2009). At http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/resources/submissions/2009-10_intakesub.pdf


17 See The Centre for Refugee Research, Submission regarding the settlement of African humanitarian entrants in NSW (January 2006). At http://www.crr.unsw.edu.au/documents/CRCSubmission2006.pdf, accessed on 4 March 2009; and

A Nsubuga-Kyobe, ‘Settlement services and African communities’ (2003) 25(2) Migration Action, p 20. At http://parlinfoweb.parl.net/parlinfo/view_document.aspx?ID=130576&TABLE=jrnart&TARGET=, For Details on some of the experiences of African refugees, and attempts by Australia and the international community to cater to their specific needs, see P. Brown, The Longest Journey: resettling refugees from Africa (2006)



18 Settlement Council of Australia (SCOA), Response to the discussion paper: Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy: Helping refugees and humanitarian entrants settle in Australia, (2009). At http://www.scoa.org.au/resources/275826_72752_Response%20to%20the%20IHSS%20Discussion%20Paper%20-%20SCOA.pdf

19 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007). At http://www.att.org.au/documents/African%20Resettlement%20Report.pdf

20 Federation of African Communities Council, Working collaboratively towards full participation (National Conference Report, 17-18 November 2005), p 44


21 I Abu-Duhou, Engagement of the African Community in the Northern Territory: Their Settlement, Education, Workforce and Community Participation, Northern Territory Government Department of the Chief Minister (2006). At http://www.dcm.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/43750/EngagementoftheAfricanCommunity-FullReport.pdf

22 Australian Council of TESOL Associations (ACTA) (2006) Response to Settlement Review

23 A Nsubuga-Kyobe, Possible Antecedents and Implications to African-Australians Participating in the Proposed Pilot Program of Settlement in Rural Victoria: A Study of Strategic Management of Service Delivery to an Emerging Community in Rural Areas: A Critical Review (Paper for the African Studies Association of Australia and the Pacific (AFSAAP) Annual Conference, Perth, 26-28 November 2004). At http://www.afsaap.org.au/Conferences/2004/apollo.PDF

24 L Nadioo, ‘Supporting African refugees in Greater Western Sydney: a critical ethnography of after-school homework tutoring centres’ (2008) 7(3) Educational Research for Policy and Practice p 139-150

25 J Taylor and D Stanovic, Refugees and Regional Settlement: Balancing priorities, Brotherhood of St Laurence (2005). At http://www.bsl.org.au/pdfs/refugees_and_regional_settlement.pdf:

26 H Gebre-Selassie, Integration Strategies of Migrants and Refugees, The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia, (2008). At http://www.att.org.au/pdf/Report%20-%20integration%20strategies%20of%20migrant%20and%20refugees%20-%201.1.pdf


27 Settlement Council of Australia (SCOA), Response to the discussion paper: Integrated Humanitarian Settlement Strategy: Helping refugees and humanitarian entrants settle in Australia, (2009). At http://www.scoa.org.au/resources/275826_72752_Response%20to%20the%20IHSS%20Discussion%20Paper%20-%20SCOA.pdf

28 K Hiruy, Finding home far away from home: place attachment, place-identity, belonging and resettlement among African-Australians in Hobart (2009) Research Master thesis, University of Tasmania

29 E Pittaway and C Muli, We have a voice, hear us: settlement experiences of refugees and migrants from the Horn of Africa (2009) Commissioned by the Horn of Africa Relief and Development Agency. At http://www.crr.unsw.edu.au/media/File/harda_full_report_final_020709.pdf

30 L Majka, ‘Working with the vulnerable but meritorious: the non-governmental and public sectors and African refugees in Melbourne’ (2001) 37 (4) Journal of Sociology

31 I Patrick, ‘Responding to female genital mutilation: The Australian experience in context’ (2001) 36(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues

32 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008), p 51

33 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); African Think Tank, African Resettlement in Australia, The way forward… (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)


34 C McMichael and M Ahmed, ‘Family Separation: Somali Women in Melbourne’, Critical Perspectives on Refugee Policy in Australia (2003); Legal Services Commission South Australia, Report on the African Communities Consultation for the Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities Project, Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Communities Project (2004)

35 H Sowey, Are Refugees at Increased Risk of Substance Misuse?, Drug and Alcohol Multicultural Education Centre, Ed. 1 (2005), p14

36 Legal Services Commission of South Australia, , Report on the African Communities Consultation for the Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities Project, Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Communities Project (2004); Flanagan J, Dropped from the moon: the settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre (2007)

37 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); I Correa-Velez, SM Gifford, SJ Bice, ‘Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers’ (2005) 2(23) Australia and New Zealand Health Policy; M Burgermeister, B Kitching, N Iscel, Gaps in housing and support services for humanitarian entrants: Housing Crisis Committee for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities, Shelter WA (2007)

38 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)


39 M Sheikh-Mohammed, CR MacIntyre, NJ Wood, J Leask, D Isaacs, ‘Barriers to access to health care for newly resettled sub-Saharan refugees in Australia’ (2006) 185 (11/12) Medical Journal of Australia

40 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007), p 37

41 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon; Sheikh-Mohammed et. al, ‘Barriers to access to health care for newly resettled sub-Saharan refugees in Australia’; Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

42 M Piper, Shepparton Regional Humanitarian Settlement Pilot, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, (2007)

43 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); I Abu-Duhou, Engagement of the African Community in the Northern Territory: Their Settlement, Education, Workforce and Community Participation, Northern Territory Government Department of the Chief Minister (2006)

44 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008), p 51


45 I Correa-Velez, SM Gifford, SJ Bice, ‘Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers’ (2005) 2(23) Australia and New Zealand Health Policy; N Davidson, S Skull, G Chaney, A Frydenberg, D Isaacs, P Kelly, B Lampropoulos, S Raman, D Silove, J Buttery, M Smith, Z Steel, D Burgner, ‘Comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugee children in Australia’ (2004) 40 Journal of Paediatric Child Health

46 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon; L Garton, J Nkruma, S Fray, L Cox, V Strong, ‘Employed Women from African Communities Report’ (2005) Sydney West Area Health Service viewed at www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/documents/r1008.pdf on 18 Dec. 08

47 C Valencia, Migrant and Refugee Women’s Final Report, Hobart Women’s Health Centre (2007)

48 I Correa-Velez,SM Gifford, SJ Bice, ‘Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers’ (2005) 2(23) Australia and New Zealand Health Policy; Valencia, Migrant and Refugee Women’s Final Report (2007)

49 A Renzaho, ‘Challenges of negotiating obesity-related findings with African migrants in Australia: lessons learnt from the African migrant capacity building and performance appraisal project’, (2009) 66(3) Nutrition and dietetics, pp. 145-150

50 A Renzaho, ‘Challenges of negotiating obesity-related findings with African migrants in Australia’, p 147


51 M Yassin Sheikh-Eldin, Presentation at launch of Out of Africa and into Court by Katie Fraser, September 2009

52 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); M Piper, Shepparton Regional Humanitarian Settlement Pilot, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, (2007), The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007); AK Deljo, ‘Refugees Encounter the Legal Justice System in Australia: A Case Study’ (2000) 7(2) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

53 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); AK Deljo, ‘Refugees Encounter the Legal Justice System in Australia: A Case Study’ (2000)

54 K Fraser, Out of Africa and into courts: the legal problems of African Communities, Footscray Community Legal Centre (2009). At http://www.vlaf.org.au/docs/African%20Legal%20service%20Report%20Final.pdf

55 AK Deljo, ‘Refugees Encounter the Legal Justice System in Australia: A Case Study’ (2000) 7(2) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law

56 Legal Education and Awareness Project (LEAP) Sept 2007 – Sept 2008 Legal Services Commission SA Report to South Australian Attorney-General’s Department Crime Prevention and Community Safety Program


57 D Campbell and R Julian, A conversation on trust: community policing and refugee settlement in regional Australia, Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement Studies (2009). At http://www.utas.edu.au/tiles/publications_and_reports/research_reports/research_reports_pdf/A%20Conversation%20on%20Trust.pdf

58 Federation of African Communities Council, Working collaboratively towards full participation (National Conference Report, 17-18 November 2005)

59 E Ogru ‘Citizenship, Identity Politics and Social Inclusion/Exclusion: The Experiences of Youth from the Horn of Africa in Australia’ (Paper Presented at International Conference on Migration, Citizenship and Intercultural Relations, Deakin University, November 2009)

60 Refugee Council of Australia, Amplifying the voices of young refugees (2009). At http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/current/Young_Refugees_report.pdf

61 J Windle, ‘The racialisation of African youth in Australia’, (2008) 14(5) Social Identities pp. 553-566

62 B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007), p9

63 J Windle, ‘The racialisation of African youth in Australia’, (2008) 14(5) Social Identities pp. 553-566

64 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)


65 Clemence Due (2008) “Who Are the Strangers?

66 Australian Communications and Media Authority, ‘ACMA finds that Melbourne licensees of Ten, Nine and Seven breached the TV code’ (Media release, 30 November 2009). At http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311966

67 A K Deljo, ‘Refugees Encounter the Legal Justice System in Australia: A Case Study’ (2000) 7(2) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law pp. 214-253

68 M Burgermeister, B Kitching, N Iscel, Gaps in housing and support services for humanitarian entrants: Housing Crisis Committee for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities, Shelter WA (2007), p 22

69 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues

70 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1), p 61. Australian Journal of Social Issues


71 I Abu-Duhou, Engagement of the African Community in the Northern Territory: Their Settlement, Education, Workforce and Community Participation, Northern Territory Government Department of the Chief Minister (2006)

72 V Colic-Peisker, F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

73 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007).

74 Federation of African Communities Council, Working collaboratively towards full participation (National Conference Report, 17-18 November 2005)

75 A Hatoss and T Sheely, ‘Language, identity and settlement: Exploring language maintenance and settlement issues among Sudanese refugees in regional Australia’, (2009) 30(2), Journal of Multicultural and Multilingual Development, pp127-144

76 A Hatoss and T Sheely, ‘Language, identity and settlement: Exploring language maintenance and settlement issues among Sudanese refugees in regional Australia’, (2009) 30(2), Journal of Multicultural and Multilingual Development, pp127-144

77 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007); A K Deljo, ‘Refugees Encounter the Legal Justice System in Australia: A Case Study’ (2000) 7(2) Psychiatry, Psychology and Law pp. 214-253


78 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008) p14

79 Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

80 C Lemoh, M Hellard, A Street, B-A Biggs, ‘Reducing the risk of transmission of HIV/AIDS in African and Arabic-speaking communities in Victoria’ (2006) Royal Melbourne Hospital Department of Medicine

81 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007), p54

82 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

83 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, Refugees and Employment: The effect of visible difference on discrimination, Final Report, Centre for Social and Community Research, Murdoch University (2007b)

84G Berman, Harnessing Diversity: addressing racial and religious discrimination in employment, A collaborative partnership between the Victorian Multicultural Commission and the Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission (2008)

85 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration


86 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007), p 60

87 Federation of African Communities Council, Working collaboratively towards full participation (National Conference Report, 17-18 November 2005); Berman G, Harnessing Diversity: addressing racial and religious discrimination in employment, A collaborative partnership between the Victorian Multicultural Commission and the Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission (2008); OM Farah, ‘Horn of African Men in Carlton, Their Awareness, Perceptions and Recommendations to Service Providers’ Carlton Local Agencies Network project (2007)

88 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007). At http://www.att.org.au/documents/African%20Resettlement%20Report.pdf

89 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

90 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration, p29


91 J Flanagan, Dropped from the moon: The settlement experiences of refugee communities in Tasmania, Anglicare Tasmania Social Action and Research Centre, (2007), p 48

92 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007); V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

93 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

94 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration, p 64

95 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, Refugees and Employment: The effect of visible difference on discrimination, Final Report, Centre for Social and Community Research, Murdoch University (2007b)

96 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, Refugees and Employment: The effect of visible difference on discrimination, Final Report, Centre for Social and Community Research, Murdoch University (2007b)


97 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, Refugees and Employment: The effect of visible difference on discrimination, Final Report, Centre for Social and Community Research, Murdoch University (2007b)

98 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007); V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, Refugees and Employment: The effect of visible difference on discrimination, Final Report, Centre for Social and Community Research, Murdoch University (2007b)

99 V Colic-Peisker and F Tilbury, ‘Integration into the Australian Labour Market: The Experience of Three “Visibly Different’ Groups of Recently Arrived Refugees’ (2007) 45(1) International Migration

100 Berman G, Harnessing Diversity: addressing racial and religious discrimination in employment, A collaborative partnership between the Victorian Multicultural Commission and the Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission (2008)

101 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007); M Sheikh-Mohammed, CR MacIntyre, NJ Wood, J Leask, D Isaacs, “Barriers to access to health care for newly resettled sub-Saharan refugees in Australia’ (2006) 185 (11/12) Medical Journal of Australia


102 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)

103 L Garton, J Nkruman, S Fray, L Cox, V Strong, ‘Employed Women from African Communities Report’ (2005) Sydney West Area Health Service viewed at www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/documents/r1008.pdf on 18 Dec. 08

104 F Fozdar, S Torezani, ‘Discrimination and Well-Being: Perceptions of Refugees in Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) International Migration Review.

105 L Garton, J Nkruman, S Fray, L Cox, V Strong, ‘Employed Women from African Communities Report’ (2005) Sydney West Area Health Service viewed at www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/documents/r1008.pdf on 18 Dec. 08

106 L Garton, J Nkruman, S Fray, L Cox, V Strong, ‘Employed Women from African Communities Report’ (2005) Sydney West Area Health Service viewed at www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/documents/r1008.pdf on 18 Dec. 08

107 C Portors, ‘Recent African migrant women in the workplace: recognising OH&S issues’, Diversity Health Institute, Sydney West Area Health Service (2009). At http://wwrg.econ.usyd.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/40401/wwrg_porters_2009.pdf

108 E Cassity and G Gow, Making up for lost time: Young African Refugees in Western Sydney High Schools, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney (2006)


109 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

110 I Toure, Hidden Homelessness: The impact of refugee homelessness on newly arrived youth, Association for Services to Torture and Trauma Survivors Inc., (2008)

111 I Toure, Hidden Homelessness: The impact of refugee homelessness on newly arrived youth, Association for Services to Torture and Trauma Survivors Inc., (2008)

112 F Mansouri, L Jenkins, L Morgan, and M Taouk, The Impact of Racism upon the Health and Wellbeing of Young Australians, Foundation for Young Australians (2009). At http://www.fya.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Impact_of_Racism_FYA_report.pdf

113 E Cassity and G Gow, Making up for lost time: Young African Refugees in Western Sydney High Schools, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney (2006)

114 SM Gifford, C Bakopanos, I Kaplan, I Correa-Velez, ‘Meaning or Measurement? Researching the Social Contexts of Health and Settlement among Newly-arrived Refugee Youth in Melbourne, Australia’ (2007) 20(3) Journal of Refugee Studies


115 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)

116 B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007)

117 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)

118 E Cassity and G Gow, Making up for lost time: Young African Refugees in Western Sydney High Schools, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney (2006)

119 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

120 E Cassity and G Gow, Making up for lost time: Young African Refugees in Western Sydney High Schools, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney (2006); Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008)

121 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)


122 Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007)

123 L Naidoo, ‘Supporting African refugees in Greater Western Sydney: a critical ethnography of after-school homework tutoring centres’ (2008) 7(3) Educational Research for Policy and Practice p 139-150

124 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007)

125 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

126 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007); I Abu-Duhou, Engagement of the African Community in the Northern Territory: Their Settlement, Education, Workforce and Community Participation, Northern Territory Government Department of the Chief Minister (2006)


127 YS Omar, ‘Somali Youth in Diaspora: A Comparative Study of Gender Perceptions of Further Studies and Future Career’, (in press) Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies (2009). At http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1079&context=bildhaan

128 L Naidoo, ‘Supporting African refugees in Greater Western Sydney: a critical ethnography of after-school homework tutoring centres’ (2008) 7(3) Educational Research for Policy and Practice p 139-150

129 Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

130 L Naidoo, ‘Supporting African refugees in Greater Western Sydney: a critical ethnography of after-school homework tutoring centres’ (2008) 7(3) Educational Research for Policy and Practice p 139-150

131 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)

132 B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007)

133 R Sidhu, S Taylor, ‘Educational provision for refugee youth in Australia: left to chance?’ (2007) 43(3) Journal of Sociology


134 SM Gifford, C Bakopanos, I Kaplan, I Correa-Velez, ‘Meaning or Measurement? Researching the Social Contexts of Health and Settlement among Newly-arrived Refugee Youth in Melbourne, Australia (2007) 20(3) Journal of Refugee Studies pp. 414-440

135 L Naidoo, ‘Supporting African refugees in Greater Western Sydney: a critical ethnography of after-school homework tutoring centres’ (2008) 7(3) Educational Research for Policy and Practice p 139-150

136 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

137 E Cassity and G Gow, Making up for lost time: Young African Refugees in Western Sydney High Schools, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney (2006); African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007); I Toure, Hidden Homelessness: The impact of refugee homelessness on newly arrived youth, Association for Services to Torture and Trauma Survivors Inc., (2008); When Do I Stop Being a Refugee? (Report on the Journey Towards Citizenship and Community Inclusivity Conference, Adelaide Festival Centre, Adelaide, 18-19 October 2006)


138 B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007); B Ahmed, Report of the African-Australian Community’s Initiative Workshop on Issues Affecting the Resettlement of Africans (Paper to the African Think Tank, Melbourne, 18 April 2006)

139 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007) p 20

140 Victorian Equal Opportunity & Human Rights Commission, Rights of passage: The experiences of Australian-Sudanese young people, (2008)

141 I Toure, Hidden Homelessness: The impact of refugee homelessness on newly arrived youth, Association for Services to Torture and Trauma Survivors Inc., (2008)

142 Refugee Youth Issues Paper, Playing for the future: The role of sport and recreation in supporting refugee young people to ‘settle well’ in Australia, Centre for Multicultural Youth (2007)

143 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

144 PM Wakholi, ‘African Cultural Education and the African Youth in Western Australia: Experimenting with the Ujamaa Circle’ (2008). At http://www.amazon.com/African-Cultural-Education-Western-Australia/dp/3639026314/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1213411604&sr=1-1


145 Queensland Government Department of Communities, New Future: The Queensland Government’s Engagement with African Refugees, (2008); Legal Services Commission of South Australia, Report on the African Communities Consultation for the Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities Project, Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Communities Project (2004); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); O Farah, ‘Horn of African Men in Carlton, Their Awareness, Perceptions and Recommendations to Service Providers’ Carlton Local Agencies Network project (2007)

146 O Farah, ‘Horn of African Men in Carlton, Their Awareness, Perceptions and Recommendations to Service Providers’ Carlton Local Agencies Network project (2007)

147 N Wa Mungai and B Pease, ‘Rethinking masculinities in the African Diaspora’, Migrant men: critical studies of masculinities and the migration experience (2009) pp.96-114

148 J Abuyi, ‘Cultures, Family Relationships and Gender Roles: African (Acholi) Men’s Experiences in Australia’ Thesis (unpublished)


149 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

150 Legal Services Commission of South Australia, Report on the African Communities Consultation for the Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities Project, Family Law and Culturally & Linguistically Diverse Communities Project (2004)

151 H Sowey, Are Refugees at Increased Risk of Substance Misuse?, Drug and Alcohol Multicultural Education Centre, Ed. 1 (2005); Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006)

152 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

153 Government of Western Australia Office of Multicultural Interests, African communities forum on domestic violence report: Working towards a collaborative approach to addressing family support and conflict within the African communities in Western Australia, Department for Community Development, Family and Domestic Violence Unit (2005)

154 H Sowey, Are Refugees at Increased Risk of Substance Misuse?, Drug and Alcohol Multicultural Education Centre, Ed. 1 (2005); L Garton, J Nkruman, S Fray, L Cox, V Strong, ‘Employed Women from African Communities Report’ (2005) Sydney West Area Health Service viewed at www.dhi.gov.au/clearinghouse/documents/r1008.pdf on 18 Dec. 08


155 T Sengaaga Ssali and M Reik, ‘Working towards wellbeing with the African Child/Youth and their Families’ (Presentation at the Royal Children’s Hospital, 30 October 2008)

156 OM Farah, ‘Horn of African Men in Carlton, Their Awareness, Perceptions and Recommendations to Service Providers’ Carlton Local Agencies Network project (2007)

157 Report of the Community Relations Commission for a Multicultural NSW, Investigation into African humanitarian settlement in NSW, NSW Government (2006); B Opi, The Voices of Refugee Youth: A Survey of the Issues and Challenges for Young People At Risk from New and Emerging Communities, Migrant Resource Centre of South Australia, (2007)

158 K Lewig, F Arney, M Salveron, ‘Challenges to parenting in a new culture: Implications for child and family welfare’, (2009) Evaluation and Program Planning

159 N Macdougall, ‘Getting to Know You: The Journey from African Refugee to African-Australian: Insights into the life and times of African refugee women settling in Perth’, Murdoch University thesis (2008)

160 C McMichael and L Manderson, ‘Somali Women and Well-Being: Social Networks and Social Capital among Immigrant Women in Australia’ (2004) 63(1) Human Organization

161 N Cortis, P Sawrikar and K Muir, ‘Participation in sport and recreation by culturally and linguistically diverse women’, Social Policy Research Centre Report 8/08 (2008). At http://www.sprc.unsw.edu.au/media/File/Report8_08_CALD_Women_in_sport.pdf


162 OM Farah, ‘Horn of African Men in Carlton, Their Awareness, Perceptions and Recommendations to Service Providers’ Carlton Local Agencies Network project (2007); Government of Western Australia Office of Multicultural Interests, African communities forum on domestic violence report: Working towards a collaborative approach to addressing family support and conflict within the African communities in Western Australia, Department for Community Development, Family and Domestic Violence Unit (2005)

163 J Benson, S Skull, ‘Hiding from the sun: Vitamin D deficiency in refugees’ (2007) 35(5) Australian Family Physician; S Grover and R Morley, ‘Vitamin D deficiency in veiled or dark-skinned pregnant women’ (2001) 175, Medical Journal of Australia

164 A Wise, J Ali, Muslim Australians & Local Government: Grassroots strategies to improve relations between Muslim and non-Muslim-Australians, Final Research Report, Centre for Research on Social Inclusion, Macquarie University (2008), p13

165 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues pp 55 – 69

166 H McCue, The Civil and Social Participation of Muslim Women in Australian Community Life, Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2008). At http://www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/a-diverse-australia/national-action-plan/_attach/participation-muslim-women.pdf


167 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues, p60

168 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues, p64


169 S Casimiro, P Hancock, J Northcote, ‘Isolation and Insecurity: Resettlement Issues Among Muslim Refugee Women in Perth, Western Australia’ (2007) 42(1) Australian Journal of Social Issues, p65

170 African Think Tank, African resettlement in Australia: The Way Forward... (Conference Report from African resettlement in Australia Conference, Sydney, Melbourne, 11 -13 April 2007)

171 National Council to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, Time for Action to Reduce Violence Against Women and Children, 2009-2021 (2009). At http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/women/pubs/violence/np_time_for_action/national_plan/Pages/default.aspx

172 T Avrahamzon, ‘Hopes Fulfilled or Dreams Shattered?’ (Background paper, From Resettlement to Settlement Conference, Sydney, November 2005). At http://www.crr.unsw.edu.au/media/File/Resettlement_service_for_refugee_children.pdf

173 K Webster and I Kaplan ‘Refugee Women and Settlement: Gender and Mental Health’ in P Allotey (ed) The Health of Refugees (2003)


174 Department of Human Services, ‘Building Partnerships between Mental Health, Family Violence and Sexual Assault Services, (2006). At www.health.vic.gov.au/­mentalhealth/­publications/­partnerships0706.pdf

175 S Rees and B Pease, Refugee settlement, safety and wellbeing: exploring domestic and family violence in refugee communities, Paper Four of the Violence Against Women Community Attitudes Project, Immigrant Women’s Domestic Violence Service (2006). At http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/~/media/ProgramsandProjects/MentalHealthandWellBeing/DiscriminationandViolence/ViolenceAgainstWomen/CAS_Paper4_Refugee.ashx

176 E Pittaway, ‘The Ultimate Betrayal: An Examination of the Experience of Domestic and Family Violence In Refugee Communities’, (2005) 5, Centre for Refugee Research Occasional Paper, p35

177 J Perilla, ‘Domestic Violence in Refugee and Immigrant Communities’ TAPESTRI Inc. Refugee and Immigrant Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2002). At www.tapestri.org/article_Domestic_Violence_immigrant1.html

178 Government of Western Australia Office of Multicultural Interests, African communities forum on domestic violence report: Working towards a collaborative approach to addressing family support and conflict within the African communities in Western Australia, Department for Community Development, Family and Domestic Violence Unit (2005)


179 S Baho and P Allotey, Staying Safe: Horn of African Women’s Experience of the Emergency Services in Victoria, University of Melbourne (2004), p7

180 R Gordon and M Adam, Family Harmony: Understanding family violence in Somali and Eritrean communities in the Western Region of Melbourne, Women’s Health West (2005). At www.whwest.org.au/docs/familyharmony05.pdf

181 P Foley and A Beer, Housing Need and Provision for Recently Arrived Refugees in Australia, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (2003), p i
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