Chapter one introduction 1 Background to the Study



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RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

  • I am currently carrying out research on Motivation of Entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). I would appreciate your sincere response to the questions.

    To ensure accuracy and easy completion, the questions are simplified. Both close and open ended questions are used. You are expected to fill the open ended questions and tick good ( √ ) on the close ended questions as appropriate. Your response to these questions is an indication of your positive contribution to the economic development of the nation. All information supplied will be treated with high respect to protect your confidentiality.

    Thank you for your cooperation and God bless.


    CHINONYE OKAFOR

    PART I

    SECTION A

    ENTREPRENEUR’S PERSONAL BIO DATA

    1. Sex: (a) Male

    (b) Female

    3. Age


    (a) 15 – 20yrs

    (b) 21- 26 yrs

    (c) 31- 35yrs

    (d) 40 – 45yrs

    (e) 46 and above



    1. Highest educational qualification:

    (a) WASC/GCE

    (b) OND


    (c) HND/ BSc. .

    (d) MSc


    (e) Others specify --------------------------


    1. Marital Status:

    (a) Single

    (b) Married

    (c) Divorced

    (d) Widow




    1. No of Children:

    (a) 1

    (b) 2


    (c) 3

    (d) 4


    (e) 5 and above


    1. No of dependants:

    (a) 1

    (b) 2


    (c) 3

    (d) 4

    (e) 5 and above

    7. How old were you when you started this business? ---------------------------------------------

    8. How many years did you work for somebody before you started you own business -------

    9. Religion: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    10. State of origin -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    11. Local Govt. Area ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    12. State other businesses you are involved in ( if any ) (a)--------------------------------

    (b) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    13. How did you start your business (a) From the scratch (b) Purchased

    (c) Inherited (d) joined someone to start the business


    SECTION B

    1. Name of your business ----------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. Business location Address----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. What is the structure of your business? (eg Sole trader, Partnership etc.) ------------

    4. What is nature of your business? (eg. Trading, Manufacturing, Service etc.)--------

    5. Year of establishing the business-----------------------------------------------------------

    6. No of employees when the business started-----------------------------------------------

    7. No of employees currently serving --------------------------------------------------------

    8. How many branches does your business have? ------------------------------------------
    SECTION C

    ENTREPRENEUR’S BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS

    You are required to tick ( ) or circle your choice either Yes or No

    1.Are you the first in your nuclear family? YesNo2Are you the only child of your parents? YesNo3.Are your parents self employed? YesNo4.Does your educational background relate to your business? YesNo5.Have you worked for someone before? YesNo6.Did you start this business immediately you stopped working in the organization? YesNo7Does what you are doing now relate to your previous work? YesNo8.Is your former boss a man? YesNo9.Were you dissatisfied with your former place of work that you had to resign to start own business? YesNo10.Were you sacked from your former place of work? YesNo11.Is the business you are currently running your family business? YesNo12Are you the breadwinner of your family? YesNo13.Is it your mentor/role model that encouraged you to start this business? YesNo14.Is it your desire to earn more or extra income that pushed you into business? YesNo15.Did you receive training related to the business before you started it? YesNo16.Are you the owner of the building where your business is located? YesNo17.Is this type of business peculiar to your family members? YesNo18.Did you start this business because you wanted to be closer to your family? YesNo19.Did you participate in your family business when you were younger? YesNo




    PART 11

    The questions in this part are designed using a simple format from (Strongly Agree) to (Strongly Disagree). You are required to tick ( ) on your choice among the alternatives provided.



    SECTION A

    ENTREPRENEURS’ PERCEPTION

    S/NoQuestionsStrongly AgreeAgreeUndecidedDisagreeStrongly Disagree1.I enjoy taking risk.543212. I enjoy pursuing moderate difficult goals543213.I believe I have control over my business resources through my own efforts.543214.My tolerance for ambiguity is very high543215.I have the strength and energy required

    For This business that I am doing.543216..I am highly creative and innovative.543217.My desire to build up equity for

    retirement made me to start this business.543218.I started the business because I obtained loan from the bank.543219.I can easily find customers for my

    product/service.5432110.I was not challenged by the work that I

    was doing this led me into starting this

    business.5432111.My desire to be my own boss led me into starting this business.5432112.My need for independence made me to start my own business.5432113.My desire for Self esteem led me into starting my own business.5432114.I desired self confidence hence I have to start my own business.5432115My competitive nature pushed me to start this business.5432116.My Proactiveness pushed me to start this business.5432117.I wanted to have self achievement by having my own business.5432118.I have the skills required for business, this encouraged me to start this business .5432119.Desire to earn an extra income encouraged

    Me to start this business.5432120.I started my own business because I

    wanted to be more involved in my family

    decision making.5432121.Desire for a change of career led me into

    this Business5432122.I could no longer cope combining my

    former job with my family affairs, this led

    me into starting this business.5432123.Desire to leave business as a legacy made

    me To start this business.5432124.Desire for self fulfillment made me to

    start this business. 5432125.Desire to advance in my career made me

    to start this business.5432126Issues of gender discrimination in the

    labour market made me to start this

    business.5432127.Desire for social recognition led me into

    starting business.5432128.I could not get job, hence I had to start my

    own business.5432129.Desire to experience business

    rowth/successmade me to start business.5432130.Desire to experience business

    growth/success made me to start business.54321

    SECTION B

    ENTREPRENEUR AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    S/NoQuestionsStrongly AgreeAgreeUndecidedDisagreeStrongly Disagree1Accessibility to finance required for my

    business encouraged me to start this

    business543212.Accessibility to labour for the business

    encouraged me to start this business.543213.Accessibility to my suppliers encouraged

    me To start this business.543214Accessibility to the market encouraged

    Me to start this business.543215.A conducive environment encouraged me

    to start this business. 543216.I wanted to make contribution to my

    Community, this led me to start this

    business.543217.I started the business because of availability of support services such as; incubators etc.543218.I started this business because I wanted to be involved in job creation in Nigerian economy.543219.Nobody is doing this type of business in my community that is why I started it. 5432110Accessibility to networking /association

    on this type of business encouraged me to

    start it5432111I would have still being in business

    even if I was not making enough

    profit.5432112.Accessibility to my customers

    encouraged me To start this business.5432113.My friends are into this type of business.5432114.The uncertainty of Nigerian business

    Environment led me into to this business.5432115I did not want to be among the

    Unemployed, hence I started this business.5432116.My movement into the city encouraged me to start this business.5432117.Deregulation policy encouraged me to

    start is business.5432118.Desire to take advantage of positive

    business opportunity made me to start

    business.5432119.Accessibility to electricity encouraged me

    to start this business.5432120.Accessibility to good road encouraged me

    to start this business.5432121.Accessibility to my transportation

    encouraged Me to start this business.54321

    SECTION C

    MOTIVATION AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    S/NoQuestionsStrongly AgreeAgreeUndecidedDisagreeStrongly DisagreeIMy business financial investment has so

    much improved because of my personal

    inputs into the business.543212My return on share earnings has

    tremendously improved because of my

    competence and involvement in

    investment decisions making.543213.Due to my cost consciousness (financial

    skill), my company has saved a lot of

    money.543214.Our competitiveness in the market is

    improving because of my application of

    marketing skill to my business.543215My business has expanded, because I

    put In more hours in my own business.543216.My business profitability has increased

    because of my involvement in the

    business 543217.My personal income has increased

    because of my involvement in the

    business543218.My business revenues have increased

    because of my involvement in the

    business54321

    SECTION D

    CHALLENGES TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT

    S/NoQuestionsStrongly AgreeAgreeUndecidedDisagreeStrongly Disagree1.I anticipated competition, and

    customers’ complaints before I started

    this business. 543212.Lack of access to finance have been

    my major challenge since I started

    this business.543213I am facing financial challenge

    because of my lack of financial skill

    before I started this business.543214.I am facing these challenges because of the nature of business that I am into.543215.The rate of labour turnover in my business is high because I did not consider it as a problem before starting my business.543216.One of the challenges I am facing in business is sexual harassment from the opposite sex.543217.The role I play in my family is a challenge to my business.543218.The challenges facing women entrepreneurs motivated me to start this business54321

    SECTION E

    CHALLENGES TO WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Please rank the following challenges in the order they have affected your business.

    S/NoQuestionsRanking 1.Combining family responsibilities and work is my problem 2.Lack of access to finance for business expansion have been my

    major challenge3No one is advising me on business issues4.Gaining acceptance in the market and respect of my customers5.No opportunity for training/upgrading skills is my problem6.Lack of support and assistance7.Lack of access to information and technology8.Finding right contacts/networking is a challenge to me9. I am facing the problem of sexual harassment from the opposite sex10.Coping with competition is my problem11High rent/tenement rates is affecting my business12Customer complaints is affecting my business13.Inconsistency in electricity/other power facilities has been my problem14.Too much of government regulations and levies is affecting my business15.Gender discrimination in the industry is a challenge to my business16.Amount of time and energy required for this business is a challenge to me17.My husband does not like this kind of business I am doing. 18.Unfavourable economic conditions such as inflation, taxes,


    SECTION F

    MOTIVATION AND ENTREPRENEUR’S CHOICE OF BUSINESS

    S/NoQuestionsStrongly AgreeAgreeUndecidedDisagreeStrongly DisagreeII chose this type of business because it will enable me to achieve self independence543212I chose this business because it will enable

    me to be involved in the family decision

    making process.543213.I chose this business because it does not

    require too much capital to start.543214.I chose this business because I have

    personal Characteristics in line with this type of business.543215.The government is supporting this type of business that is why I started it.543216.I chose this type of business because it is

    the type of business most people around me

    do.543217.I chose this type of business because it is convenient for me as a woman.543218.I chose this type of business because the

    risk involved is relatively high.543219.I chose this type of business because it does

    not require too many employees to run it.5432110I started this type of business because it is

    peculiar to women.5432111.I started this type of business because I

    wanted to prove that I can do what a man

    can do.5432112.I chose this type of business because it is peculiar to my family.5432113.I chose this business because it will improve my quality of life.5432114.I chose this type of business because the registration process is very easy.54321


    SECTION G

    ENTREPRENEUR’S OPINION ON BUSINESS
    1. What are your challenges since you started this business?


    1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. How do you think these challenges will be solved?

    1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. What are the five (5) main things that motivated you into entrepreneurship that can act as motivating factors to other women in Nigeria?

    1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. What are your advices to Nigerian women entrepreneurs?

    1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    4. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    5. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    PART 111

    BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    1 Estimated value of Initial capital at the

    commencement of the business

    (a) Below N50,000

    (b) N50,999 – N100,000

    (c) N100,999 – N150,000

    (d) N1500,999 – N200,000

    (e) N200,999 and Above

    2. Estimated value of present capital

    (a) Below N1m

    (b) N1m – N5, 000,000

    (c) N5, 999, 999 – N10, 000,000

    (d) N10, 999,999 – N15, 000,000

    (e) N15, 999,999 and Above

    3. Estimate of initial annual sales/turnover

    (a) Below N50,000

    (b) N50,999 – N100,000

    (c) N100,999 – N150,000

    (d) N1500,999 – N200,000

    (e) N200,999 and Above

    4. Estimate of current annual sales/turnover

    (a) Below N10m

    (b) N10m – N20, 000,000

    (c) N20, 999, 999 – N30, 000,000

    (d) N30, 999,999 – N40, 000,000

    (e) N44, 999,999 and Above


    5. What percentage(%) of your investment

    represents your annual profit at the

    commencement of the business.

    (a) Less 10%

    (b) 10% - 20%

    (c) 20% - 30%

    (d) 30% - 40%

    (e) 40% and Above


    6. What percentage(%) of your

    investment represents your current

    profit at the commencement of the business.

    (a) Less 10%

    (b) 10% - 20%

    (c)20% - 30%

    (d) 30% - 40%

    (e) 40% and Above


    7. Estimate of initial annual total expenditure

    (a) Below N50,000

    (b) N50,999 – N100,000

    (c) N100, 999 – N150,000

    (d) N200, 999 – N250,000

    (e) N300, 999 and Above

    8. Estimate of the current annual

    total expenditure

    (a) Below N500, 000

    (b) N500, 999 – N1, 000,000

    (c) N1, 999,999 – N1, 500,000

    (d) N2, 999, 999 – N2, 500,000

    (e) N2, 500,999 and Above

    9. What is the estimated value of the

    total fixed assets of your business?

    (a) Below N10m

    (b) N10m – N20, 000,000

    (c) N20, 999, 999 – N30, 000,000

    (d) N30, 999,999 – N40, 000,000

    (e) N44, 999,999 and Above

    10. Estimated number of hours you

    put in your business daily

    (a) 6hrs

    (b) 7hrs

    (c) 8hrs

    (d) 9hrs

    (e) 10hrsand above


    11. What is the number of hours you

    used to put in your former place

    of work daily?

    (a) 6hrs

    (b) 7hrs

    (c) 8hrs

    (d) 9hrs

    (e) 10hrsand above


    12. Where did you get the capital you

    used in starting your business

    (a) Savings

    (b) Bank loan

    (c) Borrowing from friends

    (d) Borrowing from relations



    (e) Others specify ----------

    Appendix Two

    Sample of Interview Guide

    Women Entrepreneurship Interview Guide

    1. What is the name of your business?

    2. When did you start this business?

    3. Is any body in your family or community doing this type of business?

    4. Why did you choose this type of business?

    5. How much did you start this business with?

    6. How many employees do you currently have in your business?
    7. Are you the owner of the building where your office is located?


    8. Have you worked for some one before?

    9. Have you done this kind of business before you started your own business?

    10. Did you start this business because you needed an extra income?

    11. What are the factors that motivated you into this business?

    12. How will you rate your performance in your business since you started it?

    13. What is the value of your total assets?

    14. Is your business been negatively affected by any of the government policies?

    15. What is the estimate of your annual expenditure?

    16. What is the value of your annual tax?

    17. What are the major challenges you are facing in your business?

    18. Are these challenges related to your reason(s) of starting business?

    19. Are these challenges peculiar to other women business?

    20. In what way(s) do you think these challenges will be solved?



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