Transistors had transformed the construction of computers, but as ever more transistors and other electronic components were crammed into smaller spaces, the problem of connecting them together with wires required a magnifying glass and steady hands. The limits of making electronics by hand became apparent. Making the electronic circuitry larger by spacing the components farther apart only slowed down the machine because electrons took more time to flow through the longer wires.
Jack S. Kilby (1923_) grew up in Great Bend, Kansas, where he learned about electricity and ham radios from his father, who ran a small electric company. Kilby desperately wanted to go to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but failed to qualify when he scored 497 instead of the required 500 on an entrance exam. He turned to the University of Illinois, where he worked on a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. Two years repairing radios in the army during World War II interrupted his education before he graduated in 1947. He moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he went to work for Centralab. A master's degree in electrical engineering followed in 1950. Centralab adopted transistors early, and Kilby became an expert on the technology, though he felt that germanium was the wrong choice for materials. He preferred silicon, which could withstand higher temperatures, though it was more difficult to work with than germanium. After Centralab refused to move to silicon, Kilby moved to Dallas to work for Texas Instruments (TI) in 1958.
Texas Instruments had been founded in the 1930s as an oil exploration company and later turned to electronics. TI produced the first commercial silicon transistor in 1954 and the first commercial transistor radio that same year. In his first summer at the company, Kilby had no vacation accrued when everyone else went on vacation so he had a couple of weeks of solitude at work. TI wanted him to work on a U.S. Army project to build Micro_Modules, an effort to make larger standardized electronics modules. Kilby thought the idea ill_conceived and realized that he had only a short time to come up with a better idea.
Transistors were built of semiconductor material and Kilby realized that other electronic components used to create a complete electric circuit, such as resisters, capacitors, and diodes, could also be built of semiconductors. What if he could put all the components on the same piece of semiconductor material? On July 24, 1958, Kilby sketched out his ideas in his engineering notebook. The idea of putting everything on a single chip of semiconductor later became known as the monolithic idea or the integrated circuit.
By September, Kilby had built a working integrated circuit. In order to speed up the development process, Kilby worked with germanium, though he later switched to silicon. His first effort looked crude, with protruding gold wiring that Kilby used to connect each component by hand, but the company recognized an important invention. Kilby and TI filed for a patent in February 1959.
In California, at Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce (1927_1990) had independently come up with the same monolithic idea. Noyce graduated with a doctorate in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953, then turned to pursuing his intense interest in transistors. Noyce worked at Shockley Transistor for only a year, enduring the paranoid atmosphere as the company's founder, William B. Shockley (who had been part of the team that invented the transistor in 1947), searched among his employees for illusionary conspiracies. Noyce and seven other engineers and scientists at the company talked to the venture capitalist who provided the funding for the company, but could obtain no action against Shockley, a recent Nobel laureate. Shockley called the men the "traitorous eight." Noyce and his fellow rebels found financing from Fairchild Camera and Instrument to create Fairchild Semiconductor. Silicon Valley was growing.
Fairchild Semiconductor began to manufacture transistors and created a chemical planar process that involved applying a layer of silicon oxide on top of electronic components to protect them from dust and other contaminants. This invention led Noyce to develop his own idea in January 1959 of the integrated circuit, using the planar process to create tiny lines of metal between electronic components in a semiconductor substrate to act as connections. After Texas Instruments and Kilby filed for their patent, Noyce and Fairchild Semiconductor filed for their own patent in July 1959, five months later. The latter patent application included applying the chemical planar process in it.
Kilby and Noyce always remained friendly about their joint invention, while their respective companies engaged in a court fight over patent rights. Eventually the two companies and two engineers agreed to share the rights and royalties, although the U.S. Court of Customs and Patent Appeals ruled in favor of Fairchild in 1969. The two companies agreed, as did the two men, that they were co_inventors. Kilby later received half of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention, a recognition of the importance of his invention. Noyce had already died, and Nobel prizes are not awarded posthumously. The other half of the Nobel Prize was shared by the Russian physicist Zhores I. Alferov (1930_) and German_born American physicist Herbert Kroemer (1928_) for their own contributions to semiconductor theory.
The commercial electronics industry did not initially appreciate the value of integrated circuits (also called microchips), believing them too difficult to manufacture and unreliable. Both the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American defense industry recognized the value of microchips and became significant early adopters of microchips, proving the technology was ready for commercial use. The U.S. Air Force used 2,500 TI microchips in 1962 in the on_board guidance computer for each nuclear_tipped Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile. NASA used microchips from Fairchild in their Project Gemini in the early 1960s, a successful effort to launch two_man capsules into orbit and to rendevous between manned capsule and an empty booster in orbit. NASA's 25 billion dollar Apollo Project to land a man on the moon became the first big customer of integrated circuits and proved a key driver in accelerating the growth of the semiconductor industry. At one point in the early 1960s, the Apollo Project consumed over half of all integrated circuits being manufactured.
NASA and the military requirements also led to advances in created fault_tolerant electronics. If a business computer failed, a technician could repair the problem and the nightly accounting program could continue to run; if the computer on the Saturn V rocket failed, then the astronauts aboard might die. Electronics were also hardened to survive the shaking from launch and exposure to the harsh vacuum and temperatures of space. Similar efforts also led to the development of the idea of software engineering, which is applying sound engineering principles of verification to programs to ensure that they are reliable in all circumstances.
Commercial industries began to appreciate the value of integrated circuits when Kilby and two colleagues created the first electronic calculator using microchips in 1967. The calculator printed out its result on a small thermal printer that Kilby also invented. This was the first electronic calculator small enough to be held in a hand and sparked what became a billion_dollar market for cheap, hand_hand calculators, quickly banishing slide rules to museums. Integrated circuits became the main technology of the computer industry after a decade of development, creating a third generation of computer technology (following the generations based on vacuum tubes and transistors).
In 1964, Gordon E. Moore (1929_) noticed that the density of transistors and other components on integrated chips doubled every year. He charted this trend and predicted that it would continue until about 1980, when the density of integrated circuits would decline to doubling every two years. Variations of this idea became known as Moore's Law. Since the early 1970s, chip density on integrated circuits, both microprocessors and memory chips, has doubled about every eighteen months. From about fifty electronic components per chip in 1965, five million electronic components were placed on an individual chip by 2000. An individual transistor on a chip is now about 90 nanometers (90 billionths of a meter) in size. At times, different commentators have predicted that this trend would hit a obstacle that engineers could not overcome and slow down, but that has not yet happened. The electronic components on integrated circuits are being packed so close that within a decade engineers fear that quantum effects will began to substantially affect that ability of Moore’s Law to remain true.
Moore also pointed out another way to understand the growth of the semiconductor material. From the beginning, every acre of silicon wafer has sold for about a billion dollars; the number of transistors and other electronic components on the ship have just become more dense to keep the value of that acre roughly constant. The following table shows the growth of integrated ships by date, the technology used, and how dense each integrated circuit could be.
1960 Small_scale integration (SSI) Less than 100 transistors
1966 Medium_scale integration (MSI) 100 to 1,000 transistors
1975 Very Large_scale integration (VLSI) 10,000_100,000 transistors
1980s Ultra Large_scale integration (ULSI) More then 100,000 transistors
1990s Still called ULSI More than one million transistors
While the manufacture of integrated circuits is considered to be part of the electronics industry, the industrial techniques used are more like the chemical industry. A mask is used to etch patterns into wafers of silicon, creating a large number of integrated circuits in each batch. The key to economic success is getting high yields of mistake_free batches.
Ken Olsen (1926_) founded Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1957, and began manufacturing electronics using the new transistor technology. In 1965, DEC introduced the PDP_8 (Programmed Data Processor_8), the first mass_produced computer based on integrated circuits. The entire PDP_8 fit in normal packing crate and cost about $18,000. By 1969, the PDP_8 was recognized as the first minicomputer. Minicomputers were not as powerful as what had became known as mainframes, and were usually bought to be dedicated to a small number of tasks, rather than as a general purpose business data processing computer. Other companies also entered the minicomputer market, including Data General, Prime Computer, Hewlett_Packard, Harris, and Honeywell. By 1970, based on its minicomputers, DEC was the third largest computer manufacturer in the world, being IBM and Sperry Rand. DEC eventually became the second largest computer company, with its PDP series and later, VAX series, of minicomputers.
After personal computer emerged in the 1970s, minicomputers occupied the middle ground between microcomputers and mainframes. Minicomputers eventually ran sophisticated operating systems, and were heavily used in the engineering, scientific, academic, and research fields. In the 1980s, minicomputers also found their way to the desktop as workstations, powerful single_user machines often used for graphics_intensive design and engineering applications. In the 1990s, minicomputers and workstations disappeared as market segments when personal computers became powerful enough to completely supplant them.
Early computers were all batch systems, which is where a program was loaded into a computer and run to completion, before another program was loaded and run. This serial process allowed each program to have exclusive access to the computer, but frustrated programmers and users for two reasons. First, the central processing unit (CPU) lay idle while programs were loaded, which wasted expensive computer time; second, batch processing made it difficult to do interactive computing. In a 1959 memorandum, John McCarthy (1927_), already a founding pioneer in artificial intelligence, proposed to MIT that a "time_sharing operator program" be developed for their new IBM 709 computer that IBM planned to donate to the prestigious school. Christopher Strachey (1916_1975) in the United Kingdom simultaneously and independently came up with the same idea.
By late 1961, a prototype of the Compatible Time_Sharing System (CTSS) was running at MIT. Further iterations of CTSS were created and in the mid_1960s, the CTSS implemented the first hierarchical file system, familiar to users today as the idea of putting files into directory or folders to better organize the file system. J. C. R. Licklider (1915_1990) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, a branch of the Pentagon, was a keen advocate of interactive computing and funded continued work on timesharing. Other American and British projects also researched the goal of getting multiple programs to run in the same computer, a process called multiprogramming. Though only one program at a time can actually run on the CPU, other programs could be quickly switched in to run as long as the other programs were also resident in memory. This led to the problem of how to keep multiple programs in memory and not accidently have one program overwrite or use to the memory that another program was already using. The solution to this was a series of hardware and software innovations to create virtual walls of exclusion between the programs.
Operating system software became much more sophisticated to support multiprogramming and the principle of exclusion. An ARPA_MIT project called Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service), began in 1965, did not realize its ambitious goals in that was was only a modest commerical success, but became a proving ground for many important multiprogramming innovations. Two programmers who worked on Multics, Dennis M. Ritchie (1941_) and Ken Thompson (1943_) at AT&T's Bell Laboratories, turned their experience into the UNICS operating system. The name stood for UNiplexed Information and Computing Service, a pun on Multics, but later was shortened to UNIX. Originally written in assembly language on a DEC PDP_7 minicomputer, Ritchie and Thompson wanted to port UNIX to a new minicomputer, the DEC PDP_11, and decided to rewrite the operating system in a higher_level language. Ritchie had created the programming language C (a successor to a language called B) and the rewritten UNIX was the first operating system written in a higher_level third generation language. As a government_sanctioned monopoly, AT&T was not allowed to sell any of its inventions outside of the telephone business, so AT&T offered UNIX to anyone who wanted to buy it for the cost of the distribution tapes and manuals, though AT&T retained the copyright. Because it was a full_featured operating system with all the source code included, UNIX became popular at universities in the 1970s and 1980s.
In the early 1960s, IBM had seven mutually incompatible computer lines, serving different segments of the market. Plans were created for an 8000 series of computers, but a few visionaries within the company argued that creating yet another computer with its own new instruction set would only increase the confusion and escalate manufacturing and support costs. IBM engineers did not even plan to make the different models within the 8000 series computers compatible with each other. Such developments showed that IBM lacked a long_range vision.
An IBM electrical engineer turned manager, Robert O. Evans led the charge to create a New Product Line, which would cancel the 8000 series and completely replace all the computer systems that IBM manufactured with a uniform architecture of new machines. Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr., who earned a doctorate in Applied Mathematics from Harvard University in 1956, was the Systems Planning Manager for the 8000 series and fought against Evans' plans. After the corporation decided to go with Evans, the canny engineer asked Brooks become a chief designer of the new system. Gene M. Amdahl (1922_), another brilliant young engineer, joined Brooks in the designing the System/360.
Honeywell cemented the need for the System/360 computers when its Honeywell 200 computers, introduced in 1963, included a software utility allowing the new Honeywell computer to run programs written for the IBM 1401 computer. The 1401 was a major source of IBM profits and the cheaper Honeywell 200 threatened to sweep the low_end market for data processing machines.
When Amdahl and Brooks decided that they could no longer work with each other, Evans solved the problem by keeping Amdahl as the main system designer and Brooks moved over to head the difficult job of creating a new operating system for the System/360. Initially, the designers of the operating system chose to create four different operating systems, for different sizes of machines, to be labeled I, II, III, and IV. This plan based on Roman numerals, which did not include compatibility between the different systems, was canceled in early 1964 because it conflicted with the goal of system compatibility. The resulting OS/360 proved to be a difficult challenge, and even after the System/360 was announced in April 1964, the operating system was too full of bugs to be released. Part of the reason that the operating system fell behind is that IBM did not charge for software and thus thought of itself primarily as a hardware vendor, not a software vendor. But the OS/360 experience showed that software was becoming more important and IBM executives paid more attention to software efforts thereafter. In the decade from 1960 to 1969, the fraction of total research and development efforts at IBM devoted to software rose from one_twentieth to one_third.
Brooks had wanted to retire and go to work at a university, but remained another year to help work the bugs out of OS/360. His experiences with this project led him to write a book The Mythical Man_Month: Essays on Software Engineering in 1975, which became a classic treatise in the field. A man_month is how much work a person can do in a month. If a task is said to take 20 man_months, then one person must work twenty months, or ten people must work two months. As the OS/360 project fell behind, IBM added more programmers to the project, which bloated the size of the teams, making communications between team members more complex, and actually increasing the difficulty of completing the project. Brooks compared large programming projects to falling into a tar pit, and pointed out that programming should be a disciplined activity similar to engineering, with good process control, team work, and adherence to good design principles. Brooks also warned against the second system effect, where programmers who disciplined themselves on their first project relaxed and got intellectually lazy on their second project.
In 1965, after spending half a billion dollars on research and another five billion dollars on development, IBM shipped the first System/360 machine to a customer. Within a year, a deluge of orders forced IBM to dramatically expand their manufacturing facilities. By the end of 1966, a thousand System/360 systems were being built and sold every month. The company found that its gamble paid off, and the company increased its work force by fifty percent in the next three years to keep up with demand, reaching almost a quarter of a million employees. By the end of the decade, IBM dominated at least 70 percent of the worldwide computer market.
The System/360 achieved its goal of upward and downward compatibility, allowing programs written on one system to run on a larger or smaller system. Now standardized peripheral devices, such as printers, disk drives, and terminals, would work on any of the System/360 machines. By having more uniform equipment, IBM also reined in manufacturing costs. IBM had earlier used the same strategy to dominate the market for punched_card machines, making a uniform family of machines that came in different models.
The IBM engineers played it safe with the technology in the System/360, choosing to use solid logic technology (SLT), instead of integrated circuits. SLT used transistors in a ceramic substrate, a new technology that could be mass_produced more quickly. Though IBM advertized the System/360 as a third_generation computer, the technology remained clearly second generation. The System/360 standardized on eight bits to a word, making the 8_bit byte universal. The System/360 also provided the features necessary to succeed as both a business data processing computer and a number_crunching scientific computer. IBM priced their systems as base systems, then added peripherals and additional features as an extra cost. IBM did such a good job of creating standardized computers that some computers were built with additional features already installed, such as a floating_point unit, and shipped to customers with those features turned off by electronic switches. Some customers, especially graduate students at universities, turned on the additional features to take advantage of more than the university paid for.
In the interests of getting their project done faster, the OS/360 programmers chose not to include dynamic address translation, which allowed programs to be moved around in memory and formed an important foundation of time_sharing systems. IBM fixed this problem and some of the other technical problems in the System/360 series with its System/370 series, introduced in 1970, including adding dynamic address translation, which became known as virtual memory.
The IBM System/360 became so dominant in the industry that other computer manufacturers, such as the RCA Spectra 70 series, created their own compatible machines, competing with IBM in their own market with better service and cheaper prices. The British ICL 2900 series were System/360 compatible, as where the Riad computer series built behind the Iron Curtain for Soviet and Eastern European use.
After his instrumental role in designing the IBM 704, IBM 709, and the System/360, Gene M. Amdahl grew frustrated that IBM would not build even more powerful machines. IBM based its customer prices proportional to computer processing power and more powerful computers proved too expensive if IBM retained that pricing model. Amdahl retired from IBM in 1970 and founded his own company, Amdahl Corporation, to successfully build IBM_compatible processors that cost the same, but were more powerful and took up less space that comparable IBM machines. Amdahl made clones of IBM mainframes a decade before clones of IBM personal computers completely changed the personal computer market.
Birth of the Software Industry:
By the mid_1960s, a small but thriving software services industry existed, performing contracts for customers. One of these companies, Applied Data Research (ADR), founded in 1959 by seven programmers from Sperry Rand, was approached in 1964 by the computer manufacturer RCA to write a program to automatically create flowcharts of a program. Flowcharts are visual representations of the flow of control logic in a program and are very useful to designing and understanding a program. Many programmers drew flowcharts by hand when they first designed a program, but as the program changed over time, these flowcharts were rarely updated and became less useful as the changed program no longer resembled the original. After writing a flowcharting program, ADR asked RCA to pay $25,000 for the program. RCA declined on the offer, so ADR decided to call the program Autoflow and went to the hundred or so customers of the RCA 501 computer to directly sell the program to them. This was a revolutionary step, and resulted in only two customers, who each paid $2,400.
ADR did not give up. Realizing that the RCA market share was too small, the company rewrote Autoflow to run on IBM 1401 computers, the most prevalent computer at the time. The most common programming language on the IBM 1401 was called Autocoder, and Autoflow was designed to analyze Autocoder programming code and create a flowchart. This second version of Autoflow required that the programmer insert one_digit markers in their code indicating the type of instruction for each line of code. This limitation was merely an inconvenience if the programmer was writing a new program, but it was a serious impediment if the programmer had to go through old code adding the markers. Customers who sought to buy Autoflow wanted the product to produce flowcharts for old code, not new code, so ADR went back to create yet another version of Autoflow.
This third try found success. Now IBM 1401 customers were interested, though sales were constrained by the culture that IBM had created. Because IBM completely dominated the market and bundled their software and services as part of their hardware prices, independent software providers could not compete with free software from IBM, so they had to find market niches where IBM did not provide software. In the past, if enough customers asked, IBM always wrote a new program to meet that need and gave it away with free. Why should an IBM 1401 customer buy Autoflow when IBM would surely create the same kind of program for free? In fact, IBM already had a flowcharting program called Flowcharter, but it required the programmer to create a separate set of codes to run with Flowcharter, and did not examine the actual programming code itself.
Autoflow was clearly a superior product, but executives at ADR recognized the difficulty of competing against free software, so they patented their Autoflow program to prevent IBM from copying it. This led to the first patent issued on software in 1968, a landmark in the history of computer software. A software patent is literally the patenting of an idea that can only be expressed as bits in a computer, not as a physical device, as patents had been in the past.
ADR executives also realized that the company had a second problem. Computer programmers were used to sharing computer code with each other, freely exchanging magnetic tapes and stacks of punched cards. This made sense when software was free and had no legal value, but ADR could not make a profit if their customers turned around and gave Workflow away to their friends. Because there was no technical way to protect Autoflow from being copied, ADR turned to a legal agreement. Customers signed a three_year lease agreement, acquiring Autoflow like a piece of equipment, which they could use for three years before the lease must be renewed. With the success of the IBM System/360, ADR rewrote Autoflow again to run on the new computer platform. By 1970, several thousand customers used Autoflow, making it the first packaged software product. This success inspired other companies.
The next software product began as a file management system in a small software development company owned by Hughes Dynamics. Three versions, Mark I, Mark II, and Mark III, became increasingly more sophisticated during the early 1960s, running on IBM 1401 computers. In 1964, Hughes Dynamics decided to get out of the software business, but they had customers who used the Mark series of software and did not want to acquire a bad reputation by just abandoning those customers. John Postley, the manager who had championed the Mark software, found another company to take over the software. Hughes paid a software services firm called Informatics $38,000 to take their unwanted programmers and software responsibilities.
Postley encouraged Informatics to create a new version, Mark IV, that would run on the new IBM System/360 computers. He estimated that he needed half a million dollars to develop the program. With a scant two million dollars in annual revenue, Informatics could not finance such a program, so Postley found five customers willing to put up $100,000 each to pay for developing Mark IV. In 1967, the program was released, selling for $30,000 a copy. More customers were found and within a year over a million dollars of sales had been recorded, bypassing the success of the Autoflow product.
Informatics chose to lease their software, but for perpetuity, rather than a fixed number of years as ADR had chosen to do with Autoflow. This allowed Informatics to collect the entire lease amount up front, rather than over the life of the lease, as ADR did. This revision of the leasing model became the standard for the emerging industry of packaged software products. Informatics initially decided to continue to provide upgrades of new features and bug fixes to their customers free of charge, but that changed after four years and they began to charge for improvements and fixes to their own program, again setting the standard that the software industry followed after that.
Despite this small stirtings of a software industry, the computer industry was still about selling computer hardware. When the federal government looked at the computer industry, their anti_trust lawyers found an industry dominated by one company to the detriment of effective competition. Under pressure from an impending anti_trust lawsuit to be filed by the federal government, IBM decided in 1969 to unbundle its software and services from its hardware and sell them separately, beginning on January 1, 1970. This change created the opportunity for a vigorous community of software and service providers to emerge in the 1970s, competing directly with IBM. Even though IBM planned to unbundle their products, the federal government did file its anti_trust lawsuit on the final day of the Johnson presidential administration, and the lawsuit lasted for 18 years, a continual irritant distracting IBM management throughout that time. Eventually the lawsuit disappeared as it became apparent in the mid_1980s that IBM was on the decline and not longer posed a monopolistic threat.
An example of the effect of the IBM unbundling decision can be seen in the example of software for insurance companies. In 1962, IBM brought out their Consolidated Functions Ordinary (CFO) software suite for their IBM 1401 computer, which handled billing and accounting for the insurance industry. Large insurance companies created their own software, designing exactly what they needed. the CFO suite was aimed at smaller and medium_sized companies. Because application software was given away for free until 1970, other companies who wished to compete with IBM had to create application software also. Honeywell competed in serving the life insurance industry with their Total Information Processing (TIP) System, a virtual copy of IBM's CFO software. With the advent of the System/360, IBM brought out their Advanced Life Information System (ALIS) and gave it away to interested customers, though it was never as popular as the CFO product. After unbundling, literally dozens of software companies sprang up, offering insurance software. By 1972, 275 available applications were listed in a software catalog put out by an insurance industry association. Software contracters still dominated the emerging software industry, with 650 million dolalrs in revenue in 1970, as opposed to 70 million dollars in revenue for packaged software products in that same year.
Another type of computer services provider also emerged in the 1960s. In 1962, an IBM salesman, H. Ross Perot (1930_) founded Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in Dallas, Texas. The company bought unused time on corporate computers to run the data processing jobs for other companies. Not until 1965 did EDS buy its first computer, a low_end IBM 1401. EDS grew by developing the concept of what became known as outsourcing, which is performing the data processing functions for other companies or organizations. In the late 1960s, the new Great Society programs of Medicare and Medicaid required large amounts of records processing by individual states, and EDS grew quickly by contracting with Texas and other states to perform that function. Further insurance, social security, and other government contracts followed and by the end of the decade, the stock value of EDS had passed one billion dollars.