In the regulatory framework, it will be important to investigate if any rules and regulations can be introduced that will increase equitable participation of women and men, e.g. ownership in the names of wives and husbands and rules on accountability for service delivery to female as well as male heads of households (so to couples). Laws, rules and regulations should also be checked for any discrimination, e.g. to single women household heads.
Gender in bottom-up planning and local management and decision making is part of the institutional arrangements at local level, but the institutional framework does not cover these aspects. They should, however, be part of city plans, pilot projects and case studies and reports. The financial framework will include sections on access for the poor and refer to gender in financing and financial management and accountability at community level.
In capacity building, there is a dire need to build the capacities of lower level cadres in community facilitation skills. This goes for female and male staff that will take part in participatory hygiene education and planning, implementation and monitoring of community pilot projects For the BTL activities in the pilot hand washing and sanitation campaigns and the pilot projects, it will be crucial to train local cadres in content-specific facilitation skills as described in sections 4.1 and 5.2. For this, ISSDP needs to identify suitable consultants who can form a team which develops the training (including the PLA activities) and trains the trainer teams in the six cities (see also Figure 2). A capacity building strategy and costed plan for building such facilitation skills is urgently needed.
The cities are already undertaking a number of pilot projects with low-income and high risk Kelurahans. They are very keen to consolidate and further develop these approaches. Support (program component D) is 1.5 years late and urgently desired. Speedy operationalization will do much to support the cities’ commitment as some are getting wary with ongoing demands for new planning data.
The pilot projects offer excellent opportunities to assess, improve and document the gender and poverty specific approaches (see also Section 6.3.3 below). Establishing local resource centres as proposed by the city of Banjarmasin (with land made available) can help develop local information and expertise centres for sanitation. It is advised that no investments are made for technology demonstration models in these centres, as these will require extra investments. Demonstration is best done at actual community sites to which the cities can facilitate orientation visits from female and male local leaders.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Community Monitoring and Link with City Data
One of the terms of reference of the program is to help establish participatory monitoring. A possible monitoring system was formulated in consultation with the Sanitation Pokja and Forum of the city of Payakumbuh. It was inspired by the work of the head of the Health Department on Community-Led Total Sanitation Kelurahans (see Case 6 above). Community-managed monitoring of sanitation would link to participatory hygiene promotion described in section 5.2 above. Its “people’s statistics” can feed into the city digital data. Community-managed monitoring would consist of the following steps:
Assist the local group(s) that have taken up health and environment to make a welfare classification and choose a colour code for each category of households;
Assist them to make a community social map with the houses coloured according to their respective codes;
Assist them to choose symbols for five key sanitation and hygiene indicators pursued by the programme, e.g. (1) safe toilet used hygienically by all family members; (2) all family members concerned wash hands with soap at five (for some: four) critical times; (3) safe water is used for drinking, cooking and teeth brushing, stored and drawn in a safe way; (4) all household waste is segregated and recycled; (5) safe disposal of waste water and drainage;
Assist them to assess the five practices and for each safe practice, mark the house concerned in the map. The map can be kept displayed for accountability at the community centre or mosque;
Help the group(s) to use the collected data to make a community situation overview matrix;
Feed the matrix data into the city digital data system.;
Similar monitoring can be made for public community environmental and health conditions, e.g. on community solid waste collection and recycling and drainage and for the local pasars.
Indicators for Gender Impacts
Indicators for gender impacts are yet to be identified and their method of collection decided on by the cities. The following data may be collected:
Data on improvements of conditions and practices related to sanitation, hygiene and the environment, including in the poorest Kelurahans and households (Data can come from the city and people’s statistics);
To measure impacts on behaviour the EHRA interviews will need to include also data on practices of adult men, adolescent boys and girls, children under 12 and ways of disposal of infant excreta;
Data on increased participation of women in community decision making at various levels, using e.g. the MPA in rapid participatory assessments (see Tables 5 and 6 below);
Trends towards equality in access to other program benefits for women and men, information, hygiene education, training, and positions at various levels;
Data on increases in paid work for poor women and men;
Impacts of the program on finances and financial accessibility and control, e.g. tariffs and administration adjustments for the poor, access for poor households (potential and actual), existence, use and responses from customer complaint services; transparency of community services management, accountability to users/tariff payers for service delivery and management;
Avoidance or mitigation of negative impacts from the program for poor women and men, e.g. the loss of organic waste for cows on city dumps when solid waste is increasingly sorted and recycled and negative impacts from privatisation.
Table 5. Option to assess changes in women’s participation in decision-making
Table 6. Options to asses changes in participation of the poor in decision-making
No participation of poor people in local decision making meetings
Poor attend but do not speak
Poor attend and speak about their concerns
Poor influence at least one decision
Poor participate fully in decision-making
Documentation and Advocacy
In the cities, many interesting incidental cases have been encountered of gender and pro-poor specific management of MCKs and solid waste. The program’s sociologists and private sector specialist, especially, can (assign and guide others to) document interesting cases/pilots on a gender equitable and poor-inclusive sanitation in the broad sense. Documentation should preferably be in written and visual forms, e.g. photo stories. Textual and visual papers can be shared with the local and national media and presented at regional sanitation events and on the ISSDP website.
Advocacy and capacity building activities on gender perspective issues for Local Government staff and Pokja members are very important, because many of them do not know about these issues.
To strengthen the City Sanitation Strategies (CSS), the Pokjas should further clearly mention gender equality aspects (roles, responsibility and benefits of women and men) in their strategies and in all activities planned. Involving more women in decision-making can be an important activity of the city programs depending on women’s experiences and capabilities.
Gender equality has to be formulated and detailed as a internal management policy in ISSDP. Career development and opportunities for female and male consultants and staffs do not depend only on from whom they are hired. Everybody (males and females) can be scheduled to attend training events, seminars and workshops in an equitable manner and be encouraged to report on how gender was included in these events and in the work of the cities as part of their reporting time in the office.
How equality for women and men and for the poor are included in ISSDP is now absent in the progress reports. Under the section on Program Management, the management could report on (1) changes in program staffing (see also Table 1) and staff training (rolling tables, see also below); (2) gender and poverty in City Sanitation White books (not now included) and Plans, (3) how ISSDP keeps up abreast with and contributes to gender and poverty developments in sanitation and hygiene in Indonesia (e.g. presenting papers at events and (4) showcasing interesting cases in the six cities to the Pokjas and media, at sanitation events and on the program website.
For the progress reports, City Facilitators can be asked to report programmatically on the composition and attendance of Pokja meetings by technical, social and health staff, e.g. in tabular form, and where possible mention (1) any gender and/or poverty expertise in Pokja members, processes and products and (2) specific examples of gender-sensitive projects by poor communities in their cities.
ISSDP national staff already participate in training on facilitation and monitoring. Other capacity building activities have started more recently. To demonstrate and strengthen the gender-sensitive training policies, ISSDP could maintain a rolling table on attendance of all training and sector events by sex, expertise (technical/social) and level (lower, middle and top) of the participants. This also goes for any capacity building and event participation by city functionaries and staff.
Information on the ‘who’ question (knowing who is involved in what, how and to which effects) is crucial to get an idea of situations and trends in gender. This goes for all activities that deal with people. For component C3, in particular, it will be important that all studies minimally collect, analyse and report information disaggregated by sex and class. Sometimes the information will also have to be specific for other characteristics such as age groups, e.g. in consumer studies, hygiene studies and before/after measurement studies for determining campaign impacts.
Progress reports can report on whether gender and poverty disaggregation has taken place as intended (part of the target description) and include any additional interesting information, such as that the situation analysis was carried out by local women cadres and results not only went to the Pokja but were also shared with community men, women or both, including in poor communities.