Carl W. Ernst 1906 Clearwater Lake Rd., Chapel Hill, nc 27517



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Carl W. Ernst

1906 Clearwater Lake Rd., Chapel Hill, NC 27517

919-929-4594 (home); 919-962-3924 (office); 919-962-1567 (fax)

cernst@email.unc.edu; http://www.unc.edu/~cernst


PROFESSIONAL HISTORY

Principal positions

Department of Religious Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill



  • William R. Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Professor (2005- )

  • Zachary Smith Distinguished Term Professor (2000-2005)

  • Chair (1995-2000)

  • Professor (1992-2000)

Department of Religion, Pomona College, Claremont, California

  • Chair (Jan. 1991-June 1992)

  • Associate Professor (1987-92)

  • Assistant Professor (1981-87)

Affiliate and advisory positions

Joint Research Group "Mondes iranien et indien" (UMR 7528), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Sorbonne Nouvelle-Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes-Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, Paris, Research Associate (2012- )

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Centre for Civilisational Dialogue, Advisory Panel (2008-2010); Academy of Islamic Studies, External Assessor (2008-2014); Visiting Scholar and Research Fellow (Jan.-May, 2005; Sept.-Oct., 2010)

Boston University, Institute for the Study of Muslim Societies and Civilizations: Board of Academic Advisers (2007-9)

École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris: Professeur Invité, (May, 2003); Maitre de Conference (May-June, 1991)

University of Seville, Spain, Department of Integrated Philologies, Area of Arabic Studies: Visiting Scholar (September-December, 2001)

National College of Arts, Lahore, Pakistan, Graduate Program in Communications and Cultural Studies: External Examiner (2000-8)

Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California, Department of Religion: Graduate Faculty of the Claremont Colleges (1984-92)

EDUCATION

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Ph.D. June, 1981

The Study of Religion, special field Comparative Religion, with major in Islamic Studies, minor in Greek Philosophy. Dissertation adviser: Prof. Annemarie Schimmel.

Stanford University, Stanford, California A.B. Hons. April, 1973

Humanities Special Programs with Concentration in Religious Studies; Departmental Distinction.
HONORS AND GRANTS

Honors and Individual Research Grants

Mellon Distinguished Fellow, Arts@The Core Program, Carolina Performing Arts, 2016-17

Fellow, Institute for the Arts and Humanities, University of North Carolina, spring 2014.

Choice Outstanding Academic Title, for Islamophobia in America, 2013.

Faculty Learning Community on Strategy and Leadership, Institute for the Arts and Humanities, UNC, fall 2012.

John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship, 2010.

UNC Medieval and Early Modern Studies Research Fellowship, spring 2010.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, elected Fellow, 2009.

Academic Leadership Fellow, Institute for the Arts and Humanities, UNC, spring 2009.

Scholar in Residence, Doris Duke Foundation for Islamic Art, Honolulu, Hawaii, June-July 2008.

Farabi International Award in the Humanities and Islamic Studies, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology/UNESCO/ISESCO (Tehran, 2008), for Ruzbihan Baqli: Mysticism and the Rhetoric of Sainthood in Persian Sufism.

Awards for Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World:


  • Shiraz University and the Iranian Research Institute in Philosophy (Shiraz, 2007).

  • Cenan Foundation for Culture, Education and Health, Award for Outstanding Achievement in Teaching of Sufism (Istanbul, 2005).

  • Istanbul Branch of Turkish Women’s Cultural Association, Award for Excellence in Education (Istanbul, 2005).

  • Turkish Economics and Social Research Foundation Award (Istanbul, 2005).

  • 2004 Bashrahil Prize for Outstanding Cultural Achievement, Distinguished Prize in the Humanities (Cairo, 2004).

  • Choice Outstanding Academic Title, 2004.

Fulbright Fellowship in Islamic Studies, Malaysia, spring 2005.

“Consulting on the Teaching of Religious Studies and Islamic Studies in Post-Soviet Uzbekistan,” Regional Scholar Exchange Program, International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX), March 2003.

Fulbright Senior Fellowship in Islamic Studies, University of Seville, fall 2001.

W. N. Reynolds Research Leave, University of North Carolina, fall 2001.

Fellow, Institute for the Arts and Humanities, University of North Carolina, spring 2001; Faculty Adviser, Public Fellows Program, 2003.

Summer Research Grant, UNC Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, summer 2000.

Research Grant, American Institute of Pakistan Studies, summer 2000. Research Affiliation: Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad.

National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Research Grant, 1993.

Fulbright Research Fellowship, Pakistan, 1990 (declined).

Travel Grant, American Research Institute in Turkey, Summer 1990.

National Endowment for the Humanities Translation Grant (Arabic), for "The Pool of the Water of Life: An Islamic Interpretation of Yoga," 1989-90.

American Council of Learned Societies, Travel Grant for International Conference (Germany), 1989.

Fulbright Islamic Civilization Research Fellowship, 1986. Research Affiliation: Centre for South Asian Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Senior Research Fellowship, American Institute of Indian Studies, June-December 1981. Research Affiliation: Department of History, Deccan College Postgraduate Research Institute, Pune, India.

Foreign Language Area Studies Fellowship, 1979-80 (Persian).

Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Merit Award, 1979.

Fulbright-Hays Fellowship for Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad, 1978-79. Research Affiliation: Centre for Advanced Study in History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

National Defense Foreign Language Fellowship, 1976-78 (Persian).

A.B. Honors with Departmental Distinction, 1973.

National Merit Scholar, 1968-72.

U.S. Presidential Scholar, 1968.
Institutional Grants

Co-Principal Investigator (with Mimi Chapman, School of Social Work, and Emil Kang, Carolina Performing Arts), “Countering Negative Islamic Stereotype through Performing Arts: Measuring the Impact on Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards Islam,” Fostering Interdisciplinary Research Explorations (FIRE) Grant, Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and the Institute for the Arts and Humanities, UNC, 2016-7.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Charles Kurzman). “Andrew Carnegie Centennial Fellowships in Support of Arab Region Social Science.” Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2013-15.

Principal Investigator (with miriam cooke, Duke University [Co-PI], US Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Middle East Studies, 2010-14.

Principal Investigator, “Building Turkish Studies at UNC,” Matching Seed-Money Grant for New Position in Turkish Language Instruction, Institute of Turkish Studies, 2009-12.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Charles Kurzman). “Islamic Studies and Area Studies,” Social Sciences Research Council project on “Internationalization, Inter-disciplinarity and Boundary Crossing: An Evaluation of Title VI National Resource Centers for the Middle East, Eurasia and South Asia.” May-Sept. 2009.

Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of State American Overseas Research Program, for American Institute of Iranian Studies, 2001-2002.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Charles Kurzman), “Implementing Muslim Networks,” North Carolina Networking Initiative graduate research assistant grant program, 2001-2002.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Tony Stewart, NCSU [PI], and Katherine P. Ewing, Duke University [Co-PI]), US Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for South Asia Studies, 2000-2003.

Principal Investigator, "Using advanced technologies to support international Islamic studies," North Carolina Networking Initiative graduate research assistant grant program, 2000-1.

UNC Library Liaison and Critical Language Program coordinator for North Carolina Center for South Asian Studies Grant, US Department of Education Title VI Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program, 1999-2002.

Principal Investigator, "Islamic Studies Curricular Resource WebSite," IBM/UNC Curricular Innovation Grant, 1999-2000.

Principal Investigator, "Muslim Networks in the Information Age," North Carolina Networking Initiative graduate research assistant grant program, 1999-2000.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Russel Van Wyk [PI] and Diane Strauss [Co-PI]), "A Scalable and Sustainable Infrastructure for an Instructional Multimedia Database," IBM/UNC Curricular Innovation Grant, 1999-2000.

Director, National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for College Teachers, June-July, 1999. Topic: "The Literature of Islamic Mysticism.”

Principal Investigator, "Religion and Society in the 21st Century: A View from the Public University (UNC Department of Religious Studies 50th anniversary symposium)," North Carolina Humanities Council, 1997.

Principal Investigator, "Multimedia Religious Studies Database and Web Presence," UNC Chancellor's Instructional Technology Grant, 1996-97.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Margaret E. Moore [PI] et al.), "Multimedia Database Prototype," UNC Chancellor's Instructional Technology Grant, 1995-96.

Co-Principal Investigator (with Tony Stewart, North Carolina State University [PI], and John Richards, Duke University [Co-PI]), "Integrating South Asia Studies Curricula through Core Course and Shared Language Instruction in the Research Triangle Universities of North Carolina," US Department of Education, Title VI Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program, 1995-98.

Co-Director (with Tony K. Stewart, North Carolina State University), National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for College Teachers, June-August 1995. Topic: "Hindu and Muslim: Re-Thinking Religious Boundaries in South Asia."

Core faculty member of Humanities Institute on "South Asian Islam and the Greater Muslim World," a resident scholar program at the North Carolina Triangle universities funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, 1994-1997. Host organizer, 1996 conference.

LANGUAGES

Speaking and reading knowledge of Persian, Urdu, Spanish, French.



Reading knowledge of classical Arabic, German, Italian, Greek, Latin.
PUBLICATIONS

Books

Refractions of Islam in India: Situating Sufism and Yoga. New Delhi: Yoda Press/Sage, 2016.

How to Read the Qur'an: A New Guide with Select Translations. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

  • UK edition, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2012.

Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

  • Excerpt: “Spiritual Life,” reprinted in A Companion to Muslim Cultures, ed. Amyn B. Sajoo (London: I. B. Tauris, 2011), pp. 57-75.

  • Persian translation by Ghasem Kakaie: Iqtida bi-Muhammad: Nigarishi naw bi-islam dar jahan-i mu`asir, Tehran: Hermes Press, 2011. Winner of Book of the Year prize from the Iranian Ministry of Culture, 2011.

  • Persian translation by Hasan Nura’i Bidukht: Iqtida bi-Muhammad: Baz andishi-yi islam dar jahan-i mu`asir, Tehran: Intishirat-i Haqiqat, 1389/2011.

  • Arabic translation by Hamza Halayqa `Ala nahj Muhammad: I`adat al-tafkir fil-Islam fil-`alam al-mu`asir, Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers, 2008.

  • German translation by Kurt Maier, Mohammed folgen: Der Islam in der modernen Welt. Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht GmbH & Co., 2007.
  • Turkish translation by Cangüzel Zülfikar: Hz. Muhammed’in Yolunda: Günümüz Dünyasında İslâmiyeti Yeniden Düşünmek, Istanbul: Okuyan Us, 2005.


  • Korean translation, Seoul: Simsan Munhwa, 2005.

  • India edition, New Delhi: Yoda Books, 2005.

  • UK edition: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, 2004

Sufi Martyrs of Love: Chishti Sufism in South Asia and Beyond (co-authored with Bruce B. Lawrence). New York: Palgrave Press, 2002.

  • Excerpt: “What is a Sufi Order?”, pp. 11-26. In Sufism, ed. Lloyd Ridgeon, Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies (London: Routledge, 2008), vol. 1, essay 11.

Teachings of Sufism. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1999, an anthology of translations from Arabic, Persian, and Urdu.

  • India edition, New Delhi: Rupa & Co., 2005.

  • Turkish translation, Istanbul: Dharma Yayinlari, forthcoming.

Guide to Sufism. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1997.

  • Russian translation by M. R. Platonov: Sufizm: Misticheskii Islam. Moscow: Eksmo/Nashe Slovo, 2012.

  • New edition: Sufism: An Introduction to Islamic Mysticism. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2010.

  • Russian translation by A. Gorkavago: Sufizm. Moscow: Fair-Press, 2002.
  • Persian translation of chapter 1 by Ma`suma Amin-Dihqan, “Tarikhche-yi vorud-i mafhum-i tasavvuf ba-gharb,” in `Irfan-i Iran 13 (Tehran: Intisharat-i Haqiqat, 2002), pp. 100-121.


  • Greek translation by Sophia Leibadopolou: Souphismos. Athens: Ekdoseis Archetypo, 2001.

  • Italian translation by Laura Franco: Il grande libro della sapienza sufi. Milan: Oscar Saggi Mondadori, 2000.

  • India edition, New Delhi: Rupa & Co., 2000.

  • Spanish translation by Joan Carles Guix: Sufismo, Guías de Sabiduría Oriental, 4. Barcelona: Oniro, 1999.

Ruzbihan Baqli. The Unveiling of Secrets: Diary of a Sufi Master. Translated from the Arabic by Carl W. Ernst. Chapel Hill NC: Parvardigar Press, 1997.

Ruzbihan Baqli: Mysticism and the Rhetoric of Sainthood in Persian Sufism. Curzon Sufi Series, 4. London: Curzon Press, 1996.



  • Revised Persian translation and notes by Kurus Divsalar: Ruzbihan Baqli, tajriba-i `irfani va shath-i vilayat dar tasavvuf-i irani. Tehran: Amir Kabir, 2004.

  • Persian translation by Majdoddin Keyvani: Ruzbihan Baqli, `irfan va shath-i awliya' dar tasavvuf-i islami. Tehran: Nashr-i Markaz, 1999.

Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center. SUNY Series in Muslim Spirituality in South Asia. State University of New York Press, 1992.

  • Excerpt: “The Textual Formation of Oral Teachings in the Early Chishti Order” (pp 62-77), Persian trans. Mas`ud Faryamanish, in A’ineh-i puzhuhish 25/4 (1393/2015), pp. 5-14.
  • Excerpt: “The Indian Environment and the Question of Conversion.” In Raziuddin Aquil, ed., Sufism and Society in Medieval India, Debates in Indian History and Society Series (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 82-101.


  • 2nd edition, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Words of Ecstasy in Sufism. SUNY Series in Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.

  • Excerpt: “Topics and Forms of Expression,” pp. 25-45. In Sufism, ed. Lloyd Ridgeon, Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies (London: Routledge, 2008), vol. 1, essay 9.

  • 2nd edition, New Delhi: Yoda Press, forthcoming.

  • Malay translation, Kuala Lumpur: S. Abdul Majeed & Co, 1994.


Edited volumes

Editor, Islamophobia in America: The Anatomy of Intolerance (Palgrave-McMillan, 2013).

Co-Editor (with Richard C. Martin), Rethinking Islamic Studies: From Post-Orientalism to Cosmopolitanism (Columbia SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010); co-author of “Introduction: Toward a Post-Orientalist Islamic Approach to Islamic Religious Studies” (pp. 1-22) and author of "The Perils of Civilizational Islam in Malaysia” (pp. 266-80).

Pakistan at the Millennium, edited by Charles Kennedy, Kathleen McNeil, Carl Ernst, and David Gilmartin. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Associate editor (with Grace Martin Smith), Manifestations of Sainthood in Islam. Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1993; also principal author of "Introduction," pp. xi-xxviii; author of article "An Indo-Persian Guide to Sufi Shrine Pilgrimage," pp. 43-67; abridged version of the latter reprinted in Tales of God’s Friends: Islamic Hagiography in Translation, ed. John Renard (University of California Press, 2009), pp. 269-85.


Articles in journals and collective volumes


General and Critical Issues in Islamic Studies

"Persianate Islamic Studies in American Universities." In Iranian Studies in America: Looking Back, Looking Ahead, ed. Franklin Lewis and Erica Ehrenberg (American Institute of Iranian Studies/Eisenbruns, 2014).

"Ten Questions about Islamic Civilization." In Islam for Journalists, ed. Lawrence Pintak and Stephen Franklin (Social Science Research Council, 2013), pp. 50-62.

“Changing Approaches to Islamic Studies in North American Universities.” In Islamic Studies and Civilisational Dialogue: A Transdisciplinary Approach for Sustainability, ed Azizan Baharuddin (Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Civilisational Dialogue, University of Malaya, 2013), pp. 75-92.

"The Global Significance of Arabic Language and Literature." Religion Compass 7/6 (2013), pp. 191-200.

“Islamic Studies in U.S. Universities,” co-author with Charles Kurzman. In Middle East Studies for the New Millenium: Infrastructures of Knowledge, ed. Seteney Shami and Cynthia Miller-Idris (New York: Social Science Research Council, 2016), pp. 320-350; earlier version in Review of Middle East Studies 46/1 (Summer 2012), pp. 24-46.

“It's Not Just Academic – Writing Public Scholarship in Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies." Review of Middle East Studies 45/2 (Winter 2011 [published 2012]), pp. 164-71.

“‘The West and Islam?’ Rethinking Orientalism and Occidentalism.” Ishraq: Islamic Philosophy Yearbook (Moscow/Tehran), vol. 1 (2010), pp. 23-34.

  • Persian translation by Ruhollah `Alizada, “Gharb o eslam: baz andishi dar sharq-shinasi o gharb-shinasi,” Ittila`at-i hikmat o ma`rifat 25 (1390/2012), pp. 20-24.


  • Spanish translation by Carl Ernst and Luis Xavier López Farjeat, "¿El Occidente y el Islam? Repensar el orientalismo y el occidentalismo," Istor: revista de historia internacional 10/38 (2009), pp. 123-139.

“Muhammad as the Pole of Existence.” In The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, ed. Jonathan Brockopp (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 123-38.

“Universalism in Islamic Thought." Keynote address for International Symposium on Religion and World Peace (Istanbul: Istanbul University, 2008), pp. 8-17.

“Demystifying the Rhetoric of Civilizational Conflict.” In Dialogue of Civilizations and the Construction of Peace, ed. Thomas W. Simon and Azizan Baharuddin (Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Civilisational Dialogue, 2008), pp. 1-22.

"Reading Strategies for Introducing the Qur'an as Literature in an American Public University." Islamic Studies (Islamabad) 45:3 (2006), pp. 333-344. Reprinted as Islamic Studies Occasional Papers 77 (Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 2007).

"From Philosophy of Religion to History of Religion." In Problems in the Philosophy of Religion: Critical Studies of the Work of John Hick, ed. Harold Hewitt, Jr (London: Macmillan, 1991), pp. 46-50.

Premodern and Contemporary Sufism

"Wakened by the Dove’s Trill: Structure and Meaning in the Arabic Preface of Rumi’s Mathnawi, Book IV.” In The Philosophy of Ecstasy: Rumi and the Sufi Tradition, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: World Wisdom, 2014).

"'A Little Indicates Much': Structure and Meaning in the Prefaces of Rumi’s Mathnawi (Books I-III).” Mawlana Rumi Review V (2014), pp. 14-25.

"Piety and Devotion." In Islam in the Modern World, ed. Jeffrey T. Kenney, Ebrahim Moosa (Routledge, 2013), pp. 107-24.

Translations from the writings of Jalal al-Din Dawani: Commentary on Suhrawardi's "Temples of Light" (Shar hayākil al-nūr, Book 5; Arabic), and Flashes of Illumination on Praiseworthy Ethics, or the Jalalian Ethics (Akhlāq-i Jalālī, Book 4; Persian), in An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, ed. S. H. Nasr and Mehdi Aminrazavi, vol. 4, From the School of Illumination to Philosophical Mysticism (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012), pp. 93-120, 121-135.

“Jalal al-Din Davani's Interpretation of Hafiz." In Hafiz and the School of Love in Persian Poetry, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: I. B. Tauris, 2010), pp. 197-210.

"Shams-i Tabrizi and the Audacity of Bayazid Bistami." In Şems: Güneşle Aydinlananlar / Enlightened By The Sun (Istanbul: Nefes Yayınevi, 2010), pp. 286-95

"Sufism and the Aesthetics of Penmanship according to Siraj al-Shirazi's Tuhfat al-Muhibbin (1454)." Journal of the American Oriental Society 129.3 (2009), pp. 431-42.


  • Abridged version in Hadeeth ad-Dar (Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah Museum, Kuwait) 27 (2008), pp. 30-33.

“Beauty and the Feminine Element of Spirituality.” In Women and Tasawwuf (Istanbul: Nefes, 2008), pp. 147-154.

“Sufism, Islam, and Globalization in the Contemporary World: Methodological Reflections on a Changing Field of Study.” In Memoriam: The 4th Victor Danner Memorial Lecture. Bloomington, IN: Department of Near Eastern Languages, 2009.



  • Italian translation by Marco Cena of an earlier version: "Il sufismo nel mondo musulmano contemporaneo: la 'divulgazione del segreto.'" In Sufismo e confraternite nell'islam contemporaneo: Il difficile equilibrio tra mistica e politica, ed. Marietta Stepanyants (Turin, Italy: Edizioni della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, 2003), pp. 301-324.

"On Losing One's Head: Hallajian themes in works attributed to `Attar." In Attar and the Persian Sufi Tradition: The Art of Spiritual Flight, ed. Leonard Lewisohn and Christopher Shackle (London: I. B. Tauris, 2006), pp. 330-343.

"Ideological and Technological Transformations of Contemporary Sufism." In Muslim Networks: Medium, Metaphor, and Method, ed. miriam cooke and Bruce B. Lawrence. Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks Series, 2. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), pp. 198-207.

"Between Orientalism and Fundamentalism: Problematizing the Teaching of Sufism." In Teaching Islam, ed. Brannon Wheeler (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 108-23.

"Sufism and Philosophy in Mulla Sadra." In Islam-West Philosophical Dialogue: The Papers presented at the World Congress on Mulla Sadra (May, 1999, Tehran) (Tehran: Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute, 2001), 1:173-192; reprinted in Afkar: Journal of `Aqidah & Islamic Thought 6 (2005), pp. 143-60.


  • Persian translation: “Tasavvuf va falsafa az nazar-i Mulla Sadra.” In Majmu`a-i maqalat-i humayish-i jahani-i Mulla Sadra, avval Khurdad ma 1378 – Tehran, Mulla Sadra va hikmat-i muta`aliya (Tehran: Bunyad-i Hikmat-i Islami-i Sadra, 2001), 2:51-64.

"Chishti Meditation Practices of the Later Mughal Period." In The Heritage of Sufism, Volume 3: Late Classical Persianate Sufism (1501-1750): The Safavid and Mughal Period, ed. Leonard Lewisohn and David Morgan (Oxford: Oneworld, 1999), pp. 344-57.

"Persecution and Circumspection in the Shattari Sufi Order." In Islamic Mysticism Contested: Thirteen Centuries of Controversies & Polemics, ed. Fred De Jong and Berndt Radtke, Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, 29 (Leiden: Brill, 1999), pp. 416-35.

"Vertical Pilgrimage and Interior Landscape in the Visionary Diary of Ruzbihan Baqli." Muslim World 88/2 (1998), pp. 129-40.

"The Interpretation of the Classical Sufi Tradition in India: The Shama'il al-atqiya' of Rukn al-Din Kashani." Sufi 22 (1994), pp. 5-10.



  • Persian translation by Karim Zayyani: "Tafsiri bar sunnat-i tasavvuf-i klasik-i Hindustan: Shamayil al-atqiya', athar-i Rukn al-Din Kashani," in Sufi 24 (1373/1994), pp. 6-12.

"Ruzbihan Baqli on Love as ‘Essential Desire.’" In Gott is schön und Er liebt die Schönheit/God is Beautiful and He Loves Beauty: Festschrift für Annemarie Schimmel, ed. Alma Giese and J. Christoph Bürgel (Bern: Peter Lang, 1994), pp. 181-89.

"The Man without Attributes: Ibn `Arabi's Interpretation of Abu Yazid al-Bistami." Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn `Arabi Society XIII (1993), pp. 1-18. Also in Muhyiddin: The Revivifier of the Way, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual U.S.A. Symposium of the Muhyiddin Ibn `Arabi Society (Oxford: Muhyiddin Ibn `Arabi Society, 1993), pp. 47-62.

"Mystical Language and the Teaching Context in the Early Sufi Lexicons." In Mysticism and Language, ed. Steven T. Katz (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 181-201.

"The Stages of Love in Persian Sufism, from Rabi`a to Ruzbihan." In Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, 1994), pp. 435-55; also in Sufi 14 (1992), pp. 16-23; reprinted in The Heritage of Sufism, Volume 1, Classical Persian Sufism from its Origins to Rumi (700-1300), ed. Leonard Lewisohn (Oxford: One World, 1999), pp. 435-55.


  • Persian translation by Mojde-i Bayat: "Marahil-i `ishq dar nakhustin advar-i tasavvuf-i Iran, az Rabi`a ta Ruzbihan," in Sufi 16 (1371/1992), pp. 6-17.

  • Revised Persian translation: "Marahil-i `ishq dar tasavvuf-i aghazin-i Irani: az Rabi`a ta Ruzbihan," Miras-i Tasavvuf, trans. Majdoddin Keyvani (Tehran: Nashr-i Markaz, 1384/2006), 1:315-37.

  • Spanish translation: “Las etapas del amor en el sufismo persa primitivo de Rābea a Ruzbahan,” Revista Sufi, Número VIII (Otoño / Invierno 2004).

"The Spirit of Islamic Calligraphy: Baba Shah Isfahani's Adab al-Mashq." Journal of the American Oriental Society 112 (1992), pp. 279-86.

"The Symbolism of Birds and Flight in the Writings of Ruzbihan Baqli." In The Legacy of Mediaeval Persian Sufism, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, 1992), pp. 353-66; also in Sufi 11 (Autumn, 1991), pp. 5-12; reprinted in The Heritage of Sufism, vol. 2, The Legacy of Mediaeval Persian Sufism (1150-1500), ed. Leonard Lewisohn (Oxford: One World, 1999), pp. 353-66.



  • Persian translation: “Namad-ha-yi parandah o parvaz dar musannafat-i Ruzbihan Baqli,” Miras-i Tasavvuf, trans. Majdoddin Keyvani (Tehran: Nashr-i Markaz, 1384/2006), 2:231-52.

"The Textual Formation of Oral Teachings in Early Chishti Sufism." In Texts and Contexts: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia, ed. Jeffrey Timm (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991), pp. 271-97.

"Ibn al-`Arabi on the Divine Beauty: Some Comparative Considerations." In Truth and Beauty: Proceedings of the Second Annual U.S.A. Symposium of the Muhyiddin Ibn al-`Arabi Society (Oxford: Muhyiddin Ibn `Arabi Society, 1989), pp. 59-67.

"Inner Perspectives" (a series of ten weekly newspaper columns on Sufism). The Nation (Lahore, Oct.-Dec. 1986).

"Controversy over Ibn `Arabi's Fusus: The Faith of Pharaoh." Islamic Culture LIX (1985), pp. 259-66.

"From Hagiography to Martyrology: Conflicting Testimonies to a Sufi Martyr of the Delhi Sultanate." History of Religions XXIV (May, 1985), pp. 308-27.

"Mystical and Esoteric Aspects of Religious Knowledge in Sufism." The Journal of Religious Studies XIII (1984), pp. 93-100; also in Islam and the Modern Age XV (1984), pp. 201-8.




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