Framework for city based urban sanitation planning
Background Report I
Sanitation Governance: institutional, financial and legal aspects
Background Report II
Gender and poor inclusive approaches
to urban sanitation planning and development Background Report III Capacity building for urban sanitation working groups (PokjaSan)
Jakarta, October 2009 Component C4 – City level capacity building and sanitation planning
Capacity Building for
Urban Sanitation Development
BACKGROUND REPORT II
Gender and poor-inclusive
approaches to urban sanitation planning and development
In order to enable development of a sustainable framework for planning, monitoring and evaluation of sanitation improvements in urban areas in Indonesia adequate attention for gender and poor-inclusive perspectives is considered essential.
On the basis of a desk review of (i) ISSDP documents, related national strategies, and the first-edition Citywide Sanitation Strategies (CSS’s) for the six cities participating in the Program, (ii) discussions with ISDDP management and staff, and (iii) field visits to the six cities, this Background Report on Gender and poor-inclusive Perspectives in Sanitation and Hygiene has been prepared. It summarizes the findings of current gender approaches and presenting strategies and recommendations for a more systematic inclusion of a gender and social equity approach in Phase 2 of ISSDP and next generation of CSS’s.
ISSDP phase 1 addressed gender issues – there are many examples in the program – but not yet in a systematic way. Sustained awareness campaigns aimed at different (government) levels and (community) target groups are considered an effective method of promoting gender and social equality in planning, decision-making and implementation of sanitation improvements at local and community level. Awareness campaigns targeting the local PokjaSan (i.e. Working Group on Sanitation), sub-districts (kelurahan) officials, and community groups are recommended. Various sessions for only women, only men, and mixed groups are considered to have complementary benefits.
Awareness campaigns and sessions aim to change the perspectives of participants with regard to gender and social equity, for instance by reaching common understanding on the complementary responsibilities of men and women in the process of realizing a safe environment from the perspective of sanitation. Awareness is closely linked to dissemination of (technical options and cost) information, as well as hygiene promotion and education.
In the table on the next page, the conclusions and recommendations are summarized under three main, but clearly interrelated headings.
Create awareness on gender and social equity and its relevance at all levels of government (national, provincial, city, district, and sub-district) and community
Ensure general availability of city data (digital mapping) on population density and poverty, as well as on environmental health risks by sex and age as tool to prioritize which communities will develop sanitation and hygiene first and have baseline to measure cost-effectiveness and impacts
Strengthen gender equality in national communication strategy and campaigns without gender stereotyping (women=hygiene in the home, men=sanitation decisions: men have also hygiene responsibilities and tasks; decisions on sanitation are joint informed choice between women and men, in the home and the community)
Target groups of only women and only men, as well as mixed audiences, for instance of (household) couples in the hygiene and sanitation campaigns. Build awareness of roles and responsibilities of men in domestic sanitation and hygiene, women in community agenda setting, decision making and management. Address cost aspects of hygiene & sanitation.
Disseminate models, ‘best practices’, (local) success stories, and pilot projects that exist in each city wherein women and men are less or more equitably involved (e.g. in joint management, income generation) for purpose of multiplication and scaling-up (in similar circumstances) Encourage horizontal learning between neighborhoods.
In particular with respect to community participation in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of sanitation improvements ensure a balanced involvement of men and women at community level, also in the decision making process
Address the common and complementary responsibilities of women as well as men to realize a safe (sanitation) environment at home as well as in the neighborhood.
Assist each city to do applied and gender and poverty specific research on models, ‘best practices’ and (affordable) technological options among various communities within a city, as well as between cities and provinces to deepen insight on cost-effectiveness and for scaling up
Consider application of affirmative action in order to create more formal and informal (employment) opportunities for (single) women in the field of sanitation
Demonstrate the many opportunities for enhancement of the economic conditions of underprivileged men and women in formal and informal, sanitation-related, business activities
Show-case successes in local, national, and international media and sector events; make optimal use of the opportunities of modern communication
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i
1. Introduction 1
2. Methodology 1
3. Current Gender Approaches 3
Policy and Logical Frameworks 3
National Sanitation Enabling Environment 4
National Communication Strategy 4
National Hand Washing Campaign 4
National Sanitation Awareness Campaign 5
Poor-inclusive Sanitation Campaign 6
Assessing, Promoting and Meeting Sanitation Demands 7
Local Capacity Building and Strategy Development 8
Gender in Programme Management 8
Gender in City Programs 10
Bottom-up Decision Making 10
Community-managed Sanitation 10
Community-managed SWM (Solid Waste Management) 12
Waste Water Disposal and Drainage 13
4. Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming at National Level 14