[By Dr. H. L. Jain, Formerly, Director, Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Prakrit, Jainology and Ahimsa Vaishali, Bihar, and Professor and Head of Sanskrit, Pail and Prakrit Department, University of Jabalpur, India.]
Jainism and Buddism alike held Non-violence as a supreme virtue and laid emphasis on celibacy and renunciation. They likewise condemned animal sacrifices, preached kindness to all creatures, big or small, and strove, not for worldly prosperity and happiness, but for absolute release from the cycle of birth and death through the goal of Salvation, Moksa or Nirvana. BOth the Prophets, Mahavira and Buddha, were Ksatriya princes of Eastern India, and both renounced their kingdom for a life of asceticism, attained perfect knowledge through meditation and preached to the people the way to peace. Their career was spent for the most part in the province of Bihar where they were both born and died. Jina, Buddha and Sramana were their interchangeable titles, and many proper names such as Siddhartha, Gautama and Kasyapa were common in their hierarchies.
These and many other common features misled the earlier Western historians, such as Elphinston to propound the view that Jainism was no more than an offshoot or school of Buddhism which had very wide ramifications in Asia and a much greater circle of followers in ancient India itself. This opinion, however, underwent a radical change, when scholars like Jacobi and Hoernle studied the Jaina and Buddhist systems more closely and analysed dispassionately the facts revealed by the ancient texts of the two systems of thought. It was then established beyond dispute that Jainism was not only independent of Buddhism, but it was older of the two in its origin and development, and it was preached more than two centuries earlier than Mahavira by Parsva whose followers had continued to maintain their identity and religious propaganda all through the period, so that the parents of Mahavira, and probably of Buddha also, belonged to that faith. The name of Buddha's father Suddhodana is in itself a testimony that he was a pure vegetarian, a rice consumer, implying there by that Ahinisa was his creed.
Opinion is also unanimous that the two Prophets were contemporary. But, for how long, who was senior of the two and who attained Nirvana earlier, are disputed questions. Among various calculations and theories about Buddha's Nirvana, the two deserve particular attention. One is the reference in Ceylonese Chronicles, according to which Buddha achieved salvation in 544 B. C. The second evidence is provided by the Chinese dotted Records which go to prove that the event took place in 487 B. C. This evidence is also in accord with an earlier Simhalese tradition. As against this, there is only one stable tradition about Mahavira's Nirvana that it took place 470 years before Vikrama and 605 years before Saka i. e. 527 B. C. There is plenty of literary and epigraphic evidence to support this, and what is claimed to militate against this has been again and again proved to be based on an error or preconceived notions. There are frequent references in the Pali literature of the Buddhists themselves that Nigantha Nataputta i. e. Mahavira was one of those six Tirthankaras or teachers who were senior to Buddha and were sufficiently famous and popular to be consulted by the contemporary monarch Ajatasatru on matters of religion and philosophy, before Buddha could be thought of for the purpose. Not only this, but it has also been clearly stated that when the news of Mahavira's Nirvana reached the ears of Buddha, the latter thought it fit to summon all his followers together and warned them against any schismatic tendencies after his death, as was allegedly happening in the case of Mahavira's Nirvana. To ignore these facts as erroneous, because they run counter to one's own fanciful theories and calculations, is not rational and logical.
Doubts and debates apart, there is no denying the fact that Mahavira and Buddha had a contemporaneity of more than two decades, preaching in the same localitis and finding some of their followers changing allegiance from one to the other teacher even more than once. This, taken into account with the fact that they both belonged to an earlier phase of the Sramana ideology, would naturally lead us to expect a large amount of similarity in the teachings of the two systems and numerous references to one another in their literature. This is more so in the Buddhist works than in the Jaina, presumably because the younger were more envious of their seniors than vice versa. On the other hand, it is also a fact that the known Jaina canonical works assumed their present shape much later than their Buddhist counter parts. Hence, whatever historical, philosophical or religious references to Jainism are found therein, they are of great importance, not only for both the systems of thought but for the cultural history of India as a whole.
This is what has been thoroughly studied by the author of the present book, Dr. Bhagchandra Jain. He is by birth and faith a Jaina and a Buddhist scholar by choice. He has not only dived deep into Buddhist literature, but also stayed long and travelled widely in Ceylon, collecting sifting, selecting and classifying his data. The book "Jainism in Buddhist Literature" was originally submitted as a thesis for a Doctor Degree, and its acceptance for the same in a Ceylon University was a strong evidence of the fact that it withstood well the scrutiny of a team of specialists. Still Dr. Bhagchandra did not think it fit to project his thesis into publicity immediately after receiving his Doctorate. He allowed it, as well as himself, to ripen with age and experience, while he engaged himself in teaching Pali and Prakrit at the University of Nagpur. He has put his finger, not only on all the direct references to Mahavira and his teachings, but also on all those ideas and practices which appeared to have a common basis. The wealth of information stored in this book, the scholarly marshalling of well authenticated facts, penetrating judgment, systematic exposition and balanced conclusions make the book indispensable for all lovers of Indian culture as well as for those who wish to undertake and kind of study or research work in the field.
I congratulate the author and bestow my best blessings on the young scholar from whom I have reason to expect further contributions to our knowledge on a subject which, in its own way, is of deep interest and supreme importance in the domain of Oriental Classical Studies.
Nearely a hundred years ago, Weber, on the basis of some superficial similarities, came to the conclusion that Jainism was an off-shoot of Buddism. In 1884 Jacobi corrected this view and with a thorough investigation into the historical and traditional records of the two religions, established the fact that Jainism was an earlier and independent religion of India. Although over eighty years have passed since Jacobi's researches, the much-needed comparative study of Jainism and Buddhism has not been undertaken seriously. There have been passing references to their contemporaniety and doctrinal dissimilarities as well as the role they played together as a revolutionary opposition to Vedic Brahmana. The reason for the long delay in attempting a deeper study can easily be understood. The Buddhist literary and Philosophical works are in Pali and Sanskrit while the Jaina records are in Prakrit and Sanskrit. Neither in India nor in Ceylon do we find many scholars who had the opportunity of acquiring competence in all the three languages, Apart from the linguistic equipment, there is the more difficult problem of understanding fully the religious, philosophical, ethical, and epistemological naunces of both religions only; but for comparative studies, a thorough grasp of botha is sine qua non.
My early studies gave me an opportunity to acquire an adequate knowledge of Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Philosophy and Ancient Indian History and culture and Archaeology. While studying for my M. A. in Pali I went through many Buddhistic texts. But these, in themselves, could not have given me the requisite qualification to handle a subject like Jainism in Buddhist literature.
When I was awarded the Commonwealth Scholarship for study in Ceylon and admitted to Vidyodaya University of Ceylon, I felt that I could undertake a comparative study between Jainism and Buddhism more successfully. I was provided with the most suitable environment and facilities for this work. As a Jain I was conversant with my own religion and vidyodaya, being a revered seat of Buddhist learning, the venerable scholar-monks who guided me in my researches knew all about Buddhism. This, indeed, is a very rare opportunity for one who wants to study Buddhism. That is why I did not mind giving up half-way the work, I was doing at Benares Hindu University as a University Grant commission Scholar, on the Saddhamapundarika.
This thesis represents only the beginning of a series of comparative studies which should be undertaken in the field of Buddhism and Jainism. My attempt is to trace the references to Jainism in Buddhist literature and to evaluate the information contained therein. It has been my intention to find out the degree of accuracy and completeness with which the Buddhist literature has recorded various dogmas and teachings of Jainism.
The method addopted by me has been to examine the data in the Tipitaka, the Pali Non-Canonical literature and Sanskril philosophical works in that order. I have utlized the original texts in Pali and Sanskrit as far as possible. Where similarities or original Jaina versions of any doctrinal point were observed, the Jaina works in Ardhamagadhi and Sauraseni Prakrits and Sanskrit were used.
One observation has to be made at this stage on the scope of the research I had undertaken. contrary to the general belief, the data on Jainism available in Buddhist Literature are very meagre. Though contemporaneous, the Buddhist records have only made scanty references to both Jainism and its Tirthankara or Tirthankaras. These references are distributed all ever the voluminous literature and the search for them has been a very arduous task whose magnitude and difficulty may not be very clear to an ordinary reader of these chapters.
My indebtedness to previous authors and translations of the Pali, Prakrit, and Sanskrit literature has been duly acknowledged in the references and the bibliography.
At the end it is my pleasant duty to acknowledge the help that I have received from various quarters. It is with gratitude that I record my sincere appreciation of all the assistance I received from the Government of India which selected me for this scholarship, and the Government of Ceylon and the authorities of the Vidyodaya University of Ceylon who very kindly awarded the scholarship to me and made all arrangements for not only studies but also a very happy sojourn in this beautiful Island.
I am very grateful to my teacher and guide Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya, D. Litt., Professor of Theravada Buddism and Dean of the Faculty of Buddhism, Vidyodaya University of Ceylon, who supervised my studies and ven. later Dr. Palannoruwe Wimaladhamma Nayaka Thero, D. Litt., then Vice Chancellor, the Vidyodaya University of Ceylon who too, gave me much encouragement and very valuable suggestions.
I am highly grateful to Dr. Hira Lal Jain, Formerly Director, Institute of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Prakrit, Jainology and Ahimsa, Vaishali, Bihar, and Professor and Head of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit department, University of Jabalpur, India who encouraged me from time to time and blessed this work with his valuable Foreword.
I am gratefully recollect the valuable help received from Dr. Ananda W. P. Guruge, formerly Professor of Sanskrit, VIdyodaya University of Ceylon and the Senior Assistant Secretary in the Ministry of Education, Government of Ceylon and at present UNESCO Expert and Professor of Educational Planning, who inspite of his busy official schedule extended all the possible help in completing my work. He went critically through the thesis before it was submitted to the University. In fact, it was to a great extent due to him that my stay in Ceylon became comfortable and purposeful.
I am also indebted to Dr. A. N. Upadhye, Professor and Head of the Department of Jainology and Prakrit, Mysore University, who helped me in every possible way in the completion of the work. He responded to my letters and queries without delay from Kolhapur while I was in Ceylon.
I am also grateful to my brother Dr. Ajaya Mitra Shastri, Reader in Ancient Indian History, culture and Archaeology, Nagpur University, who willingly went through the entire manuscript critically and made a number of valuable suggestions for better presentation. He has always been a sourcc of encouragement to my studies.
I shall fail in my duty if I do not express my gratitude to my teacher Dr. N. H. Samtani Department of Sanskrit and Pali, Benaras Hindu University, Varanasi who suggested me to apply for the Commonwealth Scholarship for which I was fortunately selected. I am further indebted to him for the willing help he extended to me in various ways.
I would also like to express my gratitude to late Dr. Vashudeva Sharana Agrawala, Professor and Head of the Department of Art and Architecture, College of Indology, B. H. U., Dr. V. V. Gokhale, formerly Professor and Head of the Department of Buddhist Studies, Delhi University, Late Dr. Kamata Prasad, Jain Hon. Director, the World Jaina Mission, Aliganja (Etah), U. P., Ven. Bhadanta Ananda Kausalyayana, my teacher late Prof. B. Anomadassi, Lecturer in Pali, B. H. U., my elder brother Shri Dulichand Nahar Katara, Saugor, Dr. Darbari Lal Kothiya, Reader, Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya. B. H. U., Pt. Parmananda Shastri, Dr. U. C. Jha, Ranchi Universtiy, Pt. Kalaish Chandra Shastri, and Dr. Gokul Chandra Jain who, whenever consulted, were ready to help me with very useful suggestions and advice.
My thanks are due also to Mrs. Sujata Guruge, and Mr. Punyavardhana Kuruppu for helping me in checking the references and reading the typescript in Ceylon.
I must here express my gratefulness to Mr. K. P. g. Wijayasurendra, then Deputy Registrar (Examination), Vidyodaya University of Ceylon.
Mr. H. Gunasekera, then Registrar of the Vidyodaya University of Ceylon, Mr. E. H. Disanayake, then Deputy Registrar (Administration) and Mr. P. Abeseker, then Assistant Registrar (Administration) who helped me in many ways.
I will be failing in my duty if I fail to express my gratitude to the, Librarians of the Vidyodaya University of Ceylon, Vidyalankara University of Ceylon, Archaeological Department and the Public Library, Colombo, Ganesha jain Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya Library, Sagar, Parsvanatha Vidyashrama Library, Varanasi, Syadvada Mahavidyalaya Library Varanasi, and Librarians of Benares Hindu University and Nagpur University who went out of their way to assist me in getting the books and journals I needed for my work.
Last but not the least, my grateful thanks go to my uncle, Shah Deep Chandra Jain Nahar and my brother, Duli Chandra Jain Nahar, Katara, Sagar, M. P. for the encouragement they gave me in my studies and the security they provided for my mother and wife during my sojourn in Ceylon. Without their kindness and generosity I could never have had the education which enabled me to undertake this work. To my mother Smt. Tulsadevi Jain and my wife, Smt. Pushpa lata Jain M. A. I am extermely grateful for the many sacrifices they have made to help me achieve my ambition of bringing about a better understanding of the mutual dependence of Jainism and Buddhism and of the timely role these two great religions of India can play in bringing about peace and well being to humanity.
I am also grateful to Shri Prof. Sudhakar Pandeya, M. P. and the authorities of the Nagari Pracharini Sabha, Varanasi and Shri Sharad Kumar Sadhak for the help in the printing of the book. I am also thankful to my friend Shri Prof. B. V. Mohril who prepared the index of the work.
A Ariguttara Nikaya.
AA. Anguttara Nikaya Atthakatha, i. e. Manorathapurani.
APT. Anekanta Pravesa Tika.
AS. Amitagati Sravakacara.
ASI. Archaeological Survey of India.
D. Digha Nikaya.
DA. Digha Nikaya Atthakatha, i. e. Sumangala Vilasini.
DHA. Dhammapada Atthakatha.
DPPN. Dictionary of Pali Proper Names.
DS. Dravya Sangraha.
DSV. Dravya Sangraha Vrtti.
EC. Epigraphia Carnatika.
EI. Epigraphia Indica.
ERE. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
HBT. Hetu Bindu Tika.
HBTA. Hetu Bindu Tikaloka.
IA. Indian Antiquary.
IHQ. Indian Historical Quarterly.
JA. Jaina Antiquary.
JBORS. Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society.
JPTS. Journal of the Pali Text Society.
JRAS. Jounral of the Royal Asiatic Society.
M. Majjhima Nikaya.
MA. Majjhima Nikaya Atthakatha, i. e. Papancasudani.
MK. Madhyamika Karika.
NKC. Nyaya Kumuda Candra.
NM. Nyaya Manjari.
NV. Nyaya Viniscaya.
NVV. Nyaya Viniscaya Vivarana.
PKM. Prameya Kamala Martanda.
PM. Pramana Mimamsa.
PSU. Purusartha Siddhyupaya
PTS. Pali Text Society.
PV. Pramana Vartika.
PVA. Pramana Vartikalankara.
PVST. Pramana Vartika Svavrtti Tika.
S. Samyutta Nikaya.
SA. Samyutta Nikaya Atthakatha, i. e. Saratthappakasini.
SBE. Sacred Books of the East.
SBJ. Sacred Books of the Jainas.
SN. Sutta Nipata.
SNA. Sutta Nipata Attakatha, i. e. Paramattha Jotika.
SS. Sarvartha Siddhi.
STP. Sanmati Tarka Prakarana.
TS. Tattva Sangraha.
TSP. Tattva Sangraha Panjika.
TSu. Tattvartha Sutra.
TSuBh Tattvartha Sutra Bhasya.
TV. Tattvartha Vartika.
V. Vinaya Pitaka.
Zeitschrift Deutschen Morganland Ischen Gescellschaft.
Foreword by Dr. Hira Lal Jain
Chapter One THE HISTORICAL BACK-BROUND 1-59
A. Antiquity of Sramana Cult 1-21
Sixth Century B. C. (1), Vedic System (1), Later Vedic Literature (1). Sramana System (2), Independent Origin of the Sramana Cultural System (3) Classification of Sramanas (3), Common features of Sramans (4), Ascetics in Buddhist Literature (6), Importance of the Sramanas (6), Samanas in Jaina and Buddhist Literature (7), Samanna-Brahmana in Jaina and Buddhist Literature (7), The Heretical Teachers (8), Purana Kassapa (10), Makkhali Gosala (12), Ajitakesakambali (12), Pakudha Kaccayana (13), Sanjaya Belatthiputta (14), Niganatha Nataputta (14), Jainism and Ajiviksm (16), Jainism and Buddhism (18), Conclusion (21).
B. Jainism and its Literature 21-50
Jainism (21), Origin of Jainism (21), Antiquity of Jainism (22), Antiquity of Jainism and Buddhist Literature (22), The date of Nigantha Nataputta (26), The place of Nigantha Nataputta's death, (30), Schism in the Jaina Order (31), Philosophical Literature of Jainas (33), The Canonical School (34), The Svetambaras canonical Literature (34), The Twelve Angas (34), The Twelve Upangas (35), The Ten Painnas (35), The Six Cheyasuttas (35), The Four Mulasutras (35), The Two culika sutras (35), The Foure councils (35), Development of Agama Literature (35), Resemblance to pali Literature (36), Canonical School of Digambaras, (38) The Angapravista (38), The Angabahya Sruta (38), Acarya parampara (39), Anekanta School (41), Spread of Jainism (43), The North (43), After Mahavira (46) Jainism in Ceylon (46).
C. Buddnism and its Literature 50-59
The Buddha and Buddhism (50), Sourccs of Buddhism (50), Buddhist Literature (52) Pali Literature (52), Non-Canonical Literature (58), Sanskrit buddhist Literature (59).
Chapter Two--JAINA PHILOSPHY 60-92
The Six Dravyas (60), Jiva (61), Pudgala (63), Nature of Universe (63), Karmas (65), Dharma and Adharma (65), Akasa (66), The Six Dravyas in Buddhist Literature (66), The Jaina Conception of Jiva Conception of Jiva (Soul) (66), Ajiva or Pudgala (73), Nature of Karmas Asrava, Bandha, Samvara and Nirjara (73), Moksa (84), Nature of Universe (85), Nature of Word (89), Dharma, Adharma and Kala Dravyas (90), Akasa (91), Conclusion(92).
Chapter Three - JAINA ETHICS 93-124
A. The Duties of Jaina House-holders (93-109),
Jaina Ethics (93), The Four Siksavratas (93), The Eleven Stages of the Ethical Evolution of Householders (94), The Duties of a Jaina House-holders as reflected in Pali Literature (94), Pancanuvratas (94), Tridanda and Himsa (97), Gunavratas (100), Digvrata (101), Desavrata and Anarthadandavrata (102), Siksavratas (103), Samayika (103), Prosadhopavasa or Uposatha (103), The Stages of Ethical Evolution of a Jaina House-holder (108).
B. Jaina Monachism.
Twenty Mulagunas (110), References to Jaina Monachism in pali Literature (111), Church Units (112), Vassavasa (113), Requisities (114), Ascetic Practices (115), Mode of Eating (118), Quantity of Food (119), Fasting (119), Supernatural Powers (120), Daily Routine (120), Pancamahavratas (120), Pancasamitis (122), Sadavasyakas (1220, Loca or Kesaluncana (123), Acelakatva (123), Triguptis (123), Conclusion (124).
A. Pratyaksa Pramana. 125-133
Logical Discussions (124), Evolution of Epistemology (129), Knowledge and Vision (131), Classification of Knowledge (134), Pratyaksa Pramana (135), Jaina Conception of Savikalpaka Pratyaksa in Buddhist Literature (136), Its refutation in Buddhist Literature (140), The Object of Perception (142), Jaina Conception of Paramarthika Pratyaksa in buddhist Literature (145).
B. Paroksa Pramanas. 153-167
Paroksa Pramanas (153), Smrti (153), Pratyabhijnana (154), Tarka (1550, Agama (1550, Anumana (156), Jaina Conception of Organs of Hetu in Buddhist Literature (158), Pramanasamplavavada (166), Conclusion (167).
Chapter Five - ANEKANTAVADA 168-216
A. The Nature of Reality (Anekantavada) (169-105)
Anekantavada (169), The Conccption of Identity (170), The Conception of Difference (170), The Conception of subordinating Difference to Identity (171), The nature of reality (171), Relation between Guna and Paryaya (172), Anekantavada in Buddhist Literature (173), Trayatmakavada and Arthakariyavada in Buddhist Literature. (175), Dual character of an entity 9180), Nature or relation of an entity (183).
B. The theory of Nayavada (185-187)
Nayavada (185), Types of Nayas (185), The Theory of Naya in Buddhist Literature (186).
C. The theory of Syadvada (187-216)
Syadvada (187), Dosas (189), Abhavas (119), The Identity-in-difference or Bhedabhedatmaka (1910, Eternal-cum-non-enternal aspects or Nityanityatmaka (191), Saptabhangi (191), Syadvada Conception in Buddhist Literature, (193), Vedic (193), Upanisadic (194), Naiyayikas (194), Sceptics (195), Makkhali Gosala and Syadvada (198), the Buddha and Syadvada (200), Nigantha Nataputta and Syadvada (202), Refutation of Syadvada in buddhist Literature (204), Nagarjuna and Syadvada (204), Dharmakirti and Syadvada (204), Prajnakaragupta and Syadvda (205), Arcata and Syadvada (206), Santaraksita and Syadvada (208), Karnakagomin and Syadvada (209), Jitari and Syadvada (210), Evaluation 9211), Conclusion (216).
1. The Date of the Buddha 265-269
2. Buddhist Councils 270-271
3. The Conception of Omniscience in Buddhism. 278-282