Which subject-specific TEKS are going to be addressed in the lesson unit?
K.1B Identify upper- and lower-case letters. (Mm, Tt)
K.2B Identify syllables in spoken words.
K.2E Recognize spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound (e.g., "baby boy bounces the ball").
K.2F Blend spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words (e.g., onset /c/ and rime /at/ make cat). (/a/)
K.2H Isolate the initial sound in one-syllable spoken words. (/m, t/)
K.3A Identify the common sounds that letters represent. (M, T)
K.3D Identify and read at least 25 high-frequency words from a commonly used list. (I, am, the, little, a, to, black, purple)
K.4.A Predict what might happen next in text based on the cover, title, and illustrations.
K.5C Identify and sort pictures of objects into conceptual categories (e.g., colors, shapes, textures); (see math)
K.10.D Use titles and illustrations to make predictions about text.
K.16A (v) Pronouns (e.g.,I. me); (I)
K.17A Form upper-and lower-case letters legibly using the basic conventions of print (left -to-right and top-to-bottom progression). (Mm, Tt)
Which specific (TA) Technology Application TEKS are going to be addressed in the lesson unit? K-2 (1A) use technology appropriate to the task
K-2 (1B) open and exit programs as well as create, name, and save files
K-2 (2A) Use a variety of input devices such as mouse, keyboard, …..
K-2 (2B) Use Proper Keyboarding techniques such as correct hand and body positions and smooth keyboard patterns
(Specific concepts to be included to address the TEKS)
What specific concepts will be included that clarify the content and satisfy the goal of the TEK(s) addressed in this lesson/unit?
Identify capital and lowercase T and the sound that it makes
Listen to stories read aloud and/or retell parts of the story
Analyze the feelings of characters within the story
Discuss the use of illustrations and how they contribute to the story.
What unfamiliar terms will be introduced to the students that will enhance their understanding of the concept?
High-frequency words (I, am, the, little, a, to, black, purple); story; author; illustrator; character; feelings; capital; lowercase; sounds; syllable; sentence; retell; initial and final sounds
Anticipatory Set or Introduction to Lesson Unit
What activity will focus attention on the subject matter of the upcoming lesson unit, establishing a mental set to pique the students' interest?
The student will be introduced to Tommy Tiger. Show the students the Frog Street big book. Learn to sing the song. Make a list of Tt words found in the book. Stress that all words must begin with this sound in order to be on the list. Ask the students what sound they hear at the beginning of each one of these words.
What modeling will take place to demonstrate what the students will do?
Modeling the sound of Tt over and over.
Modeling the correct making of the sound, make word lists using the correct formation of the letter, and identifying the letter within words of poems.
Modeling correct writing posture, procedure, and formation of letters.
Modeling one to one correspondence- tracking reading with a finger.
(Guided Practice and Independent Practice)
(Include: Day 1, Day 2, etc…)
What initial practice of lesson skill will be used under direct supervision of the teacher? What practice of the skill concept of the lesson, without direct (step-by-step) adult supervision will take place?(List for each day of the unit: Example: Day 1, Day 2, Day 3).
Begin each day with a sponge activity. This will be a worksheet copied by the teacher that the students will work on as they come into the classroom each morning.
Day 1 - Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1 Volume 2, p. 528-543
Activity 1 Display the Tt Alphabet Card. Point to the turtle. Turtle begins with /t/. Say the words; with me, turtle. Write “turtle” on the board and point to the ‘t’. The sound for this letter is /t/. The names of these letters are uppercase T and lowercase t. What is the sound for this letter? What are the names of these letters?
Activity 2 The student will listen to the poem, “Tick Tick Tock” (Phonics Songs and Rhymes Chart 6). Play the CD and sing the song several times. Ask specific questions about the poem. Reread the poem and instruct the students to tap their temple and say “tttttttttttt” when they hear a word beginning with /t/. Highlight all “t” words in the poem. Hand out dictionary page beginning sound “t”. The students will then trace the word that is next to each picture.
Activity 3 Some words we have to learn by remembering the letters rather than saying the sounds. We will say and spell the words to help learn them. Write “a” on the board. This is the word “a”. It has only one letter. Have children say and spell the word, first with you and then without you. I can use the word “a” in lots of sentences. Here is one sentence: I have a pencil. Now you use the word in a sentence. Repeat with the word “to”.
Activity 4 Teacher Edition p. 536-537: Review the words I, am, a, and to by having children read the words as you point to them on the word wall. Write the word “Tam” on the board. This is the word “Tam”. Name the letters with me: t, a, m, Tam. What word is this? Continue with: turtle, walk, tent, turkey, and table. Look for these words in our story today. There will be a picture above the word to help you read it. Display Decodable Story 6, Tam! P. 63-64 in Reader’s and Writer’s Notebook.
Day 2- Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1 Volume 2, p. 544-561
Activity 1 The student will listen to the poem, “Cat’s Flat Hat” (Big Book of Phonics, Rhymes, and Poems p. 50-51). Say the word “hat”. Then, say the word “sat”. Point out that the words rhyme. Give a hat to a child and ask the child to say another word that rhymes with “hat”. Accept nonsense words, but encourage children to think of real words. Children continue to pass the hat and say a word that rhymes. Read the title of the poem and emphasize the sound of /t/. Have children repeat the sound back. Point out all of the words that end with /t/. Reread the poem and use highlighting tape to highlight each word that ends with /t/.
Activity 2 Display the “bat” picture card. This is a bat. Listen to the sounds in “bat”; /b/ /a/ /t/. How many sounds do you hear? Is /t/ the first sound in “bat”; /b/ /a /t/? The /t/ is the last sound. Say a set of words, such as boat, cat, goat, hat, kite, and net. I am going to say two words. I want you to tell me which word ends with the same sound as “bat”. Listen carefully: drum, beat. I hear the /t/ at the end of beat. Let’s try some other words. Have children tell you which word ends in /t/. Continue the routine with these word pairs: foot, hand; dog, cat; boat, car; goat, horse; pot, pan; bug, ant. Hand out dictionary page ending sound “t”. The students will then trace the word that is next to each picture.
Activity 3Teacher Edition p. 552-553: Review the words I, am, the, little, a, and to by having children read the words as you point to them on the word wall. Display Decodable Reader 6, Let’s Go. P. 118 in My Skills Buddy. We will read lots of words that begin with /t/ in this book. Today we will read about a boy who walks to many different animals at the Wild Animal Park. Discuss title and author.
Activity 4 Display “Dig Dig Digging!” Big Book. Discuss the cover, title, and back of the book. What do you see on the cover? What will it be about? Go on a picture walk. Read with expression for enjoyment. Have children turn to p. 126 of My Skills Buddy. Walk through the retelling boxes as children retell the story. Let’s retell what happens in the first box- the beginning of the story. Let’s retell what happens next. Continue with the rest of the boxes. Have children draw a picture to retell a favorite part of the story. Dictate a word or sentence to go with their picture.
Day 3- Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1 Volume 2, p. 562-589
Activity 1 The student will listen to the poems “Tick Tick Tock” and “Cat’s Flat Hat.” Stress the /t/ sound in each poem. Using the chart tablet, sort words as either beginning with /t/ or ending with /t/. Write the sentence, Tim sat in Tom’s boat. Have volunteers underline the “t” in each word. Use Reader’s and Writer’s Notebook p. 71 for additional practice with /t/.
Activity 2 As you write the words on the chart tablet, describe the formation of a capital T and a lowercase t. Model an example or two of how NOT to make the letter. Students use their finger and pretend write T and t on the back of a friend. Hand out the Tt handwriting sheet to each student. The teacher will model correct writing posture and procedures. Model how to touch the lines on the paper correctly. As the students begin writing the letters on their own, the teacher walks around the room modeling and correcting as she/he goes.
Activity 3 Teacher Edition p. 568-569: Recall the previous high-frequency words I, am, the, little, a, and to by having children read the words as you point to them on the word wall. Write the word “tiger” on the board. This is the word “tiger”. The word “tiger” is in the story we will read today. What sound does tiger begin with? What letter makes this sound? As we read, point to words that begin with /t/ Tt. Display Kindergarten Student Reader K.1.6, At the Toy Store. We will read lots of words that begin with /t/ in this book. Recall how to read a book.
Day 4- Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1 Volume 2, p. 590-601
Activity 1 The student will listen to the poem, “Tick Tick Tock” (Phonics Songs and Rhymes Chart 6). Ask students what we are discussing in the poem. Display the Tt alphabet card. This is a turtle. Turtle begins with /t/. What is the letter for /t/? Write the word “tap” on the board. Point to ‘t’. What is the sound for this letter? Say it with me: /t/ /t/ /t/. The beginning sound in ’tap” is /t/. Tap ends with ‘ap’. When I blend the beginning sound /t/ and the ending -ap, I make the word “tap”: /t/ -ap, tap. Use “tap” in a sentence. Repeat routine with the word “hat”, focusing on ending sound /t/. Continue with the words: tell, Tom, tug, get, sit, not.
Activity 2 Recall the high-frequency words: a, to, I, am. Have children find each word on the word wall. Write the word “Ted” on the board. This is the word “Ted”. Name the letters with me: T, e, d. What word is this? Continue with: tow, taxi and garage. Look for these words in our story today. There will be a picture above the word to help you read it. Today we will read a story about Ted. Display Routines Flip Chart to read Get Set, Roll! Reader 6. We will read lots of words that begin with /t/ in this book.
Activity 3 Recall colors. Learn to read “purple”. Learn to sing Frog Street Big Book Purple. What other things do you know that are purple? Hand out teacher worksheet, Purple.
Day 5- Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1 Volume 2, p. 602-615
Activity 1 Display the “taxi” picture card. What is the beginning sound in “taxi”? Say the word with me: /t/ /t/ /t/ taxi. Continue to review initial /t/ with the words: tack, turtle, tub, Tom. Display the “hat” picture card. What is the last sound in “hat”? Say it again: hat, /t/ /t/ /mt. The last sound in “hat” is /t/. Continue to review final /t/ with these words: what, wet, net, cat, boat. I am going to say some /t/ words. If all the words have the same beginning sound, put both hands on your head. If all the words have the same ending sound, put both hands in your lap. Listen carefully: cat, kit, fat; boat, base, boom; pot, hat, bit.
Activity 2 Recall the high-frequency words: I, am, the, little, to, a, and black. Display the book: Listen to Me Reader K.1.6, Turtle’s Taxi. Discuss the author and illustrator. Look at the picture on the cover and predict what the book will be about. Review children’s ideas. Point out that they will know more about turtle and his taxi when they read the story. Turn to p. 2. Point to the word. The word is “turtle”. Say the word with me. Look at the picture and find turtle. Repeat this routine. Use echo reading of Listen to Me Reader K.1.6 to model reading fluently. Journal: draw turtle and his taxi and label your pictures.
The teacher will use learning stations in the classroom daily, with a desired maximum of 4 students per station:
Station 1: Letter Matching- Students will match lowercase letter cards to uppercase letter cards.
Station 2: Letter Writing- Students will trace the letter of the week and then write it on their own.
Station 3: High-Frequency words- The students will look for the word of the week in a simple story, poem, or newspaper article. Highlight the word with markers.
Station 4: Sorting- sort alphabet and number tiles into two piles: Letters and Numbers.
Station 5: Technology Integration Computers Students will use various classroom CD ROM’s (such as Clifford’s Fun with Reading, Reader Rabbit Personalized Reading, Arthur’s Reading Games, Jump Start Kindergarten) on classroom computers.
Station 6:Teacher Table- Work with a group of 4 to 6 children on re-teaching, enrichment, and/or guided reading activities.
What check(s) will be used to determine if learners have understood the material and activities of the lesson?
The teacher monitors the students’ responses to daily questioning to make sure the answers given go with the question asked. The teacher asks questions to the group as well as to individual students. The questions should contain higher-level questioning strategies at every opportunity. The teacher will make sure students are using the right lines when writing their name and their letters.
Opportunities to Relearn
If necessary, what alternative teaching methods will be used to teach the same information or skill? Consider teaching methods that address different learning styles, e.g., auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic.
Give one child a letter “T.” Have the child say a word that begins with /t/ and pass the letter card to the next child, and so on.
Give children pictures: cat, ton, want, turtle, top, tomato. Have them sort the cards as beginning with /t/ or ending with /t/.
Use magnetic letters: c, a, t, n, d, I, m, i. Help students blend words together using only these letters.
Show children how to form a T with their two forefingers. Then say the following words and ask children to form a T each time they hear a word that begins with /t/: top, box, ten, tub, moon, table, tune, jump.
Technology Integration: McGraw Hill Phonics CD-Rom
Accommodations for Special Populations
What alternative instructional modifications and adaptations that address all learners' needs are necessary, if any?
Accommodations for instruction will be provided as stated on each student’s (IEP) Individual Education Plan for special education, 504, at risk, and ESL/Bilingual.
Strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs)
What additional strategies will be used to accommodate the needs of English Language Learners during this lesson unit?
Language Focus and Framework- Determine if each new letter sound exists in the languages your ELL children speak
Partner Work- Pair children who are proficient in English with the children who are ELL learners. Pairs sort familiar classroom library books into fact or fantasy groups and discuss why each book belongs in each group.
Realia- Assemble familiar objects, some that begin with /t/. Name the objects, emphasizing initial sounds.
Realia- Have students draw pictures. Label the picture with “I am a _____.”
Visual Scaffolding- Use picture cards and say words on the picture. Have students repeat the word. Have students arrange magnetic letters to form words.
Assessment or Evaluation
(Formative and Summative to Assess Mastery)
What formal assessment that provides learning criteria and indicators through traditional or alternative assessment means will be used? State what the learner will do to demonstrate understanding and mastery of objectives (this should be directly tied to the lesson unit objectives).
Various questioning and worksheet documentation, classroom observations, six weeks tests, mid year TPRI, and mid year assessment
Enrichment / Extension
What challenging instructional activities can be provided for students who demonstrate academic proficiency of curriculum objectives? Focus on Application and Transference to the "Real World". Make a connection between past and present.
Ask a child to name a food that begins with /t/. Give clues to help students think of foods. Continue with different categories such as people’s names, animals, or toys.
Have children choose a classroom book and locate the high frequency words of the week. Partners can work and keep a tally of how many they find in the book.
Give students the letter cards: c, a, t, n, d, I, m, i. Have them arrange the cards to make as many words as possible.
Technology Integration: Students will use various classroom CD-Rom’s on classroom computers to enrich learning.
Closure or Ending the Lesson Unit
What very brief activity will take place that has students state or demonstrate the main objective(s) of the lesson.
At the end of each days activities, the teacher will ask the students:
What letter are we learning this week?
What sound does it make?
Give me a word that begins with an /t/ sound.
Give me a word that rhymes with: _____.
Read our high-frequency words of the week: a, to, purple
Materials: Preparation and Resources
What preparation must occur before the lesson is ready?
The teacher should have gathered the weekly teacher made worksheets. The teacher should also have made individual letter cards for each student.
What resources should be available for students?
Scotts Foresman Teacher Edition 1, Volume 2
Phonics Songs and Rhymes Chart 6
Decodable Story 6, Tam!. P. 63-64 in Reader’s and Writer’s Notebook
Decodable Reader 6, Let’s Go. P. 118 in My Skills Buddy
“Dig Dig Digging!” Big Book
Reader’s and Writer’s Notebook p. 71
My Skills Buddy p. 126
Kindergarten Student Reader K.1.6, At the Toy Store
Routines Flip Chart to read Get Set, Roll! Reader 6
Listen to Me Reader K.1.6, Turtle’s Taxi
Frog Street Big Book Purple
Frog Street Big Book Tommy Tiger
Big Book of Phonics Rhymes and Poems p. 50-51
Picture cards beginning and ending with /t/
Teacher created worksheets for the week.
Letter cards for T and t for each student
High-Frequency word cards: I, am, the, little, a, to, black, purple