Capacity Building for Urban Sanitation Development Main Report

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The ISSDP aims to develop targeted improvements in urban sanitation service delivery, with a focus on providing a framework for sustainable poor inclusive sanitation services. To this end ISSDP supports coordinated sanitation policy-making and strategic planning and provides hands-on capacity building to city based sanitation working groups (PokjaSan).

In this connection, Component 4 of the program assists cities, on a pilot basis, in developing citywide sanitation strategies (CSS) and action plans complete with budgetary allocations. By working closely together with the cities on developing these outputs, the Component provides related on-the-job capacity building as the technical assistance is being implemented.

In June 2007, a joint team carried out a Joint Mi-Term Review of the Program. One of the recommendations was that “a gender specialist should be tasked to review the current ISSDP activities and develop a gender strategy for inclusion in the sanitation awareness campaigns and city sanitation strategies. In response to the recommendation, a gender strategy development mission was fielded from 25 June to 21 July 2007 a follow up mission took place from 25 September to 12 October 2007.

This report sets out the methodology, summarises the findings on the current gender approaches and presents the strategies for including gender and social equity in the national campaigns and City Sanitation Strategies. In the annexes 2, 3 and 4 guidelines and tools for the implementation of the key recommendations are presented.

Gender strategies were identified through the review of program papers and other relevant documents, discussions with (1) the consultant’s staff and management in ISSDP Jakarta, (2) the city facilitators and their teams in all six cities; (3) key officials in Indonesian government institutions dealing with sanitation, hygiene promotion, the environment, local government and women’s affairs at the national level and in the cities, (4) the sanitation specialist of WSP Jakarta and the gender consultant of the RNE, and (5) through discussions and hands-on participatory learning activities with local male and female leaders and citizens of some 20 low-income urban neighbourhoods. Information from a mission on community sanitation demands and management in low-income areas in Surakarta (Central Java) and Denpasar (Bali) in September 2006 was also drawn upon.

A pilot gender and poverty mainstreaming workshop took place with the Pokja (Sanitation Working Group) members and other key functionaries and an NGO leader in Denpasar to integrate gender equity and equity for the poor in the City Sanitation Strategy in Denpasar, Bali. In the other five cities, gender and poverty mainstreaming was included in Pokja training II on Capacity Building for CSS. During these workshops the draft city strategies prepared as part of the current mission were presented and discussed with the Pokja’s. Subsequently the Program facilitators assisted the Pokja’s by the preparation of a city specific strategy for gender and poor-inclusive approaches to urban sanitation planning.


The methodology used for the mission consisted of (1) a desk review; (2) a field visit to the six cities with the most different conditions, in size and other conditions as well as gender culture and leadership (see Figure 1 and Annex 1). The outputs are this analytical, forward looking report, as well as various formats for filling in gender information gaps, a jointly formulated gender policy and a simple and operational gender analysis tool which will help staff and consultants to be gender-specific in their observations, analysis and reporting.

Figure 1. Methodology

3.Current Gender Approaches

Policy and Logical Frameworks

In Indonesia’s National Policy Development of Community-based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation, gender and social equity mean that “all community members should have access to WSES facilities and services without discrimination against gender, religion, age, race, or social status”(p. 21). The policy quotes studies from Indonesian projects which show that a more equal say of women and poor people in planning and management results in better services. Article g in the policy states that “women should actively participate in determining problems, identifying underlying causes, recommending possible solutions, and ultimately making decisions to solve related problems” (p. 14). However, in further articles, e.g. on management and accountability, the policy does not specifically refer to equitable roles of women, poor people and/or people from religious and ethnic minorities along with men and the better-off.

Two logical frameworks set out what ISSDP is aiming to achieve and how in the first phase of its existence: for sanitation agreed between the Governments of Indonesia and The Netherlands and for wastewater, drainage and solid waste management agreed between the Governments of Indonesia and Sweden (SUSEA Indonesia).

The first log frame is specific on livelihood aims for the urban poor: “To improve the health, environmental and economic well-being of the community, especially the poor, through targeted efforts to improve sanitation service delivery in Indonesian cities” and “to assist Central and Local Governments to establish a City Strategy and Planning Framework for sustainable poor-inclusive urban sanitation services”.

A poor-inclusive focus and (implicit) gender focus can be found in Component C3, Public Awareness and Hygiene Promotion, asking for:

  • A segmented national sanitation awareness campaign;

  • A targeted poor-inclusive awareness and empowerment strategy, tested master materials and field pilot

  • trials in poor communities;

  • Monitoring funding proposals for pro-poor campaigns;

and in Component C4, Capacity Development and Sanitation Planning, asking for:

  • Institutional arrangements and capacity development for participatory sanitation planning as part of bottom-up planning;

  • Including consumer/user perspectives in documenting and mapping sanitation and environmental health risks;

  • Developing poor-inclusive city-wide sanitation strategies and action plans;

  • Medium term process for planning, implementation and O&M of improved sanitation services including with the lowest level of local government;

  • City and community based monitoring and evaluation objectives and procedures.

The SUSEA Indonesia log frame is also pro-poor and is more explicit on gender:

  • An increased number of poor households with access to improved sanitation services and improved sanitation/hygiene behaviours;

  • In up to 6 cities integrated planning and management of solid waste, wastewater and drainage to improve the living environments of the urban poor;

  • Improved environmental sanitation situations and practices in poor urban communities;

  • Past experiences and policies re SWM and drainage, and their impact on the urban poor men and women reviewed;
  • Baseline study and background paper to identify gender issues in urban sanitation improvements for the poor vis-à-vis their livelihoods, demand creation, voice and choice in planning, operation and management of services;

  • Stratified survey of DPRD Commission members responsible for Infrastructure and Social Development;

  • Training and sensitization of Task Force members to issues of social, financial, environmental and technical sustainability in poor-inclusive urban sanitation – focusing on SWM and drainage;

  • Community level participatory analysis, inventory and planning processes facilitated, with monitoring of gender and social equity issues in approaches and procedures used;

  • Gender-sensitive and poor-inclusive participatory approaches instituted in municipal agencies for stakeholder consultation, participation and participatory decision making involving the urban poor;

  • City mechanisms to get poor community voices/demands to reach legislators and decision makers;

  • Voices and demands of the poor reported on regularly by the media services;

  • Impacts on drainage and flooding, or if the period is too short, assessment of the situations before/after the project with women and men in poor communities.

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