Child to Child Manual for Trainers Concern Ngara

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Child to Child Manual for Trainers

Concern Ngara

Tanzania

Hester Kapur

Table of Contents


Table of Contents 2

Introduction 3

Time Table 3

Introductions 5

Expectations 5

Selection of group leaders 5

What is Child to Child 6

Six Steps of Child to Child 7

Step 1: Group work 7

Step 2: Ideas for Change 9

Step 3: Choosing an issue 10

Step Four: Finding out more 10

Getting feedback from their investigations 11

Step Five: Planning and Taking Action 12

Drama Skills 13

Characterisation 13

Mime 14

Stage Direction and Planning 15



Designing a drama/focussing the message 16

Useful games/competitions 17

Music Workshop 18

Radio dramas 19

Community campaigns 20

Home visiting 20

Poems, Posters and other ideas 21

Action Plan 22

Step 6: Evaluation ‘Builder’ 22



Introduction

Objective: To train teachers, special educators and children in carrying out the child to child approach in schools and communities

The aim of this manual is to give trainers of teachers and children a step by step guide to introducing the Child to Child programme in their communities. This manual mirrors the training given by the Hygiene Promotion team, in February 2004 in Lukole A refugee camp, Ngara, Western Tanzania.

Time Table





Day 1




9.00 – 9.30

Introductions

9.30 – 9.45

Expectations

9.45 – 10.00

Selection of Leaders

10.00 – 10.30

What is Child to Child

10.30 – 11.00

Break

11.00 – 11.30

6 Steps of Child to Child

11.30 – 1.00

Step 1 – Group Skills

1.00 – 2.00

Lunch

2.00 – 3.45

Step 2 – Ideas for Change


3.45 – 4.00

Evaluation







Day 2




9.00 – 9.30

Review of Day 1

9.30 – 10.30

Step 3 – Choosing an Issue

10.30 – 11.00

Break

11.00 – 1.00

Step 4 – Finding out more

1.00 – 2.00

Lunch

2.00 – 3.45

Field Visit

3.45 – 4.00

Evaluation







Day 3




9.00 – 10.00

Feedback from visits – Review of Day 2

10.00 – 10.30


Step 5 – Plan and take action

10.30 – 11.00

Break

11.00 – 11.30

Presentation of Step 5

11.30 – 1.00

Drama Skills – Characterisation

1.00 – 2.00

Lunch

2.00 – 3.00

Mime

3.00 – 3.45

Stage Direction and planning

3.45 – 4.00

Evaluation







Day 4




9.00 – 9.15

Review of Day 3

9.15 – 10.30

Designing a drama – focusing a message

10.30 – 11.00

Break

11.00 – 1.00


Useful games and competitions

1.00 – 2.00

Lunch

2.00 – 3.45

Music workshop

3.45 – 4.00

Evaluation







Day 5




9.00 – 9.15

Review of Day 4

9.15 – 9.45

Radio Dramas

9.45 – 10.30

Community campaigns

10.30 – 11.00

Break

11.00 – 12.00

Home visiting

12.00 – 1.00

Poems, Posters and other ideas

1.00 – 2.00

Lunch

2.00 – 3.00

Action Plan


3.00 – 4.00

Evaluation and certificate giving

Introductions



Objective: To introduce the participants to each other and the facilitator
Time: 30 mins

Resources: None


People get into pairs, they have 10 minutes to find out about the other person. They introduce each other, telling the other participants, their name and what their special skills are that they bring to the training.

Expectations

Objective: To ensure that everyone knows what the course is about and any questions are answered


Time: 15 mins

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens, selotape




  1. The facilitator writes on a large piece of paper, ‘What are your expectations of this training course?’ on one side of the paper, write Hopes and the other Fears

  2. Give participants small pieces of paper and ask them to write one hope on one piece of paper and one fear on the other (if they have them).

  3. Collect the papers and stick the papers on the large paper, cluster them together in similar answers. Let people have a look at the comments.

  4. Discuss the answers. Try to reach a consensus about which are the basic ground rules. Also respond to the expectations that are not likely to be met.



Selection of group leaders

Objective: For the group to select leaders, who will help organise the training session. To feedback on specific problems and assist with the logistics of the training

Time: 15 minutes

Resources: None

The group nominates one leader for time keeping, one for note writing, and one for energisers.

What is Child to Child

Objective: To understand what child to child projects are all about.


Time: 30 minutes

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens




  1. Explain briefly what is C2C about i.e.

The Child-to-Child approach in health education sees children as partners in promoting better health, not only receiving or passing on adult messages.


It was introduced in 1978 to prepare for the year of the child. It was designed by a group of health and education professionals at the University of London, UK as a way for school children t learn about and pass on basic health messages to their peers and younger siblings. It is estimated that there have been 250 projects in 70 countries so far.
2. Ask the participants why we work with children, draw out the following answers from them:


  • Older children can help younger ones, by teaching them and showing them a good example

  • Children can help others of the same age as they learn from each other by doing things together.

  • Children who have been to school can help others who have not had the chance to do so.

  • Children can pass on health messages and take health action in their families and communities

  • They can work together to spread ideas and take action with the community

  • Children have contact with lots of people in the community to they can spread the messages to many.

  • Children learn quickly, and remember information easily, so they will be good at transmitting the messages.

  • Children will remember the good practices when they are older and teach their children good behaviour too.
  • Because it encourages children to work together for the good of others, they develop their self-respect and sense of worth.


  • The children become partners in improving health in the communities, it makes them more responsible.

3. Stress at the end of the session, that in this training we are all equal, the key to the Child to Child approach is that we work together with Children and listen to their ideas. It is very important that the adults are not directive or tell the children what to do, let them form their ideas and express themselves, as they know what will work in their communities.



Six Steps of Child to Child

Objective: To understand the six steps of child to child and what role children play in them.


Time: 30 minutes

Resources: Flip chart paper and pens


1. Explain the six steps of Child to Child.
The child to child approach consists of 6 steps:


Step 1

Group work

To build on the children’s group work experience. To explore issues such as trust and the value of listening to other’s points of view

Step 2

Our Ideas

To think about al the health issues we would like to see changes in our community

Step 3

Choosing an issue

To prioritise one or two issues that we feel are the most important to us.

Step 4

Finding out more

Finding out what information we already know and what additional information we would like to know.


Step 5

Planning an taking action

To decide how best to address the issue we have chosen e.g through using dramas, songs, community campaigns, house visits.

Step 6

Thinking it over

To evaluate the activities, and reflect on what we have learned, what we have achieved and what we would like to do differently next time.



Step 1: Group work

Objective: To learn what makes a group work well together


Time: 2 hours

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens, small pieces of paper,


Feelings cards


  1. On flip chart paper write:

I wish that…

If I was an animal I would be a….

I’m really good at…

I’m don’t like…


  1. Break into small groups (of about 5-6) by school. Give everyone a piece of paper and a pen. On the paper write the answers to the questions:




  1. Ask the participants to get into pairs and discuss their answers with each other.




  1. Then your partner introduces you everyone in the small group.



  1. In plenary, ask them what they have learnt about working together i.e. the importance of listening to each other, learning things about each other, that different people have different skills, that every one has something to offer and contribute to the project.

Charades



  1. Ask everyone to get into the same groups.




  1. Give every group a mime e.g. a house, a car, a motorcycle, a field of maize, a boat, a tree, a goat, and give them 10 minutes to practice being that thing.




  1. Ask each group in turn to act out there thing and have the other groups guess what they are.




  1. In plenary, refer back to the feelings cards, and the charades, ask what helped the groups work well together? What was missing when they weren’t working well together? What do they think are the most important things for a group to do to work well together? Write down their ideas on flip chart paper and explain that this will form a guide for working together during the whole project.




  1. Ask the children, ‘If someone asked you what is Child to Child, could you tell them?’ Ask them to run to one side of the room for yes and one side for no. Ask someone what answered yes to share with the rest of the group what they would say.




  1. Ask the children, ‘Have you learnt something about working in groups?’ Ask them to run to one side of the room for yes and one side for no. Ask what it is they learnt to those who felt they did learn something. And to those who didn’t, why they didn’t.

Interviewing skills


Objective: To develop questioning skills for the research phase
Time: 30 minutes

Resources: A handout with questions similar to those given below


Can you find someone who

Is the same height as you…

Has a sister but no brothers…

Can speak 2 languages…

Likes to dance…

Knows the words of a Mr Nice song…

Can name 3 football teams…

Knows how to cook Ugali…



  1. Give a handout and pen to each person. Ask everyone to move around the room, asking questions of each other, until they find someone who fits the description given. When they do, they should write the name of that person next to the statement. Make sure that everyone knows that they can only ask one question before moving onto the next person. The first one to fill in all their answers should find a facilitator and tell them.




  1. Find out who can speak two languages, knows how to cook Ugali, likes dancing. Ask the person who finished first, how they managed to finish so quickly, what helped? Draw out that there are techniques to gathering information, and that they will need to use these in order to gather information later.



Step 2: Ideas for Change

Objective: To think about all the things that we would like to see changed to make our community a healthy place.


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart and marker pens, post it notes, pens




  1. Ask the participants to get into the same groups again.




  1. Ask the people to close their eyes and ‘imagine you are about to go sleep, imagine it is the end of the day, you are lying down and you are thinking back over you day. What are some of the health problems in your community, around where you live, at home, at school? What are some of the problems that you think, If only we could change that – this would be a better place, happier and healthier place to live?’



  1. Ask the participants to open their eyes and take a few minutes to think about their ideas and then write on a piece of paper each idea they have. As a group make a poster, by sticking all their ideas on paper. They can give their group a name lay out their poster and illustrate it as they like.





  1. Ask each group in turn to feedback to the rest showing and reading out the bits on their posters. As the facilitator, give feedback, that there are lots of similar issues, and some that are different too, and that all are important. Let them know that in the next session they will have to narrow down their choices, so they need to start thinking about choosing which issues are the most important.

Step 3: Choosing an issue

Objective: To learn to work together and choose an issue that we want to address


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Paper, marker pens




  1. Put the people back into the same groups. Explain that the aim of this session is to work out what we want to address. All issues that we thought of before are important but it will not be possible to address them all at the same time, so we need to choose the most important ones.




  1. In these groups, discuss in more depth the health issues that they identified, as well as discussing which ones are linked and why. Decide on a list of 5-6 important issues and list them on a large piece of paper.




  1. Each participant is then given 3 ‘dots’. They are asked to place their dots beside the issues that they feel are the most important, they can place all their dots next to one, or spread them out.



  1. Ask each group to discuss amongst themselves which issue got the most ‘dots’ and whether this is the most important and why. Do the whole group feel comfortable addressing this issue with their community. If they don’t they can agree on other issue to address.





  1. Ask each group to elect one representative to come and present to the rest of the group which issue they have decided to address and why.



Step Four: Finding out more

Objective: To plan what and how to find out more about the issues we have identified


Time: 1 hour 30 mins

Resources: Papers, pens


Knot game This game is used to demonstrate the importance of listening and working as a team. The group stands in a circle with their hands out into the middle of the circle so their fingers are touching. They then randomly link up all the hands. The group then works together to untangle the knot, without letting go of anyones hand, until the group is standing in a complete circle.

Put the people back into their same groups. Explain that this part of the process is for them to find out as much as possible about the issue they have chosen. This is an important step because knowing that something is a problem does not tell us why it is a problem and what possible solutions their might be.




  1. On a large piece of paper write the following questions:




    • What do we already know about this topic?

    • What more do we need to know?

    • Who can we ask and where can we get information from?



  1. Give each group a blank piece of flip chart paper. Ask them in their groups to discuss and answer the questions, writing them on the flip chart paper.



  1. Ask each group to present back in plenary their findings. In plenary ask the whole group for suggestions, on how they will set up their visits, what are they going to ask for, and how they are going to record the information they get? Suggest that information can be found from the local hospital, health workers, the government, other NGOs, community leaders, teachers if they have not thought of these ideas.





  1. Ask them to go back to their groups. Now they need to divide into pairs. One person acts as the interviewer and one acts as the interviewee. Ask them to practice asking the questions they have though of. They then change places so everyone gets the opportunity to ask questions. Back in their small groups, ask them to discuss which questions were good and why, and which questions need to be changed.




  1. At the end of the session explain that they will have the rest of the afternoon to gather information. In the morning each group will have time to discuss their findings and then present back to everyone else what they found out.



Getting feedback from their investigations

Objective: To get feedback from each group about what they found out from their investigations and what they learnt from the process


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart paper and pens




  1. Ask everybody to get into their groups and discuss what they found out the previous day.




  1. Ask them to make a presentation of their findings.




  1. In turn, ask each group to present what they learnt. This only has to be short, about 2-3 minutes for each group.




  1. In plenary discuss whether they thought the visits were useful, what they learnt about gathering information and if there is more information that they needed to get.


Step Five: Planning and Taking Action

Objective: The aim of this session is to plan what action we are going to take to address the issue that is most important to us.

Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens




  1. On a large piece of paper, write:




  • Group name

  • Chosen issue

  • What message do we want to give to the people?

  • What action do we want to take? e.g Drama, songs, poems, house to house visits, meetings with village leaders, community campaigns, songs etc.

  • What do we need to do it? E.g. skills, training, more knowledge, resources




  1. Ask them to get into their groups again and discuss and answer the questions on the paper and agree which action they would like to take.




  1. Ask each group in turn to present what they have decided to do.



The following section is about training the participants in the skills they need to present dramas, songs, community campaigns, house to house visits, radio dramas, posters and poems.

Drama Skills

Characterisation



Objective: To promote better hygiene practices in an entertaining way
Time: 1hr 30 mins

Resources: Paper, pens, flip chart paper and board




  1. In the large group ask them, what makes a good show, i.e.




  • Humour (jokes, men dressed as women, stereotype characters)

  • Drama (hero/villain, ghosts, death)

  • Action (lots of movement, little sitting/lying down)

  • Interesting dialogue/story (clear slow speech, one actor speaking at a time, no long speech by one actor)

  • Involving the audience

  • Local reference (refer to things and places that the audience understands)

  • Getting the message across

Write these points on flip chart paper




  1. Ask the group what is good to do in drama and what is not good:



Good Dramas

Bad Dramas

  • Men dressed as women,

  • comic village stereotypes,

  • exaggerated characters,

  • villain/ heroes,

  • macabre incidents,

  • dance and song,

  • asking the audience questions,

  • frequent repetition of messages, messages made clear through actions rather than words,

  • audience participation (asking the audience to join in),

  • spontaneous and lively with minimum ‘props’.

  • long gaps between scenes,

  • fast speech,

  • quite inaudible speech,

  • more than one person speaking at the same time,

  • scenes involving sitting or lying down,

  • long speeches or dialogues without action,

  • lecturing one actor by another,

  • one actor playing different roles, that might confuse the audience,

  • complicated plots and detailed scripts






  1. Write the following characters on pieces of paper, fold them up and ask each participant to choose one and some clothes to dress up in:




  • Angry wife,

  • Drunk husband,

  • Beggar,

  • Village Leader,

  • Doctor,

  • Sanitation Information Team member,
  • Sick person with diarrhoea


  • Child,

  • Baby,

  • Angry person,

  • Witch doctor

  • Pregnant woman

  • Teacher

  • The good girl

  • The dirty boy

  • The old woman

4. In turn each person acts out their character. The rest of the group have to guess what they are portraying.


5. Ask for feedback from the rest of the group, about what makes a good character, which characters would be useful to use in their dramas. Explain to the participants that the best way to learn about characterisation is by watching what people do in their community and to study how different people behave.


Mime

Objective: To improve the theatre groups mimes, so that their actions can be clearly understood by all the audience.


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Papers, pens




    1. Demonstration: mime, e.g. brushing teeth. Illustrate that the importance of mime is to think about each stage of what you are doing and act it out, in a clear over dramatised way that can be seen by all. Stress that when we do a mime, we do not use any ‘props’ i.e. we have to mime, buckets, clothes, latrines, doors etc.




    1. Write the mimes, listed below on separate pieces of paper, fold them up and let the participants choose one. Ask them to plan the mime, practice it and then show it to the audience. Give them 10 minutes to think about how to do the mime. The following mimes are given:




  • Washing the face with soap

  • Washing hands with soap

  • Washing hair and combing hair

  • Washing the body
  • Cutting finger nails and toe nails


  • Bathing baby

  • Going to the latrine

  • Washing clothes with soap, rinsing them, wringing them out and hanging them out to dry.

  • Putting ashes in the latrine, cleaning the latrine with a brush

  • Cutting the grass around the house

  • Collecting the rubbish, putting it into the pit and burning it

  • Washing the cooking pots and utensils




  1. Each mime is presented and the audience guess what they are, if anyone is not sure what the mime is they can ask the participant to repeat all or part of it.

  2. In pairs ask the participants to discuss what they have learnt, which mimes they thought were clearer and why this was.

  3. In the large group: Feedback on mimes, what did we learn, try to draw out, mimes should be done slowly, each stage is thought about, they should be over acted, funny if possible, and when we do them we should try to show everybody what we are doing. Explain that the way to learn how to do good mimes is by watching what people are doing and how they are doing it. Again going back to their community and watching how people carry out their tasks will help them to learn about good mimes.

  4. At the end of session, do a short demonstration of carrying a heavy bucket and a light bucket, and ask they participants how they can tell the difference. Also stress that mime is about using our imagination and the imagination of the audience, so if we put a bucket in the middle of the room, we either have to walk around it or we trip over it… (we shouldn’t walk through it). The same applies for doors and walls i.e. if we have shown the audience we are in a room by opening a door, we cannot then walk through the wall!

Stage Direction and Planning

Objective: To learn about acting to everybody and avoiding masking (one person standing in front of another)

Time: 1 hr 30 mins

Resources: None


1. In the large group: Where is the audience? Who are the audience? What problems does this create for the actors? What happens when I mask someone else? What happens to what they can see and what they can hear? How does it make you feel? What happens to the audience, when we mask?
2. Ask the participants to go back to their original groups. They have 20 minutes to make a short drama, about their chosen issue. Ask they to consider all the things they have learnt so far and include them in their dramas. One of the group acts as observer, their role is to point out to the group when they are masking the other actors.
3. Each group acts their piece, maximum 15 minutes per drama.
4. Did anybody notice anybody masking someone else? When did that happen, how could it have been avoided? Ask the groups what we have learnt, why it is important to be aware of the audience, why we avoid masking, how we can avoid masking.

Designing a drama/focussing the message

Objective: To learn how to deliver hygiene message through drama in a simple, clear way


Time: 1 hr 30 mins

Resources: flip chart paper, pens




  1. Explain that we learn best through having the same messages repeated to us over and over again. Ask the participants of any examples they have used to do this, write these examples on flip chart paper.



    • We can tell the audience that this is a drama about diarrhoea transmission, in this drama we will tell you that diarrhoea is transmitted through having dirty hands, not washing hands after going to the latrine and not washing fruit and vegetables with clean water, and drinking dirty water. Then we do the drama, giving these messages in it, and at the end we ask the audience to tell us what we have learnt through the drama.


    • Or we can write the messages on paper and refer to them throughout the drama, for example having one person point to the message when it is mentioned in the drama (a bit like a narrator). This is also useful for people who are deaf.

    • Or we can have one person that represents each one of the bad behaviours, tell the audience that this person cannot hear very well, so when they see him they must shout, you are dirty you don’t wash your hands after you go to the latrine, or you will get sick because you drink dirty water.




  1. Ask the participants to go back to their original groups. They have 20 mins to prepare a drama on a subject of their choice related to hygiene promotion. They need to incorporate one of the ways to repeat the message into their drama. The audience listen out for the messages. Nominate one observer who watches the whole process and feeds back on clarity of message, discussion, effectiveness of performance.




  1. In small groups the group discuss what worked well, and what they could improve, how they think the process went. In the large group they feedback one good point from each group.



Useful games/competitions

Objective: To introduce the theatre groups to some new tools which they can use to promote health promotion in the camps


Time: 1 hr 30 mins

Resources: List of activities


Play some of these games during the training to give the participants ideas of games they can play in their schools.

  1. The children form a ring, one child is on the outside of the ring, she/he is the mosquito, and they are the mosquito net. One person is on the inside, they are asleep on their bed. The mosquito has to try to get into the net by breaking their hands and bite the person inside who is asleep. The two people that break hands also become mosquitoes and have to try to get into the net (so we now have 3 mosquitoes outside trying to get in). The game continues until we have more mosquitoes than the net.





  1. Hold a hand washing competition, ask for 3 volunteers, in turn each must wash their hands as best they can, the audience judges them on the best hand washer. This one gets a prize. The children must do the washing in turn and should not be allowed to see the other ones washing.




  1. In this game we pretend that one child has diarrhoea, he/she must try to catch the other children and give them diarrhoea by touching them, if one is caught then he gets diarrhoea as well. The two people then chase the others and when they catch someone they also have diarrhoea and have to chase others. The game continues until everyone has diarrhoea.

  2. Ask for clean volunteers from the crowd. Have another child inspect their hands and judge, which is the cleanest. That child is asked to tell the crowd why they think that one person is cleaner than the rest. Give the child a certificate saying that they had the cleanest hands in the school/audience.




  1. Ask for 3 volunteers who are good at drawing. Give them paper and pencils, each one makes a poster telling people why they must wash their hands one for, before eating, one for after going to the latrine, one for after washing the child’s bottom.




  1. Get 6 volunteers from the crowd, 3 on each team, the facilitator then asks questions about health promotion, if the team know the answer they must put up their hands, if they get it right they get a point. The winning team gets a prize.

    • Where does malaria come from? Mosquitoes

    • Why should we cover food? To stop flies getting on it and laying eggs
    • Why should we sleep under a net? To stop mosquitoes from biting us


    • When are we most likely to get bitten by mosquitoes? At night fall

    • How is diarrhoea transmitted? From dirty hands, unwashed fruit and vegetables

    • What is a vector? Something that carries germs

    • Give an example of one vector? A rat, a mosquito, a fly

    • Give one example of good personal hygiene? Washing hands, cutting nails, brushing our teeth

    • How do we get jiggers? From fleas

    • Why is it important to wear shoes? So we don’t get jiggers

    • Why should we clean our teeth after we have eaten? So that are teeth last longer and we don’t have bad breath

    • When should be wash our hands? After going to the latrine, before eating, after washing the babies bottom, before going to sleep, before cooking, after playing with animals

    • Can we get diarrhoea from babies’ faeces? Yes if they have diarrhoea

    • What do we do if we think we have malaria? Go to the doctor

    • What are the symptoms of malaria? Aching body and headaches

    • What should we do if we have diarrhoea? Drink plenty of water mixed with salt and sugar

    • Why is it important to dispose of rubbish carefully? So that we don’t get rats around our houses

    • Where do mosquitoes breed? In stagnant water

    • Why is it important to wash the water container before we fill it with drinking water? In case it is dirty

    • Why is it important to cover drinking water? So that it is does not become contaminated with dust, insects, or animals

    • What must we do before eating? Wash our hands.

    • Why should we clean latrines? So that they don’t attract flies which spread disease.

NB if neither team can answer the question then the facilitator can ask the crowd.

  1. Ask for 8 volunteers who are not shy and like to do drama, divide them into two teams, by the next time the health promoters visit they must have invented a drama telling people - one group, how we get malaria, and the other group - how we prevent malaria. They will be asked to do their drama to the whole school on the next visit.





  1. Act out a drama showing how someone is sick from diarrhoea, stop at this point and ask the audience what the actors should do next, to get better from the diarrhoea. When they have given the answers act out the remainder of the story.



Music Workshop


Objective: To learn how to give health messages through music
Time: 1 hour 45 minutes

Resources: Tape player, flip chart, pens


Making music from existing tunes


  1. In plenary, ask the children to tell you what are some of their favourite songs and why.




  1. Divide the group into two, e.g. children and teachers and explain that we are going to have a competition. Play a few bars of each song and ask them to put up their hands if they know the title of the song and the artist. Keep scores.




  1. Ask them to tell you what different types of music there are e.g. rap, pop, traditional, rock etc




  1. In plenary explain that we are going to make our own music.




  1. Start by making a sound and asking each person in turn to add one sound, until everyone is making a sound and music.




  1. Explain that we can add our own words to this type of music, about health messages.




  1. Ask them to form their original groups of people.




  1. Once they are in the groups, ask them choose either to make their own music and add words, or to choose an existing tune and add words related to a health message.




  1. In plenary ask each group to present their song




  1. Ask them what they liked about this activity, what they have learnt and what would be useful to use in their activities.



Radio dramas

Objective: The aim of this activity is to learn how a radio drama is different from an acted drama


Time: 30 minutes

Resources: Flip chart paper and pens, a tape of a radio drama




  1. In plenary ask the participants to tell you the differences and similarities of doing a drama and a radio drama. Write these on flip chart paper.




  1. Ask them how we can how different characters in a radio drama, e.g. a police man, a baby, an old person, someone walking, someone opening a door, a mosquito etc.




  1. Play a radio drama and ask the participants to tell you what the different characters are, when someone is walking, shutting a door etc.

Community campaigns

Objective: The aim of this activity is learn how to go about doing a community campaign


Time: 45 minutes

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens




  1. In plenary ask the group to tell you what community campaigns they have seen, for example, cutting grass, cleaning the tap stand.




  1. Ask they to tell you about good community campaigns they have seen and what campaigns did not work so well and why.




  1. In their small groups, ask them to think how they would organise a community campaign, who would they tell, how would they mobilise the community.




  1. Ask each group to present their findings.



  1. Discuss in plenary what makes a good campaign and what doesn’t work.




Home visiting

Objective: To learn about good ways to do home visiting


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens




  1. Explain that home visiting is used to find out information and to share health good practices.




  1. Ask the group to tell you if they have any community health workers who visit their homes and what activities they do.




  1. Ask them, which activities do the home visitors do that they think are helpful and what they have leant from them.




  1. Ask them about what things we cannot do when we make home visits (for example, accuse people that they are lazy, or shout at them).




  1. On flip chart paper write the following questions:




  • What activities would you carry out if you did a home visit

  • What activities might you observe

  • What time of day would you make your visits and why

  • Who would you want to talk to and why




  1. In their small groups, ask them to consider the above questions and make a presentation of how they would make home visiting activities.




  1. In plenary present back the visits.



Poems, Posters and other ideas

Objective: To think of other activities we can do in our community to spread health messages


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens

Poems

Poems are short stories, often funny that have words that rhyme at the end of each sentence. Ask the participants if they know of any poems. Ask the participants to tell you which words rhyme in their language. Explain that words that rhyme are often spelt the same e.g. so and go, low and row. Sometimes words that are not spelt the same also rhyme, e.g. war and saw and more. When they are making up their own poems they can put these words at the end of the sentences so that the first and second line rhymes and the third and forth rhymes. We also have poems whereby the first and third lines rhyme and the second and forth.

Posters
Posters that are good are ones that are clear, can be seen from a distance, are colourful and bright, can be understood without words. Ask the participants which posters or billboards they have seen and why they were good.
Debates
A debate is a discussion, whereby we have a motion e.g. How can be stop malaria?

On one side we might have a team who argue ‘We can stop malaria by using mosquito nets’ and on the other ‘We can stop malaria by cutting long grass and keeping our environment clean.’ The two teams present their arguments for each case and the audience votes on the most convincing argument.


Other ideas
Ask the participants to volunteer any other ideas they have about how they can change behaviour and present good hygiene practices in their community.

Action Plan

Objective: The aim of the session is for the participants to plan how they will use the training and what they will do next.


Time: 1 hour

Resources: Flip chart paper and pens




  1. On a large piece of paper draw the following table:




Activity

When

Who

1. Write a report of the training







2.










  1. In plenary ask the group to discuss and fill in what they will do.



  1. In this session it is important that the participants consider that they need to train their schools in all aspects of Child to Child, e.g. the six steps and the skills, so drama, music, community campaigns etc. They also need to leave time for evaluations.




Step 6: Evaluation ‘Builder’

Objective: To allow participants to reflect on the Child to Child process, what they have learnt, what they have achieved and what they would do differently next time.


Time: 15 minutes

Resources: Flip chart paper, pens, paper for each child




  1. Draw a large person on a flipchart and place it on the wall where all the participants can see it. On the head, draw a hat and ask the participants to think about what they have learned from the training. In the person’s hand draw a tool box, and ask the children to think about what ideas, skills and other good things they will take with them from the training. Draw a heart on the person and ask they to think about what they liked about the training. Finally draw a rubbish bin beside the person’s feet and ask them to think about what they did not like and what was not useful.




  1. Ask the children to write their responses on slips of paper and stick them on the appropriate places on the drawing. Alternatively they can shout out for each aspect of the person and the facilitator writes down on the picture.




  1. Summarise what they have suggested.







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