Biographical sketch of hugh everett, III. Eugene Shikhovtsev



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Return to QM. Austin seminar. David Deutsch (1977).

Physics, for Everett, existed in a parallel world far from his business ventures. However, in the spring of 1977 he received and accepted an invitation from DeWitt and Wheeler to participate in their seminar on human consciousness and the problem of a computer's "consciousness" at the University of Texas in Austin [19, page 8]. Everett bought half a dozen copies of the anthology of 1973 from Princeton University Press [120], put them and his family in an automobile, and set off for Texas. (His son Mark refutes a widespread [121, 122] version that they traveled in a Cadillac. [123]; Mr. Caldwell writes that it was a “long black 1964 Lincoln Continental” [1a], which is America's other luxury sedan.) He also took with him a copy of the just-published book by G. Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values [124], in which a chapter is devoted to Everett’s self-learning Bayesian Machine [118]. In May he and his family rolled into Austin with flair. There he met DeWitt for the first (and, in fact, the only [125]) time and found him to be in all respects a delightful gentleman [88]. Everett, a chain smoker, was given a privilege rarely if ever granted to anyone else, to smoke in a University auditorium [121].

Half of Everett's four-hour seminar was devoted to the book by Pugh [66], which may have been relevant to a question Wheeler had been pondering in Texas: Does human consciousness somehow play a critical role in determining the laws of physics (Wheeler's "participatory universe")? Everett did not agree with Wheeler's views on this subject [126]. Wheeler, in his turn, was very ambivalent about Everett's views. Some weeks later, at the Misners, Wheeler told Everett that he mostly believed his interpretation but reserved Tuesdays once a month to disbelieve it. In fact, his disbelief was probably more pronounced than that. Several months later, Wheeler asked that the theory be referred to as that by “Everett-and-no-more-Wheeler” [127]. As Wheeler made clear in a later letter sent to P. Benioff, he wanted to dissociate himself from Everett's theory. In the Benioff letter, he states firmly that the theory was entirely conceived by Everett, and adds, "Though I have difficulty subscribing to it today, I still feel it is one of the most important contributions made to quantum mechanics in recent decades and feel the credit for it should go where credit is due" [128].

During lunch in a beer-garden restaurant that the graduate students liked to frequent, DeWitt arranged for Wheeler’s graduate student David Deutsch to sit next to Everett. (In terms of research interest, Deutsch was, in effect, DeWitt's student as well.) Deutsch was interested to know what defines the Hilbert space basis with respect to which one defines “universes,” in the general case (not just for perfect measurements, where Deutsch considered the answer obvious). Everett said it was the structure of the system itself. Deutsch asked: Which aspect of the structure, the state itself, the Hamiltonian, or what? Everett answered the Hamiltonian, but he didn't think that this was an important issue. Their conversation proceeded all through lunch, and Deutsch stresses that (contrary to what has been stated by historians) Everett did not prefer the term "relative states," being, on the contrary, extremely enthusiastic about “many universes” and being very stalwart as well as subtle in its defense. Everett, for his part, was pleased by the meeting with "young Britishers" (apparently including Deutsch) [54].

Deutsch remembered Everett as very impressive personfull of nervous energy, highly-strung, a chain-smoker, very much in tune with the issues of the interpretation of quantum mechanics, unusual for one having left academic life many years before.

Everett was the star of the seminar. Both before and after it he was enclosed in a crowd of graduate and postdoctoral students [129]. Other participants have preserved similar memories [121]. Everett himself was buoyed up by the encounters because he believed that one-on-one conversation is so superior to written communications for exchanging ideas [54].

In an answer to historian B. Harvey [53], written some weeks later, Everett says that he certainly approves of the way DeWitt presented his [Everett's] theory (and it is in line with Deutsch’s story), but adds that he does not follow the current literature on quantum mechanics and would be grateful for being supplied with references or reprints in this field. [88] (One has to assume that Everett meant only that he had not been concentrating on quantum-mechanics research. He could hardly have been the star of the Texas seminar or so greatly impressed Deutsch if he had not been pretty much up to date.)

Later in May, when the Misners, celebrating their wedding anniversary, visited the Everetts, someone had the happy idea of recording on tape their recollections of their years in Princeton, accompanied by good wine and Mark’s drum-set rhythms [19]. (The noise of the drums occasionally interfered with speech, so that in the tape transcript there are lacunae. It nevertheless remains a most valuable source, although the speakers' pasts keep going off in orthogonal directionsbut what else is one to expect from the author of the many-worlds concept?)

In 1977 Everett faced not only glory, but also the duties of a suddenly venerated physicist. J.-M. Levy-LeBlond [127] and P. Benioff [130, 131] were among the first to send him their work for comments. Levy-LeBlond raised the question of terminology: If “there is but a single (quantum) world”, he said, it is not right to speak about "many worlds", "branching," and such concepts, which revert to a classical picture of the world. Everett judged Levy-LeBlond's article [132] to be “one of the more meaningful on this subject.” (In an earlier draft copy of his answer he wrote that Levy-LeBlond “grasped the general thought behind" the interpretation [133]) and, with an apology, said that although for three months he had been planning to write a large analysis, he failed because it always seemed too difficult to find enough time.)

In his letter to Levy-LeBlond, Everett explained that the term "many worlds" was not his, and said he "had washed my hands of the whole affair in 1956” [134]. (In his draft copy, where he gave the date as 1955, there still was the phrase: "Far be it from me to look a gift Boswellian writer in the mouth!" [133]) The first manuscript by Benioff Everett also diligently annotated with pencil [135], then tried but failed to reach Benioff by phone. Later, his enthusiasm ran low [54].

Burglary. Loss of relatives. (1977-1978)

That year, 1977, which probably brought a peak of recognition to Everett, ended badly. On December 4, the DBS office was burglarized (the thief left on a wall an inscription: "YOU LOST SOMETHING" [136]), and on December 30 Everett’s uncle, Charles Everett (1911-1977), who had served for forty years as a printer at "The Washington Post" and had just retired in March, died of cancer at Fairfax Hospital in Virginia [137].

Half a year later, on July 20, 1978, his wife followed him [138] — literally on the eve of the engagement of her grandson (the Everetts show a sort of strange "relativeness" of key dates). That summer Everett's children went to Hawaii to visit Liz’s Army boy friend, and Everett with his wife visited the Misners in Maryland, where they saw Wheeler, who was there to receive an honorary degree from the University of Maryland [54].

Fame (1978-)

Additional signs of recognition came to Everett in 1978. In one manuscript sent to him by a medical doctor named Berley, his thesis is generously called an “almost fitting tribute to Einstein” [139]. Although Berley's manuscript was on art, perception, and the mind, Everett took the trouble to respond, saying that Berley described his [Everett's] work “reasonably accurately”, and he recommended that the doctor read the book by G. Pugh [139]. Nancy later wrote to Wheeler that it would be fun to read those words (“almost fitting tribute to Einstein”) in a book [54]. (Eventually, in May 1980, Berley's book did appear.)

Another book, by Andre Vidal, with a dedicatory inscription in French [140], came in 1978, and in June of that year, Syohei Miyahara, the President of the Physical Society of Japan, wrote to Everett that his Society would like to include the translation of Everett's “valuable paper” of 1957 in an anthology on the theory of measurement in quantum mechanics [141]. Soon he received from Everett a copy of the 1973 anthology and permission to publish any two his works from the anthology.

But not everyone understood or embraced Everett's work. Once Everett was asked by Physical Review Letters to review a submitted paper called "Quantum Attention Theory." It was so far off base that Everett chose to cast his negative review in sarcastic terms [143]. He wrote that the paper might be "an example of state-of-the-art computer generated configuration of buzz words specific to a particular fieldin which case it is a real advance in automatic syntax and grammar generation, and the program should be published as a major advance."


Liz moves to Hawaii. Hugh is planning return to QM. (1979)

Early in 1979, Everett's daughter Liz moved to Hawaii to start a career in the world of TV and radio. It seems that Wheeler may have played a role in inspiring her to choose this career, when she met him during her family's memorable trip to Austin in May, 1977 [54]. (This probably came about not because Wheeler considered TV and radio especially appealing fields in which to work, but because he encourages every young person to do whatever that person has a passion for.) On March 13, 1979 Wheeler himself had a flirtation with TV. He hosted a popular scientific Einstein show on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS). The Everetts saw the show and enjoyed it. Hugh even placed a call to Wheeler to congratulate him and to find out if it meant the beginning of a new career as showman, but Wheeler was away from Texas at the time [54].

More seriously, Wheeler tried to change Everett's career. He (Wheeler) advanced the idea of creating a working group at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara, California, devoted to the quantum theory of measurement with the mandate to search for the deepest foundations from which it would be possible to derive quantum mechanics. In July 1979, he wrote to ITP's director, Douglas Scalapino, saying that he had received Everett's consent to get back into physics, and that Everett could conceivably get free of other commitments for a period of time and go to work at the Institute [144].

Nothing came of this plan, and it may have added a pinch of salt to an old wound. Even junior employees at DBS noticed that Everett went out of his way to avoid speaking about his physics past [55]. However, a Renaissance Man (recollecting the first epigraph at the beginning of this piece) doesn't suffer long from depression. An extraordinary young DBS staff member, K. Corbett, working on computer programming at the company in 1979-1980 [145], wondered if Everett thought of computer programming as an arena in which he could show off his superior intellect [55]. (Corbett had graduated with honors from Princeton University with a B. A. in English Literature, and was self-trained as a programmer.) One wonders, too, if Everett was influenced by being dragged along all those years by logic [55, 103, 104], learning machines [118], and artificial intelligence [117] — compare with [71]. Corbett recalls [55] that the small staff of DBS were all in awe of Everett.

First Personal Computers. (1970s)

Both Everett and Reisler were in love with what was still a novelty in those daysthe personal computer. In DBS there were only two, one of which was used personally by Everett. Most of DBS's computing work was done on timesharing facilities leased from American Management Systems (AMS) in nearby Fairfax, Virginia. Everett, for the rest of his life, was an AMS vice president [102]. Today, AMS is an international corporation with an annual income of over a billion dollars [146]. Retrospective estimation, based on its present growth rate, suggest that at the end of the 70s AMS income amounted to tens of millions of dollars per year. (Strangely, it is the only institution that has not responded to my inquiries about Everett.)

Everett was a true computer hacker at heart. He claimed to have invented a technique to deliberately scramble program code prior to delivery to the customer, and took inordinate satisfaction from this practice. (His hacking was quite disinterested and did not involve breaking into secure sites or disrupting other computers, activities now associated with the word.) Everett and Reisler became almost evangelical about computers; they just could not control themselves in the face of glowing perspectives, including freedom from the control of authorities. The bitter paradox is that they were ten to twenty year ahead of their time. DBS lost money and had to shut down. Now, some of the ideas conceived first at DBS are starting to be invented by others [147].

Keith Lynch remembers 1979-1980.

Some of the fullest memories of DBS come from Keith Lynch, who worked there for ten months (after being released from prison!). He had been accusedfalsely, as it turned outof the 1977 burglary and was convicted and sentenced to six years in prison. His friends showed Reisler several letters written by Lynch in prison to prove that the wall inscription was made by another hand. Reisler took note not only of the handwriting but also of the content of the letters, and decided they showed talent. In July, 1979, only two days after being paroled, Lynch became a programmer at DBS (where the inscription was still on the wall!) [136, 148].

Lynch describes [103, 104] the small suite of DBS offices on the 15th floor, with an excellent view from its north-facing windows. (Had the windows faced east, the view would have been even more notable: the Lincoln Memorial two kilometers away, the Washington Monument about a kilometer farther, and the Capitol Dome some two kilometers beyond that.) According to Lynch, Everett's desktop computer, a Radio Shack (Tandy) TRS-80, would occasionally be running something when Everett wasn't around. Lynch gained the impression that this work wasn't business-related but had something to do with physics or math or sheer curiosity.

To Lynch Everett appeared aloof, off doing his own thing, not involved with the day-to-day business of DBS, which included analyzing statistics to look for patterns of racial discrimination, sex discrimination, police brutality, etc., mostly for the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (though Lynch admits that he could be mistaken, since he was very new to the world of business then).

Everett’s digital alarm clock played a short synthesized tune at 11:30 every morning, and everybody at DBS had to drop whatever he or she was doing (unless it was very urgent) and eat. Also, right after work on Fridays, they all had dinner together at an Italian restaurant across the street. Everett was at his most sociable in those relaxed settings [55]. He remained a man of the 1950she smoked, drank, ate high-fat foods, and argued that medical science was mistaken about cholesterol being dangerous. He was quite out of step with most educated Americans in the 1970s.

Lynch tells us that he and the staff were once somewhat disturbed when Everett showed them a gold coin from South Africaa nation which at the time still had its repressive system of apartheid. Everett's net worth was just barely a million dollars, and once he mentioned someone's proposal to tax all money over a million dollars at 100%. He would see nothing wrong with this, he said, if, whenever his net worth fell below a million dollars, the government would bring it back up to a million dollars.

What makes Lynch's recollections especially valuable to the biographer and reader is that Lynch, more than any other DBS employee, shared with Everett many interests and views in physics, math, logic, paradoxes, religion, and libertarian philosophy. They would converse at length on these subjects during lunches and dinners together. Everett's political philosophy was very similar to what Harry Browne has stated [149]: One shouldn't waste one’s time trying to change the government, since no matter how restrictive government becomes, there will always be ways for a clever person to find loopholes. In fact, the more restrictive it becomes, the more loopholes there will be.

Everett was a committed atheist. He once claimed he had a disproof of the Catholic faith. (He chose not to share this "disproof" with Lynch. He said he had shared it once with someone who was strongly Catholic and also strongly committed to logic, and that person was driven to suicide. Everett was afraid that Lynch would promptly use it on Catholics.) Atheist or not, Everett firmly believed that his many-worlds theory guaranteed him immortality: His consciousness, he argued, is bound at each branching to follow whatever path does not lead to death and so on ad infinitum. (Sadly, Everett's daughter Liz, in her later suicide note, said she was going to a parallel universe to be with her father. [149a])

Everett believed deeply in the many-worlds theory, and when Lynch argued that this theory was not falsifiable, and therefore was not scientific, he replied that it would be falsified if standard quantum mechanics was falsified.

Everett took a great interest in the notorious "unexpected hanging" paradox (for details, see [150] and [103, 104]). Once he posed to Lynch another paradox: whether people should have the "freedom" to sell themselves into slavery. Everett, according to Lynch, was great fun to talk with. By age 50, he had become even more handsome, had grown side-whiskers and a professorial goatee, and had a high, shining Socratic forehead [58, 102, 119].

From the same period is a letter Everett wrote to the historian of science D. Raub, in response to a letter he had received from Raub [126]. Nancy Everett has cited this letter of her husband's as maybe “the most representative of Hugh’s thoughts and definitive statement thereof” [151]. Everett wrote that he certainly still supports all of the conclusions of his thesis and considers it to be still the only completely coherent approach to explaining both the contents of quantum mechanics and the appearance of the world. He adds that he has encountered a number of other scientists "subscribing" to it, by and large the younger crop free of preconceptions, but he has no listperhaps, he suggests, Wheeler has a list of such persons.
Loss of father (1980). Last years (1980-1982). Posthumous.

On June 29, 1980, Everett’s father died of cancer in a hospital [8, 9]. There is very little written record of events in Everett's life in the following two years. Later that year, not long after his fiftieth birthday, Everett received from Wheeler a request for permission to include Everett's 1957 article in the large anthology on quantum theory and measurement that he was preparing with W. Zurek. Everett answered at once with permission [152].

Other mentions of his theory [153-156] came to Everett’s attention, judging by [162], among which, as his wife recalled [157], he had special regard for the book Other Worlds by Paul Davies. Mathematicians, too, did not overlook him [158].

Another small thing that is known from this period is that when the Everetts, with Elaine Tsiang, were on a cruise on the Odessa (sailing from Florida), Elaine was mistaken for their daughter, despite the fact that she was Chinese [159]. Life apparently flowed smoothly at this time. Once, at a DBS 11:30 lunch, Don Reisler started a conversation on an abstract subject: the meaning of life and how would Everett feel if this was his last day on Earth. Any regrets, sorrows, etc.? Neither Everett nor Reisler was sick and there was no intimation of troublealthough they were no longer youngso both the conversation and the outcome are striking. Everett said he was fully satisfied and could go without any feeling that he had missed something. Reisler left for Europe that afternoon and never saw Everett again. [90]

On Monday, July 19, 1982possibly the twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of the article on relative statesMark found his father not breathing. He tried to save him, but without success [123], and at Fairfax Hospital they stated death after a sudden heart attack [102]. Possibly, he had died even during the previous night [28]. Don Reisler was then in France [1]. Elaine Tsiang, too, could not arrive from Seattle [159], but she sent Nancy a touching memorial free verse [160].

Services were held at St. Thomas Episcopal Church, Brook Road, on Friday, July 23 [119]. The eulogy was perfect [13].

Soon the home on Touchstone Terrace in McLean became lonely. Mark packed everything he owned into his car and drove 3,000 miles to Los Angeles, where he knew not a soul. He lived there for ten years by random earnings, writing and recording songs every day, and eventually achieving the American dream [5]but that is a separate history. Nancy answered letters addressed to her husband, sent materials to his first biographers, assembled and arranged his papers, and settled the estate. (Not until a year and a half after Everett's death did Wheeler send him a letter, commemorating the appearance of the anthology containing the 1957 article [161]). It hardly seems possible that Wheeler was unaware of Everett's death, but that may be the case.) Liz's suicide in 1996 at age 39 broke Nancy's health. In 1998, on what would have been Hugh's 68th birthday, she died of lung cancer at home, with Mark at her side [28, 9].

It is two generations of physicists later, and Everett’s concept has not yet been accepted "officially" (although more and more physicistschief among them Bryce DeWittembrace it). The author would be glad if this biographic sketch, by reminding readers of the achievements of the most eccentric and unknown genius of the last century, would induce the experts to revise his place in the history of knowledge.

eshi@kmtn.ru or: “Infopress”, ul. Dzerjinskogo, 11, 156005, Kostroma, Russia.
Acknowledgements and final remarks.

The author thanks all correspondents for the memories, documents, and suggestions they have provided, and for permissions to quote from them.


This text is a work in progress, a compilation of materials that the author is collecting for writing a full-length biography of Everett or perhaps even both Everetts. Corrections, additions, advice, photos, and leads to additional information from readers will be highly appreciated.
This document may be used, reproduced, and posted freely for any non-commercial purpose, with reference to the source, the author (Eugene B. Shikhovtsev), and the editor of the English version (Kenneth Ford).
December 2003
SOURCES:
Note: A major source of information has been the Papers of Hugh Everett III in the Niels Bohr Library, Center for History of Physics, American Institute of Physics, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843, USA. I express sincere thanks to Mrs. Katherine A. Hayes for help in the selection, shipping, and reading of materials, and to Dr. Spencer Weart for permission to quote from them. The Everett collection in the Niels Bohr Library is referred to in citations below as the Archive.
When a name or subject is enclosed in square brackets, it means that I have inferred the name or subject rather than finding it explicitly given in the cited source.
1. Donald L. Reisler. Letter to the author (via email) dated January 25, 2001.

1a. Joseph George Caldwell. "An Historical Note on Lambda Corporation, Hugh Everett III, and John Nash." http://www.foundation.bw/HistoricalNote1.htm

1b. http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/6072/1einstein.html
2. [Nancy Gore Everett] Calendar of events, Archive, Box 1, Folder 1.
3. His middle initial M appears only twice in available sources ([96] and [98]). His son thinks that Hugh had no middle name [9]. Since the initial appears in a formal contract [98], it seems likely to this author that Hugh had a middle name (or initial) but chose almost never to use it.
4. Obituary in The Washington Times, July 23, 1982, page 2B. Archive, Box 1, Folder 2.
5. http://eels.artistdirect.com/biography/index.s html [An updated version is currently available at http://www.eelstheband.com/biography/index.php]
6. "Two Colonels Here Shifted." The Washington Post and Times Herald, January 8, 1955. Archive, Box 1, Folder 5.
7. "Poems by Katharine Kennedy Everett." George Washington University Magazine, vol. 1, No. 4, Winter 1965, page 19. Archive, Box 1, Folder 1.
8. Obituary in The Washington Post, July 3, 1980, page B6 (Metro Section).
9. Mark Oliver Everett, Letter to the author (via email) dated February 2, 2001.
10. http://www.pe.net/~rksnow/mdcountybethesda.htm
11. http://www.adsw.org/site/MD/Bethesda/WisconsinAve/7719/nomination/sec8.html
12. Letter from Albert Einstein dated June 11, 1943. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8. This letter appears with a Russian translation on the book jacket of Yu.Lebedev, Ambiguous Universe, published by its author, Kostroma, 2000, 320 pages, 192 copies.

13. [Funeral speech on July 22, 1982, most material for which was prepared [157] by George E. Pugh] "In Memoriam. Hugh Everett, III." Archive, Box 1, Folder 2.

14. [Everett’s resume, written by him in September, 1965]. Archive, Box 1, Folder 1.
15. [Report on obtaining pass in Heidelberg and visiting Leipzig Spring Fair, 1950]. Archive, Box 1, Folder 4.
16. http://mb113.moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~cj/cj3/pre_data/guest.html
17. http://www.millennial.org/pubs/ffn/1_3/bridge.html (This URL is no longer active.)
18. http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/community/clubs/redcircle.htm
19. [Interview of Everett recorded by Charles Misner. Archive, Box 1, Folder 3.]
20. http://www.staywashingtondc.com/pages/n_alex.html
21. http://oh.essortment.com/oldtownalexand_ryca.htm
22. "Reports of the Third Conference on Games held at Fine Hall, Princeton University March 11 and 12, 1957." Princeton University. Department of Mathematics. Logistics Research Project. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. Archive, Box 1, Folder 10.
23. H. Everett /National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellow 1953-56/. "Recursive Games," in: Contributions to the Theory of Games. Vol. III, Annals of Mathematics Study No. 39, Princeton University Press, 1957, pp. 47-78. Archive, Box 1, Series II, Folder 2 (updated from description in [14]).
24. Rainich, G. Y. Mathematics of Relativity, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1950.

24a. John Archibald Wheeler with Kenneth Ford, Geons, Black Holes & Quantum Foam. A Life in Physics. W. W. Norton & Company. New York, London, 1998.

25. [Listing of courses Everett took at Princeton] — Graduate Alumni Records: Hugh Everett, III *57, Princeton University Archives, Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University Library. 65 Olden Street, Princeton NJ 08544-2009, USA. Published with permission of the Princeton University Library. I express sincere thanks to Ms. Christie Lutz for help in selection and sending these materials gratis and to Mr. John S. Weeren for permission to quote them. This material referenced below as Princeton Alumni Records.
26. [List of supervisors of post-graduate students for 1954-55 year] — Archive, Box 1, Folder 5.
27. "Danish Savant At Princeton." Trenton Times, November 21, 1954. Archive, Box 1, Folder 5.
27a. A little different snapshot of the same scene is now available at http://www.aip.org/history/esva/catalog/esva/Everett_Hugh.html
28. Mark Oliver Everett. Letter to the author (via email) dated December 21, 2000.
29. Harvey J. Greenberg. Letter to the author (via email) dated January 3, 2001.
30. Frances Zeigler. "Around Belle Haven." Archive, Box 1, Folder 5.
31. [H]. Everett. "Objective vs. Subjective Probability." Archive, Box 1, Folder 6.
32. H. Everett. "Quantitative Measure of Correlation." Archive, Box 1, Folder 6.
33. H. Everett. "Probability in Wave Mechanics." Archive, Box 1, Folder 6.
34. [Note by Wheeler to Everett dated September 21, 1955]. Archive, Box 1, Folder 5.

35. H. Everett. "The Theory of the Universal Wave Function." Thesis. Archive, Box 1, Series II, Folder 1.

36. Bryce S. DeWitt and Neill Graham (Eds.): The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1973. Archive, Box 2, Series II, Folder 6.
37. Hugh Everett, III. "On the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics." Thesis submitted to Princeton University, March, 1, 1957, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. Degree. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
38. Bryce DeWitt. Letter to the author (via email) dated January 15, 2001.
39. Boulton Miller. Letter to the author (via email) dated November 21, 2000. B. Miller was at that time the Deputy Executive Secretary of WSEG.
40. Certificate of attending Weapons Orientation Advanced Class No. 113, 23-26.10.56. Archive, Box 1, Folder 4.
41. http://www.nwmp.sandia.gov/wlp/er/SNLHistory.htm
42. http://www.ida.org/
43. Hugh Everett, III. Letter to Bryce DeWitt dated May 31, 1957. Private archive of Bryce S. DeWitt.
44. This is reported in Bryce DeWitt’s annotation of the book by David Deutsch, The Fabric of Reality (in review of chapter 13): http://naturalscience.com/ns/books/book02.html
45. Hugh Everett, III. "'Relative State' Formulation of Quantum Mechanics." Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 29, No. 3, July, 1957, pp. 454-462. With permission of the copyright holders, this paper is reproduced at: www.chat.ru/~everettian/english/paper1957.html
46. John A. Wheeler. "Assessment of Everett's 'Relative State' Formulation of Quantum Theory." Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 29, No. 3, July, 1957, pp. 463-465.

47. Hugh Everett, III and John A. Wheeler. [Letter dated March 10, 1957 and mailing list for it] Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.

48. http://www.math.washington.edu/~hillman/PUB/dbwf2 (Material from this obsolete URL can now be found at math.ucr.edu/home/baez/PUB/dbwf2.)
49. Cecile DeWitt-Morette. Letter to the author (via email) dated January 10, 2001.
50. [Departmental report on Everett’s dissertation] Princeton Alumni Records.
51. [Departmental report on Everett’s defense] Princeton Alumni Records.
52. Bryce DeWitt. Letter to John Wheeler dated May 7, 1957. Private archive of Bryce S. DeWitt.
53. The phrase by Prof. Jammer (from [106]?) is quoted in Bill Harvey’s letter to Everett dated June 8, 1977. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
54. Nancy G. Everett. [Letter to Prof. and Mrs. Wheeler]. (signed by Hugh Everett as well) dated March 21, 1979. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
55. Keith M. Corbett. Letter to the author (via email) dated January 12, 2001.
56. Nancy G. Everett. Letter to John Gliedman dated March 28, 1985. Archive, Box 1, Folder 9.
57. Mark Oliver Everett. Letter to the author (via email) dated December 8, 2000.
58. J. Neil Killalea. [Obituary]. Operations Research/Management Science Today, vol. 9, No. 4, July-August, 1982. Archive, Box 1, Folder 2.
59. http://home.gzinc.com/mmz/Hank2.htm.
60. http://www.nasm.edu/nasm/dsh/TRANSCPT/PHILLIP4.HTM
61. http://www.jps.net/ethelen/mono-6.html (Material from this obsolete URL can be found now at ed-thelen.org/mono-6.html)

62. H. Everett, G. E. Pugh. "The Distribution and Effects of Fallout in Large Nuclear Weapon Campaigns." Operations Research, vol. 7, No. 2, March-April 1959. Archive, Box 2, Series II, Folder 5.

63. H. Everett, III. "Generalized Lagrange Multiplier Method for Solving Problems of Optimum Allocation of Resources," Operations Research, vol. 11, No. 3, May-June 1963, pp. 399-417.
64. F. Jeszenszky. Letter to Everett dated February 11, 1958. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
65. A. G. Hill. Letter to Everett dated March 19, 1958. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
66. John A. Wheeler. Letter to George Edwin Pugh dated June 8, 1977. Archive, Box 1, Folder 9.
67. John A. Wheeler. Letter to Everett dated January 22, 1959. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.
68. Michael M. May. Letter to Wheeler dated December 5, 1958. Archive, Box 1, Folder 8.

69. Hugh [Everett]. Letter to Bob [Galiano?], written in March or April, 1959

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