Illustrations Partha Sengupta
NATIONAL BOOK TRUST, INDIA
1. A Handful of Almonds: Nani Palkhivala
2. The Bus Stop: Medha Patkar
3. The Colours of Silence: Satish Gujral
4. Oh, To be the Best!: Lila Seth
5. A Journey towards Excellence: Rahul Bajaj
6. The Lightning Kid: Viswanathan Anand
7. The Boy Who Asked Questions: Yashpal
8. The Legacy: Amjad Ali Khan
9. Twinkle Toes: Mrinalini Sarabhai
10. The Lonely Muse: Ruskin Bond
11. The Green Guru: M.S. Swaminathan
12. All the World Her Stage: Sai Paranjpai
The great achievers who feature in this book were all once normal young people, who had dreams and aspirations, joys and sorrows, doubts and questions — like every young reader of this book. Every one of them has had a turning point in his or her life which set them towards their respective careers or influenced their personalities. They learnt from their experiences and grew up into individuals who have made a mark in their respective field, be it science, industry, arts, social work, judiciary or films. These are some of the Achievers of the post-Independence era.
The aim of this book is to bring out the fact, that greatness, for the most part, is achieved through determination and perseverance and that it is possible for anyone to scale great heights provided one has these two qualities.
The stories in this collection are all based on personal interviews, during which the personalities let me have a glimpse of their childhood. The incidents are all true. However, with their due permission dialogues and situations were created to make the stories more lively. I thank them all for kindly going through their respective stories and giving their comments which has added to the worth of the book.
A HANDFUL OF ALMONDS
(NANI PALKHIWALA) “All those who want to participate in the elocution competition, may please raise their hands,” the teacher announced.
Several hands shot up, among them, Nani’s. The teacher began taking down their names and when he came to Nani, he stopped.
“Are you sure, you want to do it, Nani?” he asked. He sounded doubtful.
“Y..y..es, sir. I...I... do w..want to t.try,” replied Nani. There were sniggers from behind. He coloured, but stuck to his decision.
Eleven-year-old Nani stammered badly and often had to repeat a word many times before he could get it right. It was definitely brave of him to take part in an elocution competition, no less!
The teacher asked again, “Nani, you have to speak for about five minutes extempore.
Would you be able to?”
This time, he nodded his head. The fact that it was going to be extempore excited him more than anything else. He could come up with the best ideas and arguments on any subject at a moment’s notice. His brain worked fast and collated every bit of information into a perfect presentation. He looked steadily at his teacher. He had decided he would take part in the competition and he would, no matter what. He stuck his chin out as he stared straight ahead. He was as proud as he was stubborn.
The boys knew better than to tease Nani. He was a brilliant student and beat everyone hollow in studies and moreover, he was a very kind and helpful boy. Everyone liked him. They also knew that if Nani decided to do something, he would do it, no matter what the odds, even if it was a stammer.
The stammer had always been a cause of irritation to him. Just when he was about to make a point, he would begin stammering dreadfully. He tried tongue twisters and recited difficult passages from books to improve his speech. Often he would be able to speak several sentences without the trace of the stammer, but it would suddenly start and once it began, it went on, much to his frustration. Very often, he couldn’t express what he wanted to say.
“Papa, I.I h..have given my name for the elo...lo..cution competition,” he announced to his father that evening at dinner.
“Hm..mm..that’s good. What are you going to speak on?” asked his father.
“I don’t know. It’s going to be extempore.” Nani spoke without any stammer this time.
“Oh, I completely forgot! One of our customers, the old Mrs. Dastur had come to the shop today. She said that by rolling several marbles in one’s mouth as one talked, one could get over a stammer. Why not try that, Nani?”
“Ye...s, Papa. I ....will. Maybe, tonight itself. Who knows, it would help me tomorrow?”
“Do you want me to sit with you while you try out some speeches? I could time you,” offered his elder sister Amy. No one in the Palkhivala family discouraged Nani or other children in their endeavours. They were a close family and stood by each other.
Nani practised with Amy that night and was able to speak with just a little bit of
stuttering. “You will do well,” she said encouragingly. Nani was grateful for her encouragement.
The next day in school, the hall was full. There was a choice of subjects and Nani chose, “Try and Try and you will succeed.” He spoke very well, stressing that if a person tried hard enough, he could do anything. It was symbolic because that was what he was doing. He stammered a bit in the beginning, but as he spoke, he became more confident. There was a moment of frustration for him when he got stuck on the word ‘perseverance’. But he didn’t give up and concluded his speech to resounding applause. Nani had just given his first public speech!
His speech that day didn’t win him a prize but got him special mention from the Principal, who had presided over the competition. “I am sure Nani will do very well if he followed what he talked about, today,” he said, while commenting on his performance. To the 10-year-old boy, this was highly encouraging.
That evening he hurried home happily. He went to his father’s laundry on the way to give him the news. “That’s very good Nani. You must keep trying and one day, God willing, you will become a great speaker,” he patted him on the shoulder. He was a great believer in God, just as much as he believed that hard work always bore fruit.
He then took out a couple of books from the shelf and gave them to Nani. “One of our customers, Mrs. Irani lent them to me. I am sure you will like them,” he said. Nani took them happily. He had learnt the value of books from his father. “The more you read the better a person you will become,” he told him. Not that Nani needed any persuasion to read books. He had always loved books ever since he had been old enough to turn the pages of one. He read Gujarati books till he turned seven and thereafter began reading English books. Once he began reading, he forgot everything around him and even skipped games.
“Will you come to play today?” asked his friend Hafiz, who had accompanied Nani to the laundry. But Nani was not too keen. “I want to finish these books,” he told him.
“All of them?” asked his friend, unable to believe that he could.
“Yes, all of them,” he replied. Nani was a fast reader.
“You hardly come out to play,” complained Hafiz. “If you continue staying indoors like this, you will turn out to be a weakling!”
“Who says I am staying idle indoors? My mind is getting all the exercise it needs and that is equally good!”
“What good is your mind if you become weak in the body?”
“Oh, Hafiz! The brain uses up a lot of energy and burning of energy means exercise, doesn’t it? Don’t you see that they are one and the same thing, whether I expend energy by playing games or by reading a book?”
“Hafiz, you can’t argue with Nani. He has an answer for everything. I am sure, he will grow up and become a lawyer one day!” laughed his father, who had been hearing the friend’s talk. He told his family and friend the same thing. “Nani can argue most logically. That is the first quality of a good lawyer.”
Apart from reading at home, Nani also liked to visit Popular Book Depot in Grant Road. The owner, Mr. Bhatkal allowed him to browse through the books whenever he wanted. He knew that though the boy was passionate about books, he couldn’t afford to buy them. One day, when he had gone there as usual, Mr. Bhatkal said, “Nani, these books have just arrived. One of the copies is slightly damaged. You could borrow it for a day because I will be returning it to the distributor only the day after tomorrow. But please take care not to spoil it!”
Nani couldn’t believe his ears. “Oh, could I? Thank you so much! I will take good care of it.”
On his way back he stopped at a couple of shops that sold second hand books. He couldn’t afford new ones and saved up every paisa to buy old ones. He didn’t find any book of his choice that day and went home clutching the book Mr. Bhatkal had given him to his heart. The book was on self help. Though he liked to read the classics which he did at school, he preferred serious books like these from which he could learn a lot. He also read a lot of poetry, which he could recite from memory, much to the amazement of his classmates.
When he reached home, his mother was serving food to a beggar. She gave as old shirt of Mr. Palkhivala after he finished his food. The old man blessed her as he left. This was nothing new to Nani. Both his parents were very religious and cared deeply for the poor and deprived. “God has given us so much so that we share it with those who don’t have anything,” Mr. Palkhivala often said.
Nani wrote the accounts of his father’s laundry and kept the account books up-to-date. Often, while writing the accounts, he found his father charging less than the usual amount as laundry charges from people who were not well to do. “Papa, you have charged just one anna for dry-cleaning this sari. You normally charge two, don’t you?” Nani asked his father one day.
“Yes, Nani. That’s Mrs. Doctor’s only good sari and she needs it for wearing at her niece’s marriage. She can’t afford the usual rates.” Nani nodded. Over the years he also imbibed such sentiments from his parents.
“What do you want to become when you grow up?” asked one of their neighbours of Nani one day.
“Oh, I want to become someone of eminence sir,” he replied. “And what would you after becoming a person of eminence?”
“I will do something for this country of mine, for the poor,” replied Nani with conviction. Though at that time he had no idea of how he would do it, he felt deeply for the underprivileged, nevertheless.
There was an orphan named Jahangir in their building who was constantly ill treated by his relatives. Nani often found the little boy weeping after a scolding or beating. He took him small presents and played with him whenever he could. For his part, the little boy adored Nani.
One day, Mrs. Palkhivala bought some apricots. She used to take out their kernels which are like almonds, and give it to the children. That day too she kept aside the almonds. Nani got a handful too when he came back from school. He liked to pop them into his mouth one by one, as he read his favourite books. That day, just as he settled down to read, he heard Jahangir sobbing. But he was so intent on finishing the book, that he ignored the sound and continued reading. He picked up the first almond and just as he popped it into his mouth, his father called to him.
“Nani, don’t you think you should give those almonds to Jahangir?”
Nani was in a hurry to begin the new book. ‘Why should I? Mama gave them to me, didn’t she? I like them so much and there are so few of them,” he said. It was rather uncharacteristic of him to speak like that, considering that he liked and pitied Jahangir.
His father didn’t reply. He simply said, “Nani, come here!” in a quiet voice. He made the boy sit next to him and took his hand in his. “Son, God has given you so much in life. You have a mother and father, your father earns a regular income, we live in a good house, we are educated. Do you know why He has given us all these? So that we may share them with those who are less fortunate than us. God didn’t mean us to keep things for ourselves, to be selfish!
“Now, Jahangir is an orphan. He has no one in the world; he has nothing. Compared to him, you have everything. Do you think God would be happy if you didn’t share at least the almonds with him?”
Nani looked at the seeds in his hand. They were turning clammy with sweat. His father never raised his voice or forced him to do anything. But his soft voice, his loving tone and his reasoning made Nani listen to everything he said.
He got up after carefully wrapping the seeds in a clean handkerchief. “I will be right back, Papa.” “Are they for me?” asked the little boy when Nani extended his hand with the almonds in them. His eyes, still wet from the tears, shone and he looked at them hungrily. Nani felt a pang of guilt for having refused to share them with him earlier.
“Yes, Jahangir. Take them.”
“What about you? Don’t you want any?” he asked doubtfully.
“No, Jahangir. I have already eaten plenty. These are for you.”
Jahangir began crying again. Nani was alarmed. “Why are you crying, Jahangir?” he asked.
In reply, Jahangir, just hugged Nani, crying harder. After he calmed down a bit Nani went home, thoughtfully.
“Papa, why did Jahangir cry when I gave him the almonds?”
“Just as cruelty can make a child cry, so can kindness and love. The only difference is that, the tears of one is out of sorrow and the other is out of joy. Now, do you see why it is important to share?”
‘If so little can make another person happy, I must find more ways to do it,’ Nani resolved at that moment. ‘The world is full of people like Jahangir who are helpless and who cannot fight for themselves; may be I could fight for them,’ thought the young boy.
WHO IS NANI
Born on 16 January 1920, Nani Palkhivala was an eminent lawyer and a champion of human rights. He fought several historic law suits, where he defended the rights of individuals against the oppression of the state, stood for free speech and the rights of the minorities. He fought most of these cases free of charge as a matter of service to the downtrodden and oppressed.
Mr. Palkhivala also served as the Ambassador to the US from 1977-79. He had
honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws from several US universities.
He has written several books on various subjects including law, taxation, the
Constitution of India and our cultural heritage.
He was well known for his incisive speeches on budgetary and tax matters which are so simple and interesting, as to be appreciated even by the lay person. His budget speeches, where he analysed the Union Budget every year, drew thousands of people and earned him a place in the record books for addressing the largest crowd at a public meeting. For someone who stammered till the age of 15, this was indeed a wonderful achievement.
Before he passed away in December 2002, he was the Chairman of Associated Cement Companies Ltd., and director of several Indian and overseas companies. He was also a trustee of several charity trusts and the President of the Forum of Free Enterprise among others.
THE BUS STOP
Medha was in high spirits. She had played the role of the principal in the play at the annual function of her school, and had won a lot of applause. Moreover, there were several prizes to look forward to. She had won prizes in two debates, an elocution and an essay competition. In addition, there was also a prize for the best contribution to the school magazine. Several articles and poems written by Medha were in the magazine.
The prize giving ceremony began and a beaming Medha went to receive her prizes. Then the name of the best magazine article was being announced. One of her pieces, ‘Santra ani Limbu’ (Orange and Lemon) had won the first prize. Medha stood up to go forward and receive the prize. But the announcer was not calling out her name; she was calling out the name of her sixth standard classmate, Sunita! Medha was shocked.
Sunita was equally shocked. “But Medha, it was you who had written that poem! How can I take the prize?” asked the poor girl.
“It is not your fault,” she managed to croak through dry lips.
By then, the name was announced again and Sunita had to run and take her prize, which actually belonged to Medha. She was too scared and excited to report the matter to the school authorities.
It had all been the fault of one of the teachers. Medha was a prolific writer and had filled her notebook with poems and stories — about the birds, the sky, a poor boy and his family, monsoon in a village and so on. The teacher was quite impressed.
“These are all very good and I would like to take some of them for the magazine. But since so many pieces can’t be published under your name, shall we put it under different students’ names?” she had asked.
publication, readily agreed. That was how ‘Santra ani Limbu’ had ended up under Sunita’s name and had now won the prize.
Still in her Principal’s dress after the play, Medha was silently sobbing. The sheer injustice of it all hurt her. If at least the teacher had told the gathering who the rightful winner was, it would have been fine. But she had kept quiet too. Medha herself was feeling too embarrassed and upset to stand up and claim the prize as hers. Back at home, she broke down. “It is not fair! I had written that poem! I don’t mind not getting the prize, but now everyone thinks that Sunita has written it!’ sobbed Medha. “The teacher didn’t say anything and nor did Sunita!”
Her mother, Mrs. Khanolkar, was furious. “That is a very bad thing! I will have a word with the Principal tomorrow!” she said.
The day after, the Principal made the announcement at the assembly that Medha and not Sunita was the winner of the prize for the best magazine article. Medha’s sense of justice was vindicated.
‘A cheerful, talkative and energetic girl, Medha was highly sensitive with an awareness of justice and fairness. She would fight for what was right till justice was done. Having a mother, who combined social service with her work at the post office, and a father who was an active trade union leader, she learnt early in life to be sensitive to other people’s needs and was ever ready to lend a helping hand to anyone who needed it. This made her one of the most popular girls in her middle class colony in Chembur, Bombay. Unlike other children of her age, she was always busy, preparing for one of her
numerous debate or declamation competition or making mehndi patterns on the palms of the neighbourhood children. Her designs were very popular. She was-also much in demand to perform in the cultural programmes organised in her colony. She sang and acted very well.
When she was about 12, she had the bright idea of starting a library. Of course, there was no money to buy books. So she began collecting old magazines and cutting out the cartoons and picture stories from them, pasting them in plain notebooks. Columns and articles that children would be interested were also thus pasted. She circulated these ‘books’ among the children of the colony and also among the children of the slum adjoining the colony.
There was so much to do, that sometimes she felt that she didn’t have enough time to do it all!
Medha had a particular way of preparing for competitions. She stood in front of the mirror and took a deep breath before delivering her piece to her reflection in the mirror, which she pretended was her audience. She looked into the eyes of the girl in the mirror as she spoke.
“Always look into the eye of a person while speaking to her or him. An honest and sincere person always does that. Only those who have something to hide or be ashamed about avoid the other person’s eyes,” her mother always told Medha. She kept encouraging her daughter too, correcting her pronunciation and expression. “This is not your best, Medha. You can do much better,” she told her daughter. Medha’s parents never told her to win prizes or medals, but always exhorted to do her best. It never failed to amaze her how the prizes came automatically to her if only she did her best!
She did her share of housework too. That day, as she was finishing some chore, she heard her friend Alka calling her to play. Looking down from her balcony Medha shook her head. “No, Alka. Not now. I have a lot of work to do.”
‘We are going to see Amar Prem in the evening. Will you come along?” asked Alka. “No. I have promised to help Bhandarkar aunty with her new curtains. Surekha didi wanted me to make mehndi for her. Then I have my homework.” She was not too keen on movies nor did she have any pocket money to spend on one. Even though she didn’t go to play that day, she often joined the children. So sporting and cheerful was she mat they all liked to have her in their own team.
That being a holiday, many vendors came into the colony, hawking their wares. Sometimes they came to meet her mother who took a great deal of interest in their problems and helped them. That day too the woman who exchanged old clothes for steel vessels had come to see Mrs. Khanolkar.
“Ask her to come a little later, I’m busy right now,” she said. Medha shouted out to the woman from the kitchen itself.
“Medha! How can you be so rude, shouting to her like that? Couldn’t I have shouted the reply myself? Why did I ask you to give her the message? So that you would go and tell her, face to face. That’s not the way to speak to anyone, least of all, dignified working people like her. Don’t ever do that again, you understand? Let this be the last time I hear you talk to someone in such a disrespectful tone!” She never raised her voice, but Medha could feel the anger.
She had done what she had done without thinking and had never meant to be rude. Respect to others was the first lesson that Medha and her younger brother were taught by their parents. They themselves practised what they taught their children which was why both of them were often consulted by the workers of the area to solve their problems.
Mr. Khanolkar often held important meetings in his house. Medha loved to be present at these, for she got to see how her father handled all kinds of problems with ease. She felt proud of his popularity.
By evening, several men began coming to their house. Soon, the room was full. The men greeted each other genially, but when the meeting began, it turned quite stormy. Medha was sitting in one corner of the room with her brother. She was observing the proceedings from behind the science book, which she was holding in front of her face. Her brother was happily drawing a picture. He was too young to understand the speeches which were indeed fiery that day. Apparently there had been some trouble in one of the mills.
“You should have seen the fine print before agreeing to the conditions put by the management,” Mr. Khanolkar was thundering at a stocky man in a faded kurta pyjama. “Do you realise how this is going to harm the negotiations with the management?” Behind her book, Medha cowered. Her father could be really forceful and scary when he spoke in that tone. The poor man tried to explain why he had done it. Mr. Khanolkar waited till he finished and then explained his errors one by one. Before long, the man could understand and asked for advice to solve the mess he had unwittingly created.
Much later, after everyone had left, Medha approached her father. “Baba, why did you scold that man so much? He had only done what he must have thought best.”
“What do you know of Trade Union matters, girl? Go back to your studies, now!” he told her, but not unkindly. But looking at her crestfallen face, he continued, “It is important to take the right decisions, when you are doing this kind of work because the lives of thousands of others will be otherwise affected.”
“How can that be?” Medha had to know. “As union leaders, our duty is not towards ourselves but towards the workers who are looking to us to solve their problems and get them the best deal. Therefore you have a tremendous responsibility. You have to have the highest degree of honesty and commitment to the people whom you are representing. How can you be careless, then?” Before she could ask him any more questions, he said, “Now, where is the speech you are going to deliver in the elocution competition?”
He always corrected her speeches, teaching her how to phrase her words to make them effective and hard-hitting. Often he scolded her for her mistakes. Medha certainly preferred her mother’s gentler methods of teaching, but wouldn’t dream of delivering any speech without getting it corrected by her father!
Medha loved to go out occasionally, especially to Dadar with her mother. She liked this bustling suburb of Mumbai. The shopkeepers knew her mother and greeted her warmly. Diwali was approaching and she accompanied her mother to Dadar for shopping. Mrs. Khanolkar bought her a pink frock with lace and embroidery work on it.
While waiting for their bus, Medha looked around. The people in the queue always fascinated her and she tried to make up stories about them. For instance the fat man chewing pan just ahead of them in the queue could be a trader who was out to make some collections — his face looked quite grim! The matronly woman who stood behind them, reading a Marathi newspaper was perhaps a school teacher—she had a severe look about her. Medha imagined her tweaking the ear of a naughty boy in class.
Then her eyes fell upon the young woman behind the matron. She looked harassed, with a baby on her hips and a child holding on to her sari. Medha loved children. She smiled at the little boy, who hid behind his mother. She bent and peeked at him. He peeked too and gave her a wide smile.
The young mother was quite happy for the diversion because the little boy had been whining till then. She smiled at Medha and asked her name. Soon Medha was chatting to her as if she had known her for years.
“Mother, I am hungry. Give me ten paise,” said a voice at her elbow. Medha turned. It was an old man, his hand stretched out shaking badly. His head shook involuntarily too. There was stubble on his face and his eyes looked as if he were weeping. His clothes were in tatters and hung about him in a sorry mess and there was a foul smell from his unwashed body.
The matron held her nose with her sari and the young mother turned her face away. Even the sweet little boy peeked at the old man with fear. Medha was pained. Why did everyone react like they did? The old man looked very kind and harmless to her. ‘The poor man!’ she thought, ‘perhaps there is no water in his house to wash himself or his clothes, otherwise why should he be wearing such dirty clothes?’
Thereafter, no one else paid him any attention. Medha’s imagination was working again. The poor man probably also had no family, because if he did, he wouldn’t be wandering the streets like this, she thought. If he had had a family, maybe his grandchildren would have made him tell them stories. He would have been a well loved grandfather. Instead, here he was, a pathetic figure, scorned by everyone.
Just then, someone threw a coin at him. His hand shook so badly that he couldn’t hold it and it fell down on the pavement. He bent down unsteadily and groped for it. Medha couldn’t bear it any longer. She bent down to search for the coin, angry at the man who had thrown it so carelessly. She would have given him her piece of mind, but since her mother was there with her, she kept quiet.
But before she could find it, their bus came. “Come on, Medha, quick!” called her mother. Medha hadn’t found the coin yet, but was pulled on by her mother.
“Ai, wait!” she said urgently, but had to move as the people in the queue behind her were getting impatient and were pushing her. Everyone was intent on only getting into the bus. No one had time to watch out for an old beggar, who still had not found the coin.
Once inside the bus Medha looked at her mother who was quietly taking out the money for their fare. This upset Medha no end. Even her mother, who repeatedly told her to respect every human being, didn’t seem to be concerned! She swallowed the lump in her throat. She was close to tears.
She tried to crane her neck out of the window of the moving bus and see if the beggar had found his coin. The people sitting near the window gave her irritated looks and she had to get back. She worried about the old man never finding the coin and going without his dinner. For her, the pleasant outing had turned sour.
‘How can people be so insensitive to the misery of another human being?’ she wondered. ‘Does being poor mean that everyone hated them? She felt angry, helpless and curiously determined to change it all some day. And she decided that she would never ever wear the pink frock with the embroidery because it would always remind her of the old beggar.
After making up her mind to do something for the poor, she also carried it out. When she was about 14 years old, she began going to the slum colonies, spreading awareness about cleanliness and teaching the children to read and write. Medha also organised a group of youngsters for story telling sessions for the children there. Service to the poor came naturally to her and in this she was encouraged by her parents.
About a year after she started these activities, she went to a blood donation camp in her colony, as she was very keen to donate blood. However, the doctors couldn’t find a vein prominent enough to draw blood, try as they might. “Go home now child; come later,” said the doctor kindly. But Medha wouldn’t leave till they succeeded!
Her work became more organised. After her post graduate degree in social work she began fighting for the causes of the people and their right to live in peace and harmony with the environment.