Reflective Practice is a long standing and highly debated construct in the professional practice discourse. Three moments are often cited in its provenance
1. That is has its origins in Greek philosophy.
2. That it is defined and conceptualised in Dewey’s (1910) How we Think
3. That is became popular through Schön’s (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action.
In the wake of the publication of The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action discourses associated with Reflective Practice both critiqued it and advanced it, with multiple publications about ways in which Reflective Practice could be facilitated. This paper is positioned within the literature that explored the range of techniques for facilitating reflective practice, although in doing that it also seeks to critique the practice.
Cabaret, like Reflective Practice, has an extensive provenance. It is believed to have originated in the cafés and wine bars of Paris and when it migrated to Germany, became influenced by Critical Theory articulated in the music and theatre world of Brecht and Weill. Perhaps the best example of this is Kander and Ebb’s (1966) Broadway stage musical Cabaret based on the autobiographical reflections of Christopher Isherwood in his (1945) Berlin Stories.
This presentation draws its understanding of Reflective Practice from Kolb’s (1984) model of Experiential Learning and proposes to both intellectually and experientially explore the viability of cabaret as a facilitative tool for Reflective Practice.
Geof Hill has an academic background, originally in Organisational Communication and more recently associated with Higher Education Research Supervision. He has a parallel career in Musical Theatre and as an academic has used music and cabaret as a vehicle for advancing academic issues, writing and performing a cabaret on ‘Doing a Doctorate’ in the context of his doctoral inquiry. He has subsequently written and performed several other academic cabarets.
In his writing on research supervision he has been advancing an agenda of Cabaret as academic writing in the context of the emergent acceptance of creative works as research.
The style of writing in this paper
As cabarets are not a common feature of conferences, there is an absence of writing models. I have responded to this by developing a style of writing that I hope conveys the content of the paper/cabaret and also indicates the way in which it is to be presented as a cabaret.
I have used centred italics to indicate the text of the paper which will be sung.
I have used footnotes to provide the authentication or references for the points I have made in presenting the argument of this paper.
This style of writing was established when I included a cabaret in my doctoral dissertation. The transcript of the cabaret was included in the dissertation appendices along with other work published in the period of candidature. My submission of a doctoral dissertation preceded the acceptance of creative works as publications. Creative works were accepted as research publications in the Excellence in Research for Australia submission guidelines (2010, 10).
For the purposes of ERA, research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it is new and creative.
This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise applications‘1.1 This definition should be read as consistent with that used in the Higher Education Research Data Collection Specifications (HERDC Specifications‘)2
Institutions must ensure that all research outputs submitted to ERA meet the ERA definition of research. Outputs that do not meet this definition may be excluded from submissions during the ERA submission process, or where they are not excluded from submissions their inclusion may adversely affect the quality rating assigned by RECs during the evaluation process.
A vision’s just a vision if its only in your head
If no-one gets to hear it its as good as dead
It has to come to life
Bit by bit putting it together
Piece by piece, only way to make a ‘work of art’
Every moment makes a contribution
Every little detail plays a part
Having just the vision’s no solution
Everything depends on execution
Putting it together, word by word.
Phrase by phrase
If you have not experienced a cabaret before as part of a conference agenda, it follows along similar lines to any other paper, in that there is knowledge to impart and hopefully, given this is a symposium, conversations to generate.
In this cabaret, I am asking ‘Is cabaret is a viable catalyst for reflective practice?’. It is a question I am exploring both theoretically and experientially.
Normally when I start a cabaret I acknowledge my accompanist Catherine Solomon who while she is not physically here with us today has done her work in preparing my electronic accompaniment.
I want to try to do two things in this cabaret.
Firstly I want to present cabaret as academic discourse.
Secondly, in the context of one of the themes of this conference- Expressions of Reflection -I want to raise a possibility that cabaret can be considered an expression of reflection and in that regard is a catalyst for reflective practice and possibly for critical reflective practice or reflexive practice.
It is perhaps stating the obvious to an audience with such familiarity with reflective practice, to suggest that reflective practice is a much debated topic. I have come to realize this as I embarked on a PhD looking at reflective practice for business professionals. Just trying to get a single definition of reflective practice has been challenging.
I have opted to define reflective practice as a way in which people acquire knowledge from their experience and routines, such that this becomes part of their personal body of knowledge. That definition arises out of what is my original exposure to reflective practice in Kolb’s4 Experiential Learning model.
As I have read about reflective practice over the past twelve months I have discovered that there are a lot of different meanings for reflective practice, some of which contradict each other, and these have developed over time and across several disciplines. On my reading of the literature, three dominant markers are evident:
Reflective practice is often considered to have its origins in Greek philosophy5, however, exactly which parts of Greek Philosophy is open to dispute.
Many recognise Dewey’s6How we Think as the conception of reflective practice as we know it in the modern world.
Similarly many see Schön’s7 (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action as popularizing reflective practice.
Once popularized, the discourse on reflective practice both advanced the idea of reflective practice with models bringing together the range of different meanings as well as publications about ways in which Reflective Practice could be facilitated; and it was also was critiqued by questioning whether it was in fact a good addition to the professional repertoire in a contemporary workplace.
My research study has involved talking with business professionals about their professional practice in the hope that this will reveal evidence about their adoption and use of reflective practice by whatever terms they refer to it. One of the things I have already found is that there is no single portal to reflective practice. Different professionals are exposed to it in different ways. My own exposure through Kolb’s8 model of Experiential Learning led me to adopt a learning journal and to advocate reflective practice in the courses I subsequently taught in Interpersonal Communication at a university. Later when I was lecturing on Management in a School of Early Childhood, I was additionally exposed to Dewey’s9 philosophy that had informed the adoption, or initiation, of reflective practice in education.
My exposure to both Kolb and Dewey, as I came to understand this notion of reflective practice, is what I describe as how reflective practice was constituted in my own practice. In my practice-led inquiry, I refer to this as my personal provenance, borrowing the term provenance from the discourse about antiques where it refers to the history of a given artifact. In practice-led inquiry I have used provenance to identify things that have informed society’s as well as individual practitioner’s understanding of the practice. General provenance refers to the origins and an evolution of the practice that are in the mainstream literature, and personal provenance refers to how a particular practitioner has developed their practice.
When we document a practitioner’s personal provenance we identify, not only the events that led to their adopting of a practice, but the literature that may have informed that adoption, and this provides a useful start for exploring the literature that frames their understanding of the practice10 and provides the bridge between personal and general provenance. I acknowledge Kolb and Dewey in my personal provenance.
What I am describing as happening in provenance is similar to what Schön11 refers to as naming and framing a practice. When we undertake provenance, we start to identify the markers of that framework; markers of how a person has named and framed a practice.
A good example of how a practice is framed and reframed can be found in the practice of surgery. If we look to the history books we find that the early mentions of surgery are framed within the practice of the barber. In the Medieval armies, Barbers were the ones who attended to war wounds and amputations when soldiers were injured in battle12. Later, possibly impacted by the rate of survival of soldiers who had been operated upon by barbers, surgery was moved into the frame of medicine and it was the surgeon with years of study who undertook the amputations. Later still, in our experience of surgery, the practice of surgery has become a post medical specialization.
When ever I think about provenance I am reminded of a very different way of undertaking research to my current technological methods. I think of dusty libraries and afternoons in filtered light finding the particular references for which you have been searching….
13You can open doors and take from the shelves all the books you’ve longed to hold.
You can ask all the questions the whys and the wheres as the mysteries of life unfold.
As you walk through the forests of the trees of knowledge
and listen to the lessons of the leaves.
You enter a space to discover debates
wrapped in the shawl that learning weaves. I remember, everything they taught me
What they gave me look at what it’s brought me. You can travel the past and take what you need to see you through your years.
What philosophers have learned and scientists as well
That was there for their eyes and ears.
Like a link in a chain from the past to the present that joins me with my future yet to see.
I can now be a part of this ongoing stream that has always been a part of me. I remember, everything you taught me
What you gave me, look at where it’s brought me. There is literature that once you’ve read no-one can take away,
No wave can wash away, No wind can blow away
No tide can turn away, No fire can burn away
No time can tear away
And now they’re about to be mine There are things to remember all your life
Those thoughts that fuel your dreams until the fall of your life.
Find meaning in those moments!
I said earlier that one way of looking at the vast amount of literature associated with reflective practice, is firstly seeing some historic markers in Greek philosophy, then Dewey and then Schon. Most think of Schon as popularizing reflective practice, and giving rise to the breadth of the literature. I think of this literature in three categories.
There is literature which advances the notion of reflective practice by exploring a range of ways in which it can be facilitated.
There is that literature which problematizes reflective practice, in that it explores and challenges some of the assumptions underpinning reflective practice.
And recently, there is literature which can be described as retrospective, in that it looks in hindsight at the contributions made, predominantly by Dewey14 and Schön15, that have established a discourse on reflective practice within professional studies.
One of the authors problematizing reflective practice, David Boud16, suggested that the whole discourse about reflective practice should be repositioned within what has been labeled ‘the practice turn’17. Although it is tantalizing to explore the Schon18 legacy within the ‘practice turn’, in this cabaret I want to focus on the first of these bodies of literature that talks about ways for facilitating reflective practice.
The best example of the sort of literature which talks about facilitating reflective practice is the large number of references to learning journals19 to help people reflect. People, often university students, were encouraged to write about their experiences and through this process of writing, become aware of the elements that informed their thinking, and sometimes the beliefs and assumptions that underpinned their sense making about what ever practice they were observing. The learning journal is a good example of an expression of reflection.
Although journal keeping seems to be the most popular strategy for introducing people to reflective practice, there is an array of other strategies amongst which we will find what I call the creative techniques for facilitating reflective practice. These call into play such strategies as comedy20, narrative21 drawing22, life stories23 and auto-ethnographic poetic monologue24. These are just some of the articles I discovered in the International Journal of Reflective practice, a journal associated with this conference, which I methodically read in getting a sense of what is known about reflective practice. The whole fourth issue in 2010 is devoted to arts based techniques for facilitating reflective practice including writing plays25, auto-biographical reflection26, education pamphlets27, Multi-media exhibits28, River drawings 29 and quilt work30. Not, I note ‘cabaret’!
I resonated with many of these strategies, as my own engagement with reflective practice has been in the creative field. I have used ‘Who done it? dramas’ and Fairy story work31 (based on Stephen Sondheims’s ‘Into the woods’ ) as well as Photolanguage32 and Human Sculpture33 to facilitate reflective practice.
The agenda for investigating creative approaches to facilitating reflective practice has been enhanced by a parallel growth in interest about creative research. In their 2002 manual about research (The Frascati Manual34 ) the OECD have defined research as
…comprising creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
… and this opens up opportunities for investigating creative ways to facilitate reflective practice.
My interest in the creative, has taken me down a particular path with regard to publishing my research and it embraces a notion of academic discourse. Since I started lecturing, I have used songs from my musical theatre work to embellish the theory about which I lecture. This predisposition eventually led me to full on cabaret work around various academic themes. Last year I took a one-act cabaret to the International Storytelling conference in Prague and then toured that through three other universities including Coventry University and Wolverhampton University. I started to consider whether in addition to be academic discourse, cabaret could also be able to facilitate reflective and reflexive or critically reflective practice.
In exploring this question, I adopted an appreciative inquiry35. I have been looking at what works in terms of getting people thinking about their practice when I present cabarets. This particular focus has been on different types of songs that seem to get people thinking about their practice. I ask myself, what is it about that particular song that is promoting reflective practice? I also recognize that I will need to look at the disaffirming evidence: such as things like the expectation for a cabaret to be entertaining and an audience not wanting to be made to think. The audience turn-off because they want to be entertained?
36You've got to accentuate the positive
And investigate the negative
Latch on to the affirmative
Don't mess with Mister In-Between You've got to spread joy up to the maximum
Bring gloom down to the minimum
Have faith or pandemonium
Liable to walk upon the scene You know if you take time to contemplate life
Your can learn more or less how to live
It’s easy in theory but hard to apply
It takes time and that’s just what you give So you can accentuate the positive,
investigate the negative.
Latch on to the affirmative
Don't mess with Mister In-Between I know from Mr Dewey that the world is rather guey and that not every experience should count.
I take what is affirming and sometimes what‘s disturbing
To make the most of what my life can mount. So I can accentuate the positive
investigate the negative
Latch on to the affirmative
Don't mess with Mister In-Between
Don't mess with Mister In-Between
Don't mess with Mister In-Between
So it brings me to the question I want to ask you, now that you have had a chance to experience a little of academic cabaret. ‘Can this sort of cabaret promote reflective and potentially critically reflective practice?’
Cabaret has been an entertainment form for quite a while. It is believed to have originated in the cafés in Paris in the context of the French revolution37 and later travelled to Germany where it was associated with a Theatre Revolution linked Bertold Brecht and Kurt Weill. In Germany it was about the same time Critical Theory was being developed. Critical theory encouraged people to be conscious of the beliefs and assumptions they made about everyday life and to look to the inequality brought about by unequal relations of power within capitalism. Some of the songs performed in the German cabarets were intended to unsettle people and make them aware of what was ‘really’ happening in the world – particularly a world that was becoming dictated to. Brecht’s38 and Weill work have become a particular element of theatre and musical theatre that is used for raising social consciousness and looking at issues of power.
For me there is a parallel between what we know as critical reflection, in which we become aware of some of the beliefs and assumptions that underpin our practices, and the way some of the german cabaret songs operate. This term critical reflective practice is called reflexive practice39 in some circles, particularly the business literature I read.
A good example of critical reflective practice in one of my cabarets I perform, is a song I use to alert research supervisors to the possibility that the problem in their supervision might be them. It is sung very tongue in cheek about a supervisor who is continually dumped by their students. It is designed to raise not student awareness but research supervisor awareness. When this song is performed for an academic audience, some of whom supervise research, at one level it is entertaining but at another level it challenges assumptions people make about their practice. This distills the dilemma in academic cabaret: That something can be both entertaining and consciousness-raising at the same time.
40Look beneath your thinking
To know what we know Look at how your solve the problems that you face
Is there are framework taking up that space
These are the thoughts that we will find
Within the recess of your mind
To know what you know
And show what it shows.
So I want to come to the question as to whether cabaret can act as a catalyst for reflective practice?
When I was still toying with the idea of using songs as part of my lecturing that preceded my notion of academic cabaret, I attended a cabaret performed by Judi Connelli, a well established Australian cabaret artist. Her very intimate cabaret was based on her life story. She told her narrative and it was interspersed with a number of songs, some of which were well known because of the theatre roles she had played, and others not so well known.
As I sat in the audience, I found that her telling her story prompted me to reflect on events that had occurred in my life that had similarly had an impact on me. Her narrative inspired a process of reflection for me that made me consider some of the critical incidents in my own life, and in a way helped to shape my provenance as a professional. That night was the first time I had considered that cabaret might facilitate reflective practice.
I asked myself the question as to whether it would have been as powerful if she had simply told her story, or I had read her inspirational story, and I believe that the additional elements that make up cabaret, the music and the lyrics, enhance the reflective power. Sometimes I was hearing songs I knew and I was hearing them in a new light. They were prompting me to think of things I had not previously considered.
Sometimes those songs that were bitter sweet, articulated the dilemmas that we all experience in life and made me think about them and sometimes some of the assumptions I had made within them. In hindsight I wondered whether these were moments of critical reflection.
There was definitely critical reflection in that something I knew well, adult education, and was aware of how it was usually delivered, was opened up and I began to think of different ways of delivering it. I believe that I started to develop a new paradigm about adult education linked to the overlap between entertainment and education and specifically positioned in academic adult education.
As I read about the shift in what was considered to be research I asked myself whether the way I develop these cabarets constituted systematic development, both in the writing of the cabaret and in the rehearsal process that goes into bringing a cabaret to life, which makes it a form of research as well.
I put it to you that what you have experienced in the last thirty minutes is not presented as an expert cabaret, but makes use of that theatrical genre to attempt to convey issues that are also addressed in a range of academic settings. This is what I conceive as academic cabaret and what I want you to consider when you chat about this experience before we draw together again in plenary to discuss the initial question. Think about how whether your thinking about academic discourse and reflective practice has stayed the same or shifted as we have worked through this cabaret.
41This is the moment!
This is the day,
When I send all my doubts and demons
On their way!
I have made - ever -
Is coming into play,
Is here and now - today!
This is the moment,
This is the time,
When the momentum and the moment
Are in rhyme!
Musical References Arlen and Mercer (1944) Accentuate the positive Herman, J. (1966) Mame. music and lyrics by Jerry Herman
Legrand, M., Bergman, A. and Bergman, M. (1983) Yentl Music by Michel Legrand and Lyrics by Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman.
Schulze, N. (1937) Lili Marlene Sondheim, S. (1984) Sunday in the Park with George. Music and Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim.
Wildhorn, F. and Bricusse, L. (1997) Jekyll & Hyde. Music by Frank Wildhorn and lyrics and book by Leslie Bricusse
References Appignanesi, L (1975) Cabaret Methuen: London, U.K.
Brecht, B. (1941) the resistible rise of Arturio Ui Bolton, G. (1999) Reflections Through the Looking-glass: the story of a Course of Writing as a Reflexive Practitioner. Teaching in Higher Education, 4(2), 193-212.
Bolton, G. (2010). Reflective Practice: Writing and professional development (3rd Ed). Sage, LA, USA.
Boud, D. 2010. Relocating reflection in the context of practice, in Bradbury, H., Frost, N. Kilminster, S. and Zukas, M.(Eds) Beyond Reflective Practice: New approaches to professional lifelong learning. New York, USA: Routledge, 25-36.
Cheng, I.K.S. (2010) Transforming practice: reflections on the use of art to develop professional knowledge and reflective practice, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 489-498.
Cunliffe, A, (2004) On Becoming a Critically Reflexive Practitioner, Journal of Management Education; 28(4), 407- 426.
Denzin, N.K. (1994) The art and politics of interpretation. Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. (Eds) Thousand Oaks, U.S.A., Sage.
Dewey, J. (1910). How we Think. Chicago, U.S.A. Regnery.
Dillon, P (2008) Reconnaissance as an unconsidered component of Action Research. Action Learning Action research Journal, 13(1), 4-17.
Ferrari, M. (2010), My journey through my Qualifying Exam using reflexivity and resonant text: ‘what I know’; ‘how I know it’; and ‘how I experience it’ Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(2), 217-230.
Gilbourne , D. (2011) ‘Just in Time’: a reflective poetic monologue Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 12(1), 27-33.
Goldman, H. (2004) Re-examining the ‘examined life’ in Plato’s Apology of Socrates. The Philosophical Forum 25(1), 1-33.
Gouzouasis P. and Lee, K.V. (2009) , The cage: stuff, tunes and tales Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 10(2), 173-178.
Hauw, D. (2009): Reflective practice in the heart of training and competition: the course of experience analysis for enhancing elite acrobatics athletes’ performances, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 10(3), 341-352.
Hill, G. (1991). Corporate Pantomimes/Fairystories: Is there a place for them in organisational communication? Australian Communication Review, 12(3), 55-58.
Hill, G. (1997) An inquiry into human sculpture as a tool for use in the dramatistic approach to organisational communication. MSc (Hon) dissertation, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Hill, G. (2002) Promoting Congruence between the inquiry paradigm and the associated practices of research supervision. Professional Doctoral Dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane: Australia
Hill, G. (in print) Cycles of Action and Reflection in Action Inquiry (Methods). In Coghlan, D. and Brydon-Miller, M. (for publication in 2013) The Encyclopedia of Action Research. Sage: U.K.
Hill, G. and Lloyd, C. (in print) Using still images as a form of organisational inquiry. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives Himmelmann, L (2007) From Barber to Surgeon –the process of professionalisation. Sven Med Tiske, 11(1), 69-87.
Hoban, G. (2000): Using a Reflective Framework to Study Teaching-learning Relationships, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 1(2), 165-182.
Johnson, H. (2001): The PhD Student as an Adult Learner: Using reflective practice to find and speak in her own voice, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 2 (1), 53-63.
Lander, D. and Graham‐Pole, J. (2010) IMAG/in/ING: a reflexive review of artist Rose Adams’ Brain Imaging exhibit, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 469-488.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall
Ludema, J., Cooperrider , D.L., & Barrett, F.J. (2006). Appreciative inquiry:
The power of the unconditional positive question. In Reason, P. and Bradbury, H. (Eds.) Handbook of action research (pp. 155-165). Sage: London U.K.
Nisker, J. (2010) Calcedonies: critical reflections on writing plays to engage citizens in health and social policy development Reflective Practice:
International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 417-432.
Raelin, J. A. (2002) ‘I Don’t Have Time to Think!’’ versus the Art of Reflective Practice. Reflections, 4(1), 66-79
Richardson, L. (1994) Writing a method of Inquiry. Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. (Eds) Thousand Oaks, U.S.A., Sage.
Roy, C. and Eales, J. (2010) Masks & mirrors: from autobiographical
reflection to unmasking interdisciplinary collaboration Reflective Practice:
International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 433-450.
Schatzki, T.R. (2001) Introduction: Practice theory. In Schatzki, T., Knorr Cetina, K. and von Savigny, E. (Eds) The Practice turn in contemporary theory. Routledge, London: U.K.
Schön, D.1983. The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action. U.S.A., Basic Books.
Stroobants, H. (2009) On humour and reflection Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 10(1), 5-12.
Tokolahi, E. (2010) Case study: development of a drawing‐based journal to facilitate reflective inquiry, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(2), 157-170.
Vanstone, M and Kinsella, M.A. (2010) Critical reflection and prenatal screening public education materials: a metaphoric textual analysis Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 451-467.
White, C.B., Perlman, R., Fantone, J.C. and Kumagi, A.K.(2010) The interpretive project: a creative educational approach to fostering medical students’ reflections and advancing humanistic medicine Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 11(4), 517-527.
York-Barr, J., Sommers, W., Ghere, G, and Montie, J. (Eds.) (2006), Reflective practice to improve schools. An action guide for educators, Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin (2006)
1 OECD Frascoti Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development
3 ‘Putting it together ‘ from ‘Sunday in the park with George’ (Sondheim, 1984 )
4 Kolb (1984)
5 Bolton (2010, 8) and Bolton (1999, 270) citing Plato; York-Barr, Sommers, Ghere and Montie (2006, 5) referring to a translation of The Apology by D.N. Robinson (1997) ; Raelin (2002) ; Goldman, (2004, 5)
6 Dewey (1910)
7 Schön (1983)
8 Kolb (1984)
9 Dewey (1910)
10 The same concept is developed by Hauw (2009, 342) and resonates with Richardson’s (1994, 103) suggestion that knowledge is tapped across biographical, historical and particularised social locations. Personal provenance also mirrors personal reconnaissance, a term applied to action inquiry (Dillon, 2008), and the need for the action inquirer to examine what their personal history brings to their investigation of a particular.
11 Schön (1983, 42)
12 Himmelmann, L (2007) From Barber to Surgeon –the process of professionalisation. Sven Med Tisker 11(1), 69-87.
13 The lyrics of this song have been adapted from the musical Yentl (1983); Music by Michel Legrand and Lyrics by Alan and Maralyn Bergman. The song refers to the Talmudic scholars and their reference to the many old texts which inform the way in which people understand and make choices in contemporary life.
14 Dewey (1910)
15 Schön (1983)
16 Boud (2010)
17 Schatzki (2001)
18 Schön (1983)
19 Hoban (2000); Johnson (2001)
20 Stroobants (2009)
21 Gouzouasis and Lee’s (2009)
22 Tokolahi (2010)
23 Ferrari’s (2010)
24 Gilbourne (2011)
25 Nisker, 2010
26 Roy and Eales (2010)
27 Vanstone and Kinsella (2010)
28 Lander and Graham-Pole (2010)
29 Cheng (2010)
30 White, Perlman, Fantone and Kumagai (2010)
31 Hill (1991)
32 Hill and Lloyd (2013, in print)
33 Hill (1997)
34 OECD Frascoti Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development