In two subgroups, mixed for professional background and males/females, the participants then sorted traditional and new gender roles of women and men in sanitation and hygiene, at home and in the community. The material represented especially roles and realities in their households and communities. The two groups used the results to explain their understanding of gender and gender equity for these two subject areas. The presentations (Figure 2) showed that by the end of the activity all understood how gender equity not only means to pay attention to women’s traditional sanitation and hygiene roles in the home, but also to pay attention to male responsibilities and tasks (e.g. for payments, support domestic hygiene, own behaviour change) and to new roles of women, e.g. in community decision making, community management and, especially for poor women and men, more paid work. The discussion also gave the female and male PKK staffs, who were more knowledgeable on the subject, the opportunity to share their knowledge with colleagues of the municipal water supply, sewerage, solid waste and health services. Specific issues that emerged were:
Bali has a strong patriarchal culture which makes that Banjar meetings are only attended by males, except when women represent their husband when he cannot attend.
Promotion is needed to men on why women should attend the meetings on sanitation and hygiene, and participation of women discussed with the women;
Gender aspects of pregnant and breastfeeding women also need attention
PKK meetings are especially for women’s groups but should be women and men;
Gender equity in the office should be added.
Coordinate gender and poverty mainstreaming in components with TP-PKK at central level
Application to the City Sanitation Strategy - The afternoon was dedicated to applying the concepts and recommendations to the components of the City Sanitation Strategy (CSS). For each group specific discussion questions were formulated (see below). The groups presented their outcomes in plenary for questions and answers and discussion. The outcomes were the following:
Subgroup 1: Hand Washing & sanitation mass campaigns and poor communities’ campaigns
Q1: Gender is both women and men in cooperation
What can be roles of husband/father in Hand Washing With Soap (HWWS) in home ?
What can be roles of wives/mother in putting sanitation on the development agenda ?
Q2: Poverty some poor groups have less access to media than middle and upper class of Denpasar family
How can the sanitation and Hand washing with soap media campaign reach the poor groups ?
How can they deal with the economic limitation side of the messages on sanitation and HWWS ?
Q3: Pro-poor campaign (“BTL”) make them aware of sanitation & hygiene benefit and stimulate action for improvement (e.g. ask information on toilet types, sewerage connections, put soap at toilets & kitchens, connect to PDAM, etc.)
How can the program help poor women get more information and influence on demand for the types of sanitation technologies that can improve their lives ?
How can the program stimulate husbands/fathers in poor families to contribute to good sanitation condition and practices in their family ?
Denpasar has some poverty pockets, how can the program promote better sanitation & hygiene in all there poverty pockets ?
How can the program measure the impact of the pro-poor campaign on the poor and on gender ?
Result of discussion:
In city hand washing and sanitation campaigns, stress also men’s roles to provide, sustain and maintain infrastructure, e.g. pay water & sewerage connection, toilets, clean drainage, and to support the socialization of their family members;
Supplement posters and leaflets with direct communication, e.g. door-to-door visits, extension sessions, TA to improvements;
Poor women and men can be helped by two-way communication in face-to-face groups with [participatory] IEC tools;
The Banjar adat (which has sanctions especially on religious problems) can also be used for better sanitation and hygiene;
Impacts of campaigns can be measured by changed behaviour of men, women and children in the community and improvement of the community environment before measuring impacts on disease incidence;
Subgroup 2: Mainstreaming gender and poverty in sewerage services, drainage & SWM
Q1 : Women and men have different points interest in sanitation and drainage. What can be done to motivate both male and female interest in having a sewerage connection for toilets, bath rooms and kitchens
How can connections to the sewerage be promoted among poor families who live within reach of the network ?
Can sewerage connections be promoted effectively without making them free, as the city will then have far less fund left for its sanitation program ?
Could poor women after training play a role in the promotion activity, installation, O & M, education, meter reading, fee collectors in their own communities ?
Q2 : Solid Waste Management (SWM)
What strategies can the City use to ensure that all husbands and wives segregate all recyclable waste and offer or reuse it for others ?
Does the City know how many women and men including poor women and men make a living from collection and recycling of waste in the city ?
What is the total economic value of collection and recycling by women and men in their businesses ? If not know, should this be investigated ?
In what ways can still more poor women and men be helped to make a living from the collection and recycling of solid waste and so reduce poverty in the city ?
Handout: Pro-poor Steps to Increase the Coverage of Sewerage Networks: Elements for Action Research.
IEC media and materials are developed and extension given to male and female heads of all levels of households about the benefits of sewerage connections, e.g. not having to build, renew or empty septic tanks, financial costs and cost-savings [including on health costs);
Household subsidies are phased out and replaced by community contributions according to their financial capacity;
Poor communities and households are allowed to pay installation fees in installments;
Cleanest & Healthy Life Events give a free sewerage connections to the winner;
Poor women participate in all sanitation activities and jobs for better lives and livelihoods;
Rules/laws are introduced with sanctions if communities do not want to make sewerage connections;
The city strategy on SWM is that all family members will segregate their solid waste:
Families will be encouraged to make rules with sanctions for all family members – women, men, boys and girls
Families will be encouraged to increase the number of SW facilities
The city will add facilities for segregated solid waste at collection, transport and processing level and give continued extension on the 3R concept
In the “Cleanest and healthy life campaign” the hazards of solid waste will be included (Note RW/CS: specify hazards to women, young children, men as each category has different risks regarding the types of waste they deal with and the places of contact)
Capacity building in the CSS will include capacity building for community representatives (such as sanitation committees) on SWM and replication of the DSL (Desa Sadar Lingkungan) campaign
The city will make an inventory of the numbers of male and female solid waste collectors and recyclers from DKP (Dinas Kebersihan & Pertamanan) to get insight into the economic value of SWM for income generation by women and men, especially in the informal sector
Poor women and men can improve their lives as collectors and recycler of solid waste (organic and inorganic) through socialisation. This is an important part of the CSS on SWM.
The sub-group further proposed a comparative action research with the following steps:
socialization and information of women and men a comparative review of SWM options
formation of community solid waste segregation/collection/processing groups KSM or Cooperation provision of some form of stimulant or loan or grant as start capital.
Subgroup 3: Gender and Poverty in Innovative Pilot Projects (Component D)
Q : What is option that will be choose for pilot project location (according to priority areas) for increase gender and social equity in City-wide Sanitation Strategy
Handout: Pilot project on community managed sanitation in Denpasar: Demand responsiveness, gender and social equity
The discussions resulted in a list of four potential pilot projects:
Pengelolaan Air Limbah Terpadu = Integrated Community-Managed Sewerage System. This project will consist of evaluating the quality of planning, construction, O&M and management of existing community-managed sewerage systems (including the equal participation of women and fairness of access and payments for the poorest households as compared to less poor and even quite well-off user households) and piloting an improved project with one priority community in Denpasar.
Of the six priority areas that the Pokja has identified in Denpasar, three areas qualify for mini-sewerage (Desa Tegal Kertha, Tegal Harum and Pemecutan Kaja). As the first two already have one system each, the new improved project will be located in Pemecutan Kaja. The following problems and solutions were identified:
1. No land
Invite the community (Desa Adat) to understand the benefits of on-site community managed sewerage
2. Community Management
Improve the management and gender equity
Increase community contribution to systems management
Perbaikan Sarana Sanitasi Facility for Elementary Schools = Improved basic sanitation in primary schools. This project will consist of an inventory of current conditions, arrangements and hygiene promotion, including gender and social equity (such as separate toilets of girls and boys and male and female teachers, facilities for cleanliness during menstruation, equity in cleaning arrangements and financing of e.g. the provision of soap, toilet cleaners and cleaning equipment) in the primary schools and a pilot project for measured improvements in selected schools. A draft format (still needing improvement on e.g. teachers’ toilets, menstruation provisions) is attached as Annex 6.
c. Peningkatan sarana pengolahan air limbah Tukad Ayung penggunaan kembali sebagai sumber air baku (Reuse). This project involves the revitalization of the sewage treatment plant of Tukad Ayung linked to reuse of treated waste water by poor women and men for e.g. market gardening (horticulture).
Evaluation - For evaluation of the workshop a participatory method of envelop voting was used, with women using pink and men bleu slips. This consisted of five envelopes, ranging from very poor and poor via neutral to good and very good. This allowed participants to learn the results disaggregated by sex directly after the activity.
Expectations on contents and methods
Gender mainstreaming in hygiene & sanitation – participants’ views
Gender & Poverty Mainstreaming (GPM) on Hygiene & Sanitation
GPM in City Sanitation Strategy
Small Group Discussions on applying GPM:
Group I : GPM in mass media campaigns (ATL) (Hand washing and sanitation) and Below the Line campaigns (BTL) Sanitation and Hygiene for the Poor
Group II : GPM in centralised infrastructure: sewerage and wastewater (grey water) disposal, drainage (storm water disposal) and Solid Waste Management (SWM)
Group III: GPM for Pilot Project (Component D)
Presentation of Group Results
Plenary discussion and agreements on GPM in various components
1 At the lowest level of government, women now hold only 2.3% of leadership positions, Zulminarni, 2005, while musrembangs are usually only attended by men).
2 There is a national program for installing water supply, toilets and handwashing facilities in nursery and secondary schools. The provinces are responsible for the provisions in primary schools. Lack of time prevented to verify this and get details, including on school health education. Schools in the cities were closed due to the holidays. In Payakumbuh, all schools were reported to have water and sanitation and handwashing provisions. No follow up is given on use, hygiene, O&M and the presence of soap for handwashing.
3 Source: Action research project Women, Well-Being, Work, Waste and Sanitation (4WS) of IRC, NGO Forum, SEUF, COSI and the Universities of Kuopio (Finland), BUET (Bangladesh), Kerala and Perideniya (Sri Lanka) with financial support from the EU INCODEV programme
4 Source: Action research project Women, Well-Being, Work, Waste and Sanitation (4WS) of IRC, NGO Forum, SEUF, COSI and the Universities of Kuopio (Finland), BUET (Bangladesh), Kerala and Perideniya (Sri Lanka) with financial support from the EU INCODEV programme