Conclusion As I said, my own introduction to the teaching profession can be kindly described as an alternate route. Asked to help a peer learn to read, I tried. Motivated to help a continent come out from under the shadow of colonialism and oppression, I did my best. But we know more today, and we can do better. By addressing the thorny question of turf, working hard to build true collaboratives, coming together as a profession to sort out all the standards we have made, and developing a coherent continuum of teacher development, we can make teaching a profession that develops and sustains the best in all of us for the good of all of us.
REFERENCES Bartell, C. 2004. Cultivating high quality teaching through induction and mentoring. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC). 1992. Success for beginning teachers. Sacramento, CA: CCTC.
-----. 2001. Standards of quality and effectiveness for professional teacherinduction programs. Sacramento, CA: CCTC.
-----. 2002. Standards of quality and effectiveness for professional teacherinduction programs. Sacramento, CA: CCTC.
-----. 2004. Annual report 2003-04. Sacramento, CA: CCTC.
CCTC and California Department of Education. 1997. The California standards for the teaching profession. Sacramento, CA: CCTC and California Department of Education.
Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning (CFTL). 2004. California's teaching force 2004--Key issues and trends. Santa Cruz, CA: CFTL.
Smith, T. M., and R. M. Ingersoll. 2004. What are the effects of induction and mentoring on beginning teacher turnover? American Educational Research Journal 41:681-714.
State of California. 2004a. An act relating to teachers. By Pavley. Assembly bill 791.
-----. 2004b. Preliminary Credential Requirements. Education Code Statutes of 2004, sec. 343. Assembly bill 2210.
State of Connecticut Department of Education. 2004. The BEST Program. http://www.state.ct.us/sde/dtl/t-a/best/. Thompson, M., L. Goe, P. Paek, and E. Ponte. 2004. Study of the impact of the California formative assessment and support system for teachers. Reports 1-4. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Tushnet, N. C., D. Briggs, J. Elliot, C. Esch, and D. Haviland. 2002. Final report of the independent evaluation of the beginning teacher support and assessment program. San Francisco: WestEd.
University of California, Riverside. 2005. The UCR RIMS BTSA program. http://www.rimsbtsa.ucr.edu/. Wong, H. K., T. Britton, and T. Ganser. 2005. Teacherinduction in five nations. Phi Delta Kappan 86:379-84.
Margaret Olebe is the associate director of the teachereducation and public schools programs in the Office of the Chancellor, California State University, Long Beach. She currently is on leave from her position as an associate professor of teachereducationat California State University, Dominguez Hills.
How Do State-Level Induction and Standards-Based Reform Policies Affect Induction Experiences and Turnover among New Teachers?
Smith, Thomas M.
American Journal of Education
American Journal of Education v. 113 no. 2 (February 2007) p. 273-309
Since the early 1980s, states have been increasingly active in setting policies that structure the initiation or "induction" of new teachers into teaching. This article uses the Schools and Staffing Survey merged with state-level data collected for Education Week's "Quality Counts" reports to examine the impact of state policy on beginning teacher turnover. States that mandate participation in inductionprograms tend to have more beginning teachers mentored, although state-level funding for these programs is not associated with increased mentorship. Requiring that beginning teachers and their mentors be matched by subject, grade, or school does not appear to ensure such a match, although states that have this requirement do have mentorship programs that are more effective at reducing turnover. Finally, states with stronger standards, assessments, and accountability systems have lower turnover among beginning teachers. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
New Mentoring Program Found Helpful for Novice Teachers in N.Y.C.
Education Week v. 25 no. 36 (May 10 2006) p. 7
A report by the New Teaching Center at the University of California at Santa Cruz reveals that despite significant pitfalls, an inductionprogram for new teachers in New York City has the potential to improve new teacher quality and retention. This inductionprogram uses experienced teachers as mentors who provide individual coaching to novice teachers.
Published Online: March 28, 2008
Published in Print: August 31, 2005 Education Week
The National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future is calling on states, districts, and higher education institutions to offer formal teacher-induction programs that last for years and offer more than just individual mentoring.
The Washington-based group studied such systems in several foreign countries and across the United States. Its findings were released here in a policy paper this month.
Not only does the induction period need to be longer—up to three years—but in most cases the purpose of induction needs to be more clearly defined, said Tom Carroll, the president of the private commission formed in 1994. The organization wants to see more comprehensive programs that bring new teachers into the field, in addition to helping them...
Understanding New York city's groundbreaking induction initiative
Stopping The Revolving Door of Teacher Turnover: New Report Serves As "How To" Guide For Implementing New Teacher Induction Program
June 15, 2006
New York City - A report released today by the New Teacher Center at the University of California, Santa Cruz, documents the first-year implementation of the New York City Department of Education's New Teacher Induction Program designed to increase teacher retention. The Report, Understanding New York City's Groundbreaking Induction Initiative: Policy Implications for Local, State, and National Educational Leaders, offers insights for implementing new teacher induction to reduce teacher turnover and improve teacher practice in school systems nationwide.
In 2004, the New York City Department of Education committed $36 million to adopt key components of the new teacher induction model developed by the New Teacher Center. NYC carefully selected 339 mentors from among the city's teachers and released them fulltime to work with NYC's 6,000 first year teachers. NYC DOE designed and developed the program in partnership with the NYC United Federation of Teachers.
The New Teacher Center induction model is based on a successful 17-year effort in California public schools. Two studies show the model has resulted in a dramatic 88% teacher retention rate after six years, as compared to a national rate of less than 50%.
Using the NTC model, NYC has provided extensive training for mentors that has given them the skills to increase teacher effectiveness. Mentors and new teachers use the NTC Formative Assessment System to measure teacher growth and guide teacher development throughout the year.
"The New York City program is more than just a buddy system. It represents a complete shift in how school systems support and retain new teachers," explains Ellen Moir, Executive Director at the New Teacher Center.
"The fact that this program was quickly implemented across one of the largest and most complex school districts in America makes clear that where there is a will and a commitment, any district can make fundamental changes in how they interact with new teachers. This report documents that implementation and can serve as a guide for school districts," according to Dara Barlin, NTC Policy Analyst and author of the report.
The New Teacher Center report notes several steps key to the program's rollout in New York City that can be used as guideposts for other districts and states considering implementation of induction programs. Some of these include:
Engaging top school decision makers to use institutional political capital to facilitate change.
Developing a process to identify and recruit some of the most talented and effective veteran teachers in the City to be mentors.
Using high quality program design principals that have a track record of success (e.g. using data to measure and drive instructional progress).
Implementing a comprehensive communication plan throughout the school system.
Addressing age-old school practices that have historically inhibited new teacher success.
Building bridges with key initiatives connected to school administrators, site-based professional developers, and partnering universities.
"This report is really about helping school systems that are considering implementing effective teacher induction programs to leverage the lessons learned at all levels in NYC," stated Barlin.
"New York City capitalized on political momentum, involved key education and community stakeholders, and followed a well-tested, research-based model when creating its program," said Moir. "Districts that mirror the New York approach can create environments where new teachers can thrive."