Capacity Building for Urban Sanitation Development Main Report


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Capacity Building for
Urban Sanitation Development

Main Report
Framework for city based urban sanitation planning
Background Report I
Sanitation Governance: institutional, financial and legal aspects
Background Report II
Gender and poor inclusive approaches
to urban sanitation planning and development

Background Report III
Capacity building for urban sanitation working groups (PokjaSan)
Jakarta, October 2009
Component C4 – City level capacity building and sanitation planning


October 2009

Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program

Component C4


in association with:

PT Arkonin Engineering MP

IRC International Water & Sanitation Centre

PT Mitra Lingkungan Dutaconsult

PEM Consult

Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera

Capacity Building for
Urban Sanitation Development


Gender and poor-inclusive
approaches to urban sanitation planning and development


In order to enable development of a sustainable framework for planning, monitoring and evaluation of sanitation improvements in urban areas in Indonesia adequate attention for gender and poor-inclusive perspectives is considered essential.

On the basis of a desk review of (i) ISSDP documents, related national strategies, and the first-edition Citywide Sanitation Strategies (CSS’s) for the six cities participating in the Program, (ii) discussions with ISDDP management and staff, and (iii) field visits to the six cities, this Background Report on Gender and poor-inclusive Perspectives in Sanitation and Hygiene has been prepared. It summarizes the findings of current gender approaches and presenting strategies and recommendations for a more systematic inclusion of a gender and social equity approach in Phase 2 of ISSDP and next generation of CSS’s.

ISSDP phase 1 addressed gender issues – there are many examples in the program – but not yet in a systematic way. Sustained awareness campaigns aimed at different (government) levels and (community) target groups are considered an effective method of promoting gender and social equality in planning, decision-making and implementation of sanitation improvements at local and community level. Awareness campaigns targeting the local PokjaSan (i.e. Working Group on Sanitation), sub-districts (kelurahan) officials, and community groups are recommended. Various sessions for only women, only men, and mixed groups are considered to have complementary benefits.

Awareness campaigns and sessions aim to change the perspectives of participants with regard to gender and social equity, for instance by reaching common understanding on the complementary responsibilities of men and women in the process of realizing a safe environment from the perspective of sanitation. Awareness is closely linked to dissemination of (technical options and cost) information, as well as hygiene promotion and education.

In the table on the next page, the conclusions and recommendations are summarized under three main, but clearly interrelated headings.

Program Management

Awareness Building

Capacity Building

Establish a clear definition and systematic approach to gender and social equity in ISSDP

Create awareness on gender and social equity and its relevance at all levels of government (national, provincial, city, district, and sub-district) and community

Ensure general availability of city data (digital mapping) on population density and poverty, as well as on environmental health risks by sex and age as tool to prioritize which communities will develop sanitation and hygiene first and have baseline to measure cost-effectiveness and impacts

Strengthen gender equality in national communication strategy and campaigns without gender stereotyping (women=hygiene in the home, men=sanitation decisions: men have also hygiene responsibilities and tasks; decisions on sanitation are joint informed choice between women and men, in the home and the community)

Target groups of only women and only men, as well as mixed audiences, for instance of (household) couples in the hygiene and sanitation campaigns. Build awareness of roles and responsibilities of men in domestic sanitation and hygiene, women in community agenda setting, decision making and management. Address cost aspects of hygiene & sanitation.

Disseminate models, ‘best practices’, (local) success stories, and pilot projects that exist in each city wherein women and men are less or more equitably involved (e.g. in joint management, income generation) for purpose of multiplication and scaling-up (in similar circumstances) Encourage horizontal learning between neighborhoods.

In particular with respect to community participation in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of sanitation improvements ensure a balanced involvement of men and women at community level, also in the decision making process

Address the common and complementary responsibilities of women as well as men to realize a safe (sanitation) environment at home as well as in the neighborhood.

Assist each city to do applied and gender and poverty specific research on models, ‘best practices’ and (affordable) technological options among various communities within a city, as well as between cities and provinces to deepen insight on cost-effectiveness and for scaling up

Consider application of affirmative action in order to create more formal and informal (employment) opportunities for (single) women in the field of sanitation

Demonstrate the many opportunities for enhancement of the economic conditions of underprivileged men and women in formal and informal, sanitation-related, business activities

Show-case successes in local, national, and international media and sector events; make optimal use of the opportunities of modern communication



1. Introduction 1

2. Methodology 1

3. Current Gender Approaches 3

Policy and Logical Frameworks 3

National Sanitation Enabling Environment 4

National Communication Strategy 4

National Hand Washing Campaign 4

National Sanitation Awareness Campaign 5

Poor-inclusive Sanitation Campaign 6

Assessing, Promoting and Meeting Sanitation Demands 7

Local Capacity Building and Strategy Development 8

Gender in Programme Management 8

Gender in City Programs 10

Bottom-up Decision Making 10

Community-managed Sanitation 10

Community-managed SWM (Solid Waste Management) 12

Waste Water Disposal and Drainage 13

4. Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming at National Level 14

National Hand Washing Campaign 14

National Sanitation Awareness Campaign 16

Poor-inclusive Sanitation Campaign 17

5. Gender Mainstreaming in City Strategies 19

Sanitation 19

City Sewerage Services 19

Community Managed On-site Sanitation 21

Solid Waste Management (SWM) 24

Hygiene Promotion 28

School Water Supply, Sanitation & Hygiene 28

Poverty Reduction through Improved Sanitation and Hygiene 29

Cost-benefits 29

6. Support from Program Level 31

Enabling Frameworks and Capacity Building 31

Pilot/Learning Projects 31

Monitoring and Evaluation 31

Community Monitoring and Link with City Data 31

Indicators for Gender Impacts 32

Documentation and Advocacy 33

Program Management 33

Progress Reports 33

7. Conclusions and Recommendations 35

Conclusions 35

Recommendations 36


Table 1 Findings on Gender from Formative Research on Hand Washing 5

Table 2 Male and Female Staff and Consultants in ISSDP by July 2007 8

Table 3 Health Risks from Risky SWM Practices and Conditions 26

Table 4 Common Infections Diseases among Waste Pickers, by Type of Transmission 27

Table 5 Option to Assess Changes in Women’s Participation in Decision Making 31

Table 6 Option to Assess Changes in Participation of the Poor in Decision Making 31


Figure 1 Methodology of the Mission 2

Figure 2 Length and Depth of Training at Four Levels: Cascade and Equity Models 15

Figure 3 Participatory Review of Household Latrine options 22


Annex 1 City Characteristics 40

Annex 2 Participatory Tools 41

Annex 3 School, MCK and SWM Assessment Forms 53

Annex 4 Pilot workshop: Gender and poor-incusive approaches 64

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