(Jim Baker, Billy Beyer, Chris Borglum, Sean Platzer)
Tossups Frank Kermode contends that the repeated use of forms of the word “equivocate” in this work, which at the time could mean a priest’s license to lie under torture, are further proof of its surreptitious commentary on the Gunpowder Plot. Coleridge criticized this work for its lack of punning, especially in relation to the author’s other works, while Graham Bradshaw uses the protagonist’s statement that his mind is “full of scorpions” as evidence that his marriage is normative. T.S. Eliot first illustrated his interpretation of the objective correlative by describing the state of mind of the protagonist’s wife during her Act V sleepwalking. An 1823 commentary of this work analyzes an event at the end of Act II, Scene ii, saying the character’s crimes have created a “hell in him” and it is “into this hell we are to look.” That event, which was analyzed by Thomas DeQuincey, was the “knocking at the gate in,” FTP, what tragedy by Shakespeare that ends with Macduff beheading the titular Scot.
Anthony Saunders and Ingo Walter studied the conflict of interest associated with this act, and A. G. Becker was the plaintiff in a court case involved with resolving disputes associated with it. The phrase "engaged principally" in Section 20 has been reinterpreted to allow some previously prohibited activities. Support for it came from a New York City prosecutor named Ferdinand Pecora, and one of its namesakes was a Virginia Senator who later served as Truman's Secretary of the Treasury. Part of it was dubbed Regulation Q, but was repealed by a 1980 act, and other provisions of it were repealed by the 1999 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. An act which established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, FTP, name this 1933 piece of legislation dealing with bank reform.
ANSWER: Glass-Steagall Act
In their namesake walls, hypothesized to exist in the CGC matter state, they are disordered and do not change position rapidly because of time dilation effects. Not treated as field lines in the Lund string model, they were first detected as three-jet events during deep inelastic scattering experiments with PETRA II at DESY. A collection of these, an example of which may be fJ(1710), may demonstrate the mass gap associated with Yang-Mills theory. Though normally confined, they may behave as free particles in a high temperature plasma along with quarks. Corresponding to the Gell-Mann matrices, the eight different types of these massless, spin 1, gauge bosons possess a degree of freedom known as color. FTP, name these particles that mediate the strong force between hadrons.
In one poem in this collection, a voice declares that a place with sand, heat, and a vacant horizon "is no desert," and another poem describes a man who "saw a ball of gold in the sky." In its twentieth poem, a man says "I know the way;" but that poem ends with the line "I am lost." Other free-form poems describe "little blades of grass" that stand "before God," and "three little birds in a row" who sit musing and nudge each other to laugh at a man, declaring “He thinks he can sing.” After that, a creature squats in the desert and eats his heart, which is bitter, but he likes it that way. The title piece describes “clang and clang of spear and shield, and clash and clash of hoof and heel.” Published four years before its author’s War Is Kind, the first line of its first poem describes the titular people who "came from the sea." FTP, name this first and most famous poetry collection by Stephen Crane.
According to Apollodorus, this mythological figure buried Ascalaphus beneath a rock in Hades; when Heracles freed him, this figure turned him into an owl. After a foolish act by King Erisychthon, she tormented him with an unending hunger leading him to eventually devour his own flesh. She lent her chariot, pulled by winged dragons, to the mortal Triptolemus, who was the brother of a boy she allowed to be burned to death. That figure, Demophon, was the son of Metanira and Celeus, at whose home this deity stayed in the guise of an old woman named Doso while she searched for her child. The mother of the horse Arion with Poseidon, FTP, name this Olympian who, with her brother Zeus, was the mother of Persephone.
This writer called the differences between his own rotary club and the Business Men’s Association of Harlem “imperceptible” in his article “The Dilemma of Social Pattern,” which also suggests that blacks can challenge the dominant culture through their “emotional qualities.” His contention regarding the use of pebbles for counting and census taking in Dahomey has been mostly discredited, but his coining of the term “socialized ambivalence” in reference to Haitian cultural behavior has had more lasting impact. He’s best known for a book in which he debunked the titular false belief that the Black Man in America is a “man without a past,” a work that helped him establish the first chair in African Studies at an American university. FTP name this cultural anthropologist associated with Northwestern University, the author of The Myth of the Negro Past.
ANSWER: Melville Herskovits
Grove Gilbert studied this phenomenon at Lake Bonneville. The value 2-pi-G-rho-h, which is known as the Bouguer correction, is an anomaly related to it. A model for it developed by Heiskanen was a compromise between earlier models, while a regional model was later formulated by Veining Meinesz. The previous models, which assumed uniform density or thickness were developed by Airy and Pratt. Coined in name by Clarence Dutton, its most accepted model was proposed by Hayford and Bowie and states that the depth of compensation is 70 miles. Caused in part by the dense mantle, it leads to the forces that elevate landmasses balancing the forces that depress landmasses. FTP, name this equilibrium in the Earth's crust.
ANSWER: isostasy or isostasis or isostatic model
In this work, one character says Silvio should "be my touchwood," following some laughter from the description of a horse that "reels from the tilt often." The title character is called "an excellent feeder of pedigrees" and her twin brother is diagnosed with lycanthropia. Part of Act V is set in a church graveyard and includes the Echo Scene, and its fourth act includes the Madmen's Scene. One character named Julia is killed with a poisoned Bible, and the servant Cariola dies by strangling, while another character is forced to look at a severed hand and some fake corpses. Based on William Painter's The Palace of Pleasure, it ends with the accidental murder of Antonio instead of the Cardinal by the slave Bosola. The titular noblewoman marries below her rank in, FTP, what tragedy by John Webster?
ANSWER: The Duchess of Malfi
His practices of incest and bestiality were discussed in a recent Henry Adams book entitled this artist Revealed. His works of North American Indians include “Moose Hunt" and “Mourning Her Brave," and a trip to North Dakota provided the clothing worn by the main figure in his work Home Ranch. One work by this artist was commissioned by Edward Hornor Coates, but was later exchanged for a less controversial work entitled The Pathetic Song. That controversial work, which depicted his dog Harry, the artist himself treading water, and a group of naked boys on a stone at Mill Creek, was entitled The Swimming Hole. FTP, name this artist who used the Schuylkill River and Jefferson Medical College as the settings of his paintings Max Schmitt in a Single Scull and The Gross Clinic.
ANSWER: Thomas Eakins
The Dar al-adl, or house of justice, built by this ruler no longer stands, but the wall he ordered built still separates the Citadel into the Northern and Southern enclosures. An accomplice in the assassination of Turan Shah, he previously led the Bahriyya regiment’s defeat of French forces under Louis IX at al-Mansurah. A taunting letter to Bohemund VI followed this ruler’s razing of Antioch in 1268, which made his sultanate the target of the Ninth Crusade, though he eventually signed treaties with Bohemund and Edward Longshanks. He came to power after assassinating the sultan Qutuz, after the renowned victory over Kitbuqa at the Battle of Ain Jalut. FTP, name this Kipchack Turk, the fourth sultan of the Mamelukes from 1260 to 1277.
ANSWER: Baybars I or al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baybars al-Salihi (prompt on Abu al-Fituh)
This movement was greatly influenced by the writings of Henri de Lubac and Yves Congar. At a 1964 meeting in what was then called Petropolis, a call for personal engagement in world affairs and greater studies in social and political sciences for ecclesiastical scholars was made, and at a 1969 conference in Cartigny, Switzerland, a manifesto gave this movement its name. Supported early on by men like Leonardo Boff, a criticism by Bernard Ratzinger of this movement’s main founder, the Peruvian Gustavo Gutierrez, centered on his emphasis of ritual over orthodoxy and his unquestioning acceptance of Marxist precepts. Including groups like the Christian Socialist Movement and centered mostly in Third-World countries, FTP, name this movement which emphasizes the role of Christianity in providing social justice.
ANSWER: liberation theology
The formulator of this term differentiated it from two similar cases by describing one as “assertoric,” or impelled by the goal of happiness, and the other as “problematic,” as its ends are optional. Habermas objected to this concept because it allows for monological justification of norms as opposed to societal determinations. Derek Parfit’s application of it to the Prisoner’s Dilemma contends that the optimal result is both players’ cooperating and remaining silent. The idea of “defeasibility of duty” formulated by J.S. Mill counters this idea by stating that it provides no guidelines by which to determine the relative importance of moral acts when faced with conflicting duties. Its formulator countered Benjamin Constant’s famous argument against it with his short essay “On a Supposed Right to Tell Lies from Benevolent Motives.” FTP, name this central tenet of the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
ANSWER: categorical imperative
This author's use of realism is discussed in the essay "Farewell to Jane Austen." One poem by this author describes an arch that was built too low, which led to a melon becoming king, and his poetry collections include All You Who Sleep Tonight and The Humble Administrator's Garden. One novel by this man was inspired by his relationship with violinist Philippe Honoré, and another includes a character who "still bears the scars of Middlemarch." In addition to the memoir Two Lives, he created a character named Phil who works at Lungless Labs, in a novel consisting of 690 sonnets. Also the author of the collection Mappings, his most famous work is set in Brahmpur and centers on Rupa Mehra's attempt to find the title character for her daughter Leta. FTP, name this Indian author of An Equal Music, The Golden Gate, and A Suitable Boy.
ANSWER: Vikram Seth
A View from the 20th Century of it is the subject of a work by Kaufman Burton, and it is paired with the Cold War in a work by Edward Pessen. Paragraph 29 of it concerns education and states that "It is essential that public opinion should be enlightened." It uses the metaphor of a "fire not to be quenched" that "demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame." First printed in the American Daily Advertiser, it is recited as part of a Senate event every February. It includes the famous line "Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country," and warned against permanent foreign alliances and political factions. FTP, name this famous speech that was actually written as a letter by an outgoing US President.
ANSWER: George Washington's Farewell Address [accept equivalents]
The first example of this class of compounds was accidentally synthesized by Kealy and Pauson while trying to make fulvalene. Jerome Maynadie used acetonitrile to convert the bent type of them into the first linear type with an f-element, and types of these compounds containing an intramolecular bridge between two of its components are dubbed the ansa variety. These compounds are often named for Kaminsky when combined with a methyl-alumin-oxane promoter, in which form they can catalyze reactions via the same mechanism as Ziegler-Natta catalysts to create olefin polymers of specific tacticity. Often containing zirconium or iron, FTP identify these compounds that consist of two cyclo-penta-di-enyl ligands bound to a central transition metal ion in a sandwich-like manner, whose prototypical example is ferrocene.
In this work, the ancient Egyptian concept of the “ka” is compared with the Mesopotamian “ili” as manifestations of the title theory. A carving from the Memphite Theology depicting Khnum forming a king with his right hand and the king’s ka with his left is meant to show the lateralization for which this work argues. Its first book states that the title phenomenon is “Not a Copy of Experience,” nor is it a necessary prerequisite for reasoning. The lack of description of subjective states in The Iliad is presented as evidence of the titular state that may have been enervated by the rise of writing, the recognition of internal motivations in the actions of others, and evolutionary factors. Positing an early state of human cognition divided between “speaking” and auditory functions, FTP, name this controversial 1975 work presenting a theory of the beginnings of human self-awareness, written by Julian Jaynes.
ANSWER: TheOrigin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
One of these admonishes the “forest people” to behave properly. Another urges magistrates in Tosali to be impartial, a skill that will be evaluated by the ruler’s emissaries every fifth year. The author in another insists on being interrupted even while eating or in the bedchambers if state business requires his attention. The one known as the “Schism” in English orders the defrocking of monks who deviate from the common form of the uposatha ceremony and is replicated in Sanchi, Sarnath, and Allahabad. Addressing himself as Piyadassi, the author states in one that eight years after his coronation he came to love the dhamma, this after his remorse for conquering and deporting the Kalinga. Written in Magadhi, Sanskrit, Greek and Aramaic, FTP, name these proclamations inscribed in stone in the middle of the third century BC by a Mauryan ruler.
ANSWER: edicts of Asoka (accept “Rock Edicts” and “Pillar Edicts”)
John Bennet's Weep, O Mine Eyes was an homage to John Dowland's composition of this type, and Paul Creston's Opus 89 consists of twelve variations of this type. The fourth movement of the John Adams composition John's Book of Alleged Dances features one of these subtitled "She’s so Fine." A famous work of this type in F-sharp minor by Faure begins with the melody being played by a solo flute against some pizzicato strings. The best known musical composition of this type was originally a six-minute piano work dedicated to Winaretta Singer, but is often performed by an orchestra and begins with a French horn solo. The dance of this variety was adapted from the basse, and was often paired with a galliard in Spanish courts before being superseded by the courante. FTP, name this type of stately court dance that was popular during the 16th century, whose name appears in a composition by Maurice Ravel written for "a Dead Princess."
These cells are associated with Lyn and Syk tyrosine protein kinases, and they are influenced by TSLP in the embryonic liver. The genetic disorder Bruton's XLA is caused by an error in their development, and their activator protein is Pax-5, which induces the expression of their namesake linker protein. CD19, CD81, and CR2 make up their namesake co-receptor complex, and there are early and late types of their pro variety, which is distinguished by the expression of the IL-7 receptor. Numerous in the follicular cortex, they can also be divided into conventional and CD5 plus types, the latter of which are self-renewing. As part of humoral immunity, they can be differentiated into plasma cells. FTP, name this type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and produces antibodies.
ANSWER: B cells [or B lymphocytes]
This author argued that fiction provides more truthful depictions of events than standard histories in essays such as “Historical Characters Are False Representations of Nature” and “The Difference between History and Romance." His final novel describes, in epistolary form, a woman who falls in love with the poet Henry Colden, a devotee of William Godwin, but must conquer the objections of her aunt Mrs. Fielder. Previous to Jane Talbot, in another novel this author describes a villainously intelligent title figure who is “the secret witness” to Constantia Dudley’s affairs. In an earlier work, subtitled “Memoirs of a Sleep Walker," the title character tries to determine whether Clithero murdered Waldegrave. Better known than Ormond and Edgar Huntly is a novel in which Theodore misinterprets the voices of the ventriloquist Carwin and ends up killing his own wife and children. FTP, name this early American author of Wieland.
ANSWER: Charles Brockden Brown
Together with Milne, he is the namesake of an integral equation that describes an isotropically scattering medium, and his namesake distribution function is a solution to the collision-less Boltzmann equation in the epicycle approximation. The vertical temperature gradient is greater than the adiabatic temperature gradient according to his namesake criterion which describes the stability in gravitationally bound plasma. His coordinate system can be used to describe a static and spherically symmetric spacetime such as his famous solution to the vacuum Einstein field equations. FTP, identify this namesake of a value equal to 2GM over c-squared, which is the radius to which an object would need to be compressed in order to become a black hole.
ANSWER: Karl Schwarzschild
One language spoken in this country is Yazgulyam, which is a member of the Iranian linguistic family, and during the 1970s, the Sogdian-speaking Yaghnobi ethnic group of this country was forcefully migrated. The city of Khorugh is the capital of an autonomous region in this country, whose southeastern border is the Panj River. This country's smallest province, Khatlon, is home to the world's highest hydroelectric station, which is located on the Vakhsh River. Its tallest point is located near Fedchenko Glacier in the Akademiya Nauk Range of the Pamir Mountains and is named Ismoili Somoni Peak. FTP, name this smallest of the former Soviet republics, with its capital at Dushanbe.
ANSWER: Republic of Tajikistan [also accept Tadzhikistan]
One character in this opera describes his daughter as "Pura siccome un angelo" and another performs "Noi siamo zingarelle" at Flora's house. In the last scene of this opera, a trip is planned in the aria "Parigi, o cara." Earlier in this opera, the joys expressed in "De' miei bollenti spiriti" are short-lived after the singer learns from the maid Annina that the title character has sold some jewelery. Baron Douphol challenges the male lead to a duel, shortly after the elder Germont and his son sing "Di Provenza il mar." Dr. Grenvil looks over the title character, who faints in the arms of Flora, but had earlier joined Alfredo in the drinking song "Libiamo, ne' lieti calici." FTP, name this Verdi opera in which Violetta succumbs to consumption.
ANSWER: La Traviata
Before ascending to the throne, King Hans was forced to add to the charter of this entity the principle of jus resistendi, or the legal removal of an unjust tyrant. Formal recognition of Hans in one member state was put off for sixteen years by the maneuverings of the elder Sten Sture. This polity was weakened by earlier rebellions led by Amund Bolt in one member and Engelbrekt in another, leading to the deposition of its monarch, Eric of Pomerania. The struggle between Archbishop Gustav Strolle and Sten Sture the Younger provided Christian II the chance to regain full control of this entity by invading the capital of one member, culminating in the beheading of 80 nobles known as the Stockholm Bloodbath. Gustav Vasa’s accession to the throne presaged the final dissolution of, FTP, what 1397-1521 political merger of the kingdoms of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark?
ANSWER: Kalmar Union
Bonuses He described a woman’s anorexia and “tomb world” in the article “The Case of Ellen West.” FTPE:
 Name this author of “Dream and Existence,” a Swiss pioneer of existential psychology in the early 20th century.
ANSWER: Ludwig Binswanger
 Binswanger designated his own practice as analysis by this term he borrowed from Heidegger, which can represent “being-in-the-world.”
ANSWER: dasein or daseinanalyse
 This 1943 work was Binswanger’s magnum opus. It differentiates between “togetherness” and “being-with,” and presents the fullest account of Binswanger’s dasein-analyse.
ANSWER: The Foundations and Cognition of Human Existenceor Grundformen und Erkenntnis Menschlichen Daseins
A letter was written to this group in 1802 describing the “wall of separation between church and state,” which explains why President Thomas Jefferson chose not to proclaim national days of fasting and thanksgiving. FTPE:
 Name this religious association in Connecticut.
ANSWER: Danbury Baptist Association
 Hugo Black cited Jefferson’s phrase in a majority opinion in this 1947 case that allowed a New Jersey school district to continue paying for student transport to private schools.
ANSWER: Everson v. Board of Education of the Township of Ewing, et al
 Influenced by the neutrality concept instituted by the Everson case, the Court established a three-prong test often named for the plaintiff of this 1971 case that invalidated reimbursement to non-public schools by a state government.
ANSWER: Lemon v. Kurtzman
With his father Kan’ami, he founded the Kanze school and was patronized by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. FTPE:
 Name this 14th and 15th-century playwright, the author of Atsumori, Hanjo, and Hagoromo, or The Feather Mantle.
ANSWER: Zeami Motokiyo
 Zeami’s Fushi Kaden is considered the major treatise establishing the classic form of this Japanese theatrical form.
ANSWER: Noh or Nogaku
 This “woman play” by Zeami depicts a priest who sees a village woman with flowers and water tending a grave by the title object, and she tells him the love story of Narihira, but turns out to be the ghost of the man buried there.
ANSWER: Izutsu or TheWell Curb or The Well Urn or The Well Head
Answer the following about Matt Weiner's freakishly large head FTPE.
 Matt has a big one of these structures, the term for the white matter in his cerebellum. Its name, in Latin, comes from its distinctive shape.
ANSWER: arbor vitae [prompt on "tree of life"]
 Name either of the two cranial bones that do NOT also name brain lobes. The wedge-shaped one is found at the base of Matt Weiner's skull, and the other is located near the root of his nose.
ANSWER: ethnoid or sphenoid cranial bones
 Major parts of this U-shaped bone include the alveolar process, the ramus, the corpus, and the condyle, the last of which articulates it to Matt Weiner's maxilla. It is commonly referred to as the jaw bone.
Identify these film theorists, FTPE.
 Russian filmmaker Denis Kaufmann used this name as the author of the essay “The Man with a Camera,” a title he later used for his experimental 1927 documentary; he called his camera the “Kino eye.”
ANSWER: Dziga Vertov
 This longtime French editor of Cahiers du Cinema was a proponent of mise en scene over montage, and championed Welles’ use of deep focus in Citizen Kane. His writings were collected in 1973’s posthumous What Is Cinema?
ANSWER: Andre Bazin
 This British feminist, the author of Death 24x a Second, described the dominance of the male gaze in traditional cinema in her landmark 1975 essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.”
ANSWER: Laura Mulvey
Its modern re-formulator argued that this concept was one way of differentiating mental and physical phenomena. FTPE:
 Name this characteristic of mental phenomena that describes the process of consciousness’s directing itself at an object in the mind.
 Intentionality was an idea taken from Scholastic philosophy by this modern thinker, who re-introduced it in his 1874 work Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.
ANSWER: Franz Brentano
 This student of Brentano took his teacher’s ideas about intentionality to the extreme in his theory of objects. He argued that even an object with intentional inexistence must exist, and that objects that don’t exist have the property of not existing, and are thus endowed with sosein, or character, if not sein, or being. The resulting group of half-existing things is sometimes dubbed this man’s “jungle.”
ANSWER: Alexius Meinong
He wrote a sestina in which Popeye “sits in thunder” and “scratches his balls.” FTPE:
 Name this American poet of “Landscape with Farm Implements and Rutabagas” who wrote the collections Some Trees and The Tennis Court Oath.
ANSWER: John Ashbery
 Ashbery is best known for this long ekphrastic poem, which begins, “As Parmagianino did it, the right hand/Bigger than the head, thrust at the viewer.”
ANSWER: “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror”
 Another ekphrastic poem of Ashbery’s is 1999’s Girls on the Run, a 55-page free verse meditation on the outsider artworks of this Chicago janitor, whose 15,000+-page epic on the Vivian girls was discovered upon his 1972 death.
ANSWER: Henry Darger
Since Andrew Yaphe's trash tournament will feature less meta this year, Chicago Open will have to pick up the slack. Name these compositions by Mozart, FTPE.
 Written for Anton Stadler, this final instrumental work is somewhat known for its Adagio second movement, but is certainly best known for appearing in Eric Kwartler’s favorite film, 27 Dresses, when Katherine Heigl's character confronts her sister at the boutique.
ANSWER: Clarinet Concerto in A major [also accept K. 622]
 Best known for being Kelli Wood's ring tone, this aria from The Magic Flute features the Queen of the Aria stating that "the vengeance of Hell boils in her heart," and commanding her daughter to kill Sarastro.
ANSWER: "Der Holle Rache Kocht In Meinem Herzen"
 Recently featured as a tossup answer in Round 11 of arguably the best quizbowl tournament named for a German philosopher, this work was intended to accompany a play of the same name by Kotzebue. Of its nine movements, the most famous is the fifth, which is a vivace Turkish March in B-flat major.
ANSWER: The Ruins of Athens [also accept Die Ruinen von Athen; or Opus 113]
He is the namesake of a quantum algorithm together with Richard Jozsa, the first quantum algorithm to perform strictly better than any classical one. FTPE:
 Name this physicist at the University of Oxford and author of The Fabric of Reality.
ANSWER: David Deutsch
 The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm makes heavy use of this operation which decomposes its input into Walsh functions.
ANSWER: Walsh-Hadamard Transform
 Devised by an Indian-American at Bell Labs in 1996, this other quantum algorithm can search an unsorted list with N elements in Big O of square root of N.
ANSWER: Grover's algorithm
Show off your knowledge of the history of Laos, FTPE.
 In 1353 Fa Ngum established this Laotian kingdom with royal residence in Vientiane; it split into three separate kingdoms in 1694.
ANSWER: Lan Xang
 One of the three kingdoms into which Lan Xang split was named for and centered on this ancient city in the Northwest which had once been known as Muang Sua. French colonial forces kept this city the capital of Laos until the communists took power in 1975.
ANSWER: Luang Prabang
 This communist group closely allied with the Viet Cong succeeded in ousting the French and the Lao royal family in 1975.
ANSWER: Pathet Lao
One player on this team is nicknamed Skip to My Lou. FTPE:
 Name this Rick Adelman-coached team, whose pseudo-superstars include the oft-injured Yao Ming and the perennial playoff choker Tracy McGrady.
ANSWER: HoustonRockets [accept either]
 The true superstar on the Rockets is this power forward originally drafted by the Spurs back in 2002. This Argentinian banger continued playing for TAU Ceramica until being traded to the Rockets last summer, in exchange for the even more exciting Vasileios Spanoulis.
ANSWER: Luis Scola
 With the 26th pick in the 2007 Draft, the Rockets selected this tiny point guard from Oregon.
ANSWER: Aaron Brooks
According to Lee Burger of the University of Witwatersrand, which interestingly is located in South Africa, an eagle killed it. FTPE:
 Name this skull that belonged to a three-year-old child, and was named for the site where it was found in 1924.
ANSWER: Taung Child
 Grafton Elliot Smith and Arthur Keith were the teachers of this Australian anthropologist and archaeologist, who investigated the Makapansgat Limeworks and first analyzed the skull of Taung Child.
 Taung Child was the first example of this early hominid species, which lived from 3.3 to 2.5 million years ago. An adult example known as STS 5 was discovered by Robert Blood and, although initially misclassified, is still nicknamed Mrs. Ples.
ANSWER: Australopithecus africanus
It essentially finished the First Coalition and gave France much of Northern Italy and what’s now Belgium. FTPE:
 Identify this 1797 treaty signed by Napoleon and Ludwig von Cobenzl, who represented Austria.
ANSWER: Treaty of Campo Formio
 The Austrians felt more pressure to sign Campo Formio after this September 4, 1799 coup, known by its date on the Revolutionary Calendar, which crushed a royalist attempt to gain power in the Directory and ousted Carnot, Barthelmy, Pichegru, and 50 other deputies.
ANSWER: Coup d’etat of 18 Fructidor
 Campo Formio formalized Austrian recognition of this French client state with its capital at Milan; it renamed itself the Italian Republic and declared Napoleon president in 1802.
ANSWER: Cisalpine Republic or Repubblica Cisalpina
Its value is often determined by expanding spheres, even though that has no physical meaning. FTPE:
 Name this constant that is a pseudo-infinite series dependent on geometrical arrangements, which can be calculated with direct summation in Evjen's method or via integral transforms in Ewald's method.
ANSWER: Madelung constant
 The Madelung constant is used to calculate the energy needed to break the bonds of a single ion in a crystal, which when summed for a mole of crystal gives this quantity, calculated experimentally via the Born-Haber cycle.
ANSWER: lattice energy
 This equation, based on the Born-Meyer equation, can calculate the lattice energy of an unknown structure because the Madelung constant divided by the number of ions in one formula unit of the structure is nearly constant.
ANSWER: Kapustinskii equation
One university in this city includes the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts. FTPE:
 Name this city that also is home to Alvar Aalto's Baker House and Frank Gehry's Stata Center.
ANSWER: Cambridge, Massachusetts
 This man designed the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, in addition to the Curutchet House in Argentina, which are his only two works located in the Americas.
ANSWER: Le Corbusier [also accept Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris]
 This Le Corbusier publication includes 19 short writings and paintings that are arranged in rows, which have associated titles and colors, such as "Environment-Green" and "Offering-Yellow."
ANSWER: The Poem of the Right Angle [accept Le Poeme de l'Angle Droit]
Nursed by a lioness, this brother of Marfisa is the ward of the magician Atlante. FTPE:
 Name this literary character who falls in love with Bradamante and kills Rodomonte in combat.
ANSWER: Ruggiero [accept Rogero]
 Ruggiero appears in two works by Boiardo and Ariosto that are named for this titular character, who is depicted as Innamorato and Furioso.
ANSWER: Alcina Answer the following about Billy Beyer's favorite pastime – sexual selection, FTPE.
 Used to measure the strength of sexual selection, this eponymous gradient introduced in a seminal 1948 paper is the slope of the best-fit line relating reproductive success to mating success.
ANSWER: Bateman gradient
 A.J. Bateman first measured the strength of sexual selection in this model organism with four chromosomes, whose Shaker mutants have defective potassium channels.
ANSWER: Drosophila melanogaster [accept Drosophila melanogaster; prompt on "fruit fly"]
 Another of Bateman's principles describes the differing amounts of energy put into reproduction between males versus females as a result of this term, meaning sperm and eggs are different sizes.
ANSWER: anisogamy [or heterogamy; accept word forms for either]
They enjoy the mead produced by the goat Heidrun. FTPE:
 Name these residents of Valhalla who belong to Odin's personal army.
ANSWER: Einherjar [also accept Einheriar]
 The Einherjar also enjoy the meat of the boar Saehrimnir, which is prepared in the pot Eldhrimnir by this divine cook, whom Susan Ferrari aspires to emulate.
 Exhilarating information concerning the eating habits of the Einherjar can be found in this first major section of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda, which is named for a Swedish king.
ANSWER: Gylfaginning [also accept Tricking of Gylfi; or Beguiling of Gylfi or Deluding of Gylfi, etc.]
This event was fictionalized in Cooper’s Littlepage Trilogy and in Melville’s Pierre. FTPE:
 Name this 1839-46 disturbance in which farmers in Albany County, New York, refused to pay long overdue debts owed on their land.
ANSWER: Anti-Rent War
 The origins of the Anti-Rent War can be traced to the 1839 death of this “last patroon” who had been lenient in forcing tenants to pay; his will directed that his debts be paid from past-due rents.
ANSWER: Stephen van Rensselaer III
 This New York governor made a militia out of the Albany sheriff’s posse to put down the first uprising and set up a commission to find redress for farmers’ grievances. Later in life, he lost the 1860 Republican presidential nomination to Lincoln and was nearly assassinated by Lewis Paine.
ANSWER: William H. Seward Name these female Catholic martyr-saints FTPE.
 Having consecrated her virginity to God, this woman refused to marry a non-Christian, who denounced her to the governor of Syracuse, whose guards stabbed her to death. For this, she was given the feast day of December 13, the shortest day of the Julian calendar.
Answer: St. Lucy or Lucia
 After this woman converted the wife of Maxentius, he ordered her broken on a spiked wheel, but when it fell apart upon her touch, he just cut off her head.
ANSWER: St. Catherine of Alexandria
 Subject of paintings by Tiepolo and Reni, when this woman rejected a Roman administrator, he ordered her breasts cut off before trying to have her burnt at the stake, but she survived to die in prison.