Early people arrive in the land that is now New York.
Main Idea: People arrived in New York about 11,000 years ago. They found many ways to use natural resources to meet their needs.
Bering Strait-The piece of land connecting Asia and North America. During the Ice Age, it was dry land. This strip of land, or land bridge connected two continents. They walked this by foot or by boat along the coast of the land bridge.
hunter-gatherer- they got their food by hunting animals and gathering plants they could eat.
artifact- an object made by people in the past.
archaeologist- a scientist who learns about the past by studying artifacts (pottery, spear points)
extinct- died out forever.
Ice Age- A time long ago, when people, here hunter-gathers, lived near streams or lake and found shelter in caves or under tents built of wood and animal skins to survive.
1. Compare and Contrast
People moved from place to place in search of food.
People lived in small bands of about 25-50 people.
People spent most of their time thinking about how to get food.
People farmed and stayed in one place longer than they used to.
Some bands joined to build villages.
People had time to learn new skills.
2. The early people may have used to travel from Asia to North America were to have walked across the Bering Strait land bride or traveled by boat along the western coast of North America.
3. We study what life was like for early New Yorkers by having archaeologists examine artifacts and remains of early New Yorkers.
4. Three ways that early New Yorkers used natural resources is that they hunted animals for food, used animal skins for clothing and other cover, used wood and stone for tools and housing, gathered plants for food. They did not learn to write.
Chapter 3: The First New Yorkers
Textbook pg. 88-93
Lesson 2: Algonquian People: About 1200 New York
Many Algonquian groups live in what is now New York.
Main Idea: Algonquian groups lived in what is now New York, using natural resources to meet their needs.
wigwam-the Algonquian lived in small, dome-shaped homes called wigwams. They moved their villages into the forest when winter arrived for better shelter in the winter and to keep warmer.
trade- to buy and sell goods. Trails made it easier to trade furs, pottery and baskets.
reservation- land set aside by the government for Native Americans.
powwow- is an Algonquian word for meeting or celebration.
1. Main Idea and Details
Algonquian people found many ways to use natural resources.
They built shelters and tools from wood.
They hunted and used animal skins to make clothing.
They cleared areas of forest to plant corn, beans, squash, and pumpkins.
2. Algonquians built birch-bark canoes for fishing and travel.
3. The Algonquian based the names of their moons after events or conditions appropriate to the time of year. Winter-sap moon; spring-planting moon; summer-ripening moon; fall-harvest moon(children helped to pick ripe vegetables).
4. A powwow is an Algonquian word for meeting or celebration. Many Algonquians still live on reservations and teach others about their traditions through story telling at these powwows. The Shinnecock continue to have powwows today.
Chapter 3: The First New Yorkers
Textbook pg. 94-99
Lesson 3: The Iroquois League: Late 1500’s
Iroquois runners carry messages along the Iroquois Trail.
Main Idea: After many years of conflict, five Iroquois groups joined to form the powerful Iroquois League. They needed to find a way to live peacefully. Places:
Iroquois Trail- trails built between many villages. Iroquois runners carried messages along the trail.
Iroquois League- Five Iroquois groups, or nations, joined to form the Iroquois League. The five nations were the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, and the Cayuga. The Algonquian and the Iroquois never spoke the same language.
sachem- leaders were chosen from each nation. They were called sachems.
clan- made up of families that shared an ancestor, or relative who lived in the past.
wampum- messenger sometimes carried belts of wampum, small beads made from sea shells.
Five Iroquois nations came together to form the Iroquois League.
The Iroquois became one of the most powerful Native American groups in North America.
The Iroquois followed the same laws and solved problems peacefully.
Sachems met at a Grand Council to talk about important issues.
2. The Iroquois call themselves the People of the Longhouse because they lived in longhouses, with many related families sharing the same home.
3. The Iroquois Trail was the main road in a trail system connecting Iroquois villages so that message runners could travel easily, which improved communication among the Iroquois people. They were able to keep in touch with each other.
4. The Iroquois villages held Green Corn Festivals to give thanks for their corn crops. They told stories, danced and played games.