Built on a hill for protection (most important places)

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Date: _________ Period: ____

Section 1: Greek Art and Architecture-

Study Prints

A. Athens: The Acropolis

1. Why do you think the Greeks build their most important buildings on a hill?

- built on a hill for protection (most important places)

- built originally for military purposes

- temples higher up (closer to the gods)

2. What material was used to make these buildings?

- Marble/Bronze Statues
3. Why do think the buildings are in ruins?

-earthquakes/erosion- invasion by the Turks -1687- lack of repairs

B. Athens: The Parthenon

1. What was the Parthenon?

- Temple dedicated to Athena- patron God of Athens


2. What type of column was used?

- Doric columns


3. Describe the Parthenon?
- Located on the acropolis of Athens –sacred area to the Athenians - center for religious observances dedicated to Athens
C. Athens: The Parthenon (Interior)
1. Whose statue was inside the Parthenon?



2. Why do you think the statue held a shield and a spear?

Athena was the protector of Athens, symbolic shield and spear


3. True or False – The statue was six feet tall. **43 feet tall*
4. In what ways were the insides of the Greek Temples different from churches?

Greek temples- lack of windows, simplistic, focal point was Athena’s statue instead of altar- larger

D. Aegina: The Temple of Aphaea (dedicated to the local diety Aegina)

1. Is the temple larger or smaller than the Parthenon? ___smaller_____________
2. What kind of columns can be found in this structure? ___Doric______________
E. Corinth: The Agora

1. What is an agora?

Greek market place- gossip, politics, friends and food


2. Why do you think there was a covered walkway?

- keep rain from interfering - food tent carts set up in the middle of the agora


F. Delos: A House

1. Was this the home of a poor person or a wealthy person? Explain.

Wealthy= size, decorations of house – possibly owned by government officials or very wealthy


2. What do you think was the purpose of this room?

- residence -government or trade center(would bring many guests) - possible religious shrine


3. How was the ceiling of this home different from our homes today?

- large doric columns, marble, large statues, no atriums (courtyard)


4. TRUE OR FALSE- Columns were only used in Greek Temples.

G. The Fortifications (Fort) of Agoesthena

1. Why did the Greeks build walls and forts?

- watch tower and defense post - generate community pride -protection from enemies -sense of security


2. What were the walls made of?

  • Stone blocks brick tower


Name _________________________________ Date ___________ Class _________

5-1 The Culture of Ancient Greece

Directions: Filling in the Blanks Reading the section and completing the sentences below will help you learn more about the culture of Ancient Greece. Refer to your textbook pages 154-163 to fill in the blanks.



Mt. Olympus
















he Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses who controlled (1)

__________________. Led by (2) _________________, the chief god, the twelve

most important gods and goddesses lived on (3) __________________. According to

Greek myth, the gods were not thought to be (4) __________________, but did have

special powers. (5) __________________ were followed in hope of receiving good

fortune from the gods. Because the Greeks believed in destiny and prophesy, they often

visited a(n) (6) __________________ in order to find out about the future.

The earliest Greek stories were (7) __________________. The poet (8)

__________________ wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Greek people looked on the

epics as real (9) ____________________. Homer's heroes became (10)

____________________ for Greek boys. Another form of Greek story that taught a lesson

was the (11) ____________________. Each fable ends with a message, or (12)


(13) ____________________ is a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the

story. A tragedy has an unhappy ending because the character tries to (14)

____________________ difficulties but fails. In a comedy, the story ends (15)


(16) ____________________ in ancient Greece believed in ideas like reason, moderation,

balance, and harmony and hoped to inspire people to base their lives on these ideas.

Examples of Greek painting can be seen on Greek (17) ____________________. Greek

architecture has influenced buildings today in the use of marble (18)

____________________, which are common features of churches and government buildings.

Greek Theatre

Answer these questions using the in-class reading.

1. How did Greek theatre start? Theater grew out of festivals for the God Dionysus. They had a chorus leader who gave a soliloquy.

2. Define soliloquy. A talk in which personal thoughts or feelings are expressed.

3. Describe a Greek tragedy. Stories about suffering that dealt with the past and were relationships between the people and the gods.

4. Describe a Greek comedy. A play in which a happy ending was usually told in the present and made fun of politicians.

5. Why did the Greek actors wear masks? To show gender, age, and mood of the character- also included a funnel to amplify the voice.


6. True/False: Both men and women acted in Greek theatre.

Greek Olympics

1. Do you think the modern day Olympic games are a force of unity in the world. Why or why not.

_____Will vary_________________________________________________________



2. How did athletes compete in the pancratium? It was a combination of no holds barred boxing/wrestling. You could not bite or gouge eyes.

3. What five events made up the pentathalon? Run, jump, throw discus, wrestle and hurl the javelin- winner was the best overall athlete.

  1. S
    Greek Religion Word Unscramble

    Directions: Look at the letters below. Unscramble each to reveal the name of a Greek god or goddess. Use the clues to help unscramble the letters.

    R E A god of war


  1. U E Z S chief god; god of the sky, rain, and lightning


  1. M A R T S I E goddess of the hunt and wild animals


  1. P O O L A L god of the sun and poetry


  1. T E S H A I goddess of the home


  1. S N P O E I D O god of the sea


  1. D E H A S god of the underworld


  1. H S E E M R messenger of the gods


  1. N A H A T E goddess of wisdom


  1. T E P H D R I O A goddess of love


  1. R H E A goddess of marriage


12. T R E E D E M goddess of crops


Name _______________________________ Date ________________ Class ________

5-2 Greek Philosophy and History


irections: Outlining
Reading the section and completing the outline below will help you learn more about Greek philosophy and history. Refer to your textbook pages 168-173 to fill in the blanks.

  1. G
    reek _______________ led to the study of history, political science, _______________, and mathematics.

    1. M

      any philosophers were _______________ like Pythagoras, who taught that all relationships in the world could

      be _______________ in numbers.

    2. O
      ne school of philosophers were the _______________ who traveled from city to city making a living by teaching others.

    3. S
      Socratic method
      ocrates was an Athenian _______________ whose true love was philosophy.

      1. S
        ocrates invented the _______________ of teaching, which asks pointed questions to force students to use

        reason and to see things for themselves.

      2. S

        ocrates was accused of teaching young Athenians to _______________ against the _______________.

    4. _

      ______________ was a student of Socrates who taught that democracy was not a good system of _______________.

    5. A
      ristotle, a student of Plato, influenced the way Europeans and _______________ thought about government.
  2. Greeks wrote the first real _______________ in Western civilization.

    1. H




      erodotus wrote the history of the Persian Wars and tried to separate _______________ from _______________,

      but used _______________ and _______________ to explain some events.

    2. M
      Human beings

      ost historians consider _______________ the greatest historian of the ancient world because he saw war and

      politics as the activities of _______________ and stressed the importance of having accurate _______________.

5-3 Alexander the Great: Words to Know

Directions: For each of the following terms or place names, indicate which are associated with Philip II and which are associated with Alexander the Great by filling in the number before each term in the correct portion of the Venn diagram. Read pages 174-179 to answer the questions.

  1. Alexandria- Alexander the great

  2. Chaeronea- Phillip II

  3. Hellenistic Era- Alexander the great

  4. Macedonia- Both

  5. Syria- Alexander the great

Building Academic Vocabulary

achieve, verb
achievement, noun

Directions: Answer the following questions about the word achieve. You may use your textbook, a dictionary, or Internet resources to help you.

  1. What does it mean to "achieve a goal"?

Will Vary- a person accomplished something they set out to do

  1. What is a goal of yours?

Will Vary

  1. What were some of the achievements of Philip II and Alexander the Great?

Greek Columns: Read page 162 and label the Greek columns.

Beneath your label, give one word to describe the look of each column.






Greek Culture-Architecture-Theater-Olympics-Gods Quiz Study Guide

Architecture: Agora / Parthenon / Corinthian, Doric, and Ionic columns
Theater: Comedy / Tragedy / Soliloquy
Olympics: Pentathlon / Pancratium

People: Philosopher / Pythagoras/Socrates/Alexander the Great
Gods: Athena / Apollo / Aphrodite / Ares / Dionysus / Zeus
Short Essay(s):

  1. Why did ancient Greek actors wear masks?

  2. Why did the ancient Greeks build their most important buildings on the Acropolis?

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