China: Confucius, Communism and Chopsticks ttgt11 V 11: None More Black

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China: Confucius, Communism and Chopsticks

TTGT11 v.4.11: None More Black

Written by Gao Keli (Courtney Colby of Carleton College)

Subject: All answers deal with things relating to China.

TOSS-UPS

1. This city is located at the confluence of the Yangzi and Qinhuahe rivers. It has served as the capital of China many times over the centuries, most recently as the capital of Chiang Kai-shek's Republic of China. Not surprisingly, the city's Chinese name translates to Southern Capital. FTP, identify this city that was the victim of Japanese atrocities in World War II.

Answer: Nanjing or Nanking
2. The U.S. 29, Thailand 9, Vietnam 63, Canada 251, Taiwan 346, Singapore 238, Hong Kong 1755, China 5327. FTP these are the official World Health Organization numbers of probable cases of this disease that disrupted international business and travel in the spring of 2003.

Answer: SARS or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (prompt on atypical pneumonia)


3. The author of this sixthteenth-century novel is unknown. The novel’s Chinese title comes from the surnames of three of the protagonist’s concubines. This man, Ximen [shen men] Qing [ching], rises in wealth and status as a merchant. The novel has been censored on and off over the centuries in China. FTP give the title of this Ming dynasty erotic novel.

Answer: Jin Ping Mei [jin ping may] or Chin P’ing Mei or The Plum in the Golden Vase or The Golden Lotus


4. It involved shaving the forehead and braiding the remaining hair. During the consolidation of the Qing empire the emperor ordered that all Chinese men adopt this hairstyle or lose their heads. FTP give the term for this style that also means to form a line.

Answer: Queue

5. He has studied English since the age of fourteen, but is accompanied almost everywhere by Colin Pine. Half of his salary is paid to the Chinese government, but he has already proven himself as a marketing phenomenon through contracts with PepsiCo, Visa and Apple. FTP, name this 7 foot 4 inch tall NBA star.

Answer: Yao Ming

6. He brought a giraffe back to China, where it was deemed an auspicious unicorn. The number of ocean worthy vessels in his fleets reached into the hundreds. On his five voyages he followed the routes of established Arab and Chinese trade routes, and his expeditions were primarily diplomatic. FTP name this sea-faring eunuch of the Ming dynasty.

Answer: Zheng He or Cheng Ho


7. Buddhist Flower-Fair Misunderstanding, The Drunken Concubine, Eight Maces, The Empty City, The Extraordinary Double Encounter, The Fight in the Dark, The Magic Palm Fan, White Snake, A Life of Sorrow, and Fen River Bend. FTP these are all titles of what type of Chinese musical theater?

Answer: Beijing Opera or Peking Opera


8. He was born from a rock and learned magical powers from a master Daoist. He can transform himself into 72 different shapes. He travels on a cloud and carries a magical gold cudgel. He travels with a pig, two monks and a horse. FTP name this creature traveling to India to retrieve Buddhist sutras in The Journey to the West.

Answer: The Monkey King or Sun Wukong or Sun Wu K’ung

9. As the Qing dynasty slips into decline, the fortunes of the Jia, Shi, Wang and Xue families follow. This mid-eighteenth century novel is a valued source of information on daily life in the Qing, though the story centers on the fictional love affair between Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu. FTP name this, perhaps the most famous novel of the Qing dynasty, written by Cao Xueqin.

Answer: A Dream of Red Mansions or The Dream of the Red Chamber or The Story of the Stone or Hong Lou Meng or Hung Lou Meng (accept reasonable equivalents in English.)

10. The Chinese government recently announced that they hope to accomplish this as early as October 2003. The vessel to be used is named Shenzhou 5 and would contain three modules. The flight is planned to last about 24 hours. FTP identify this space age feat, only accomplished so far by Russia and the U.S.

Answer: Manned space flight (accept reasonable equivalents involving putting people in space.) (Do not accept rocket launching.)

11. It is situated on an island, ten miles downstream of Guangzhou. Peng Dehuai and Lin Biao attended it. Zhou Enlai taught there. FTP identify this school founded in 1924 whose graduates became powerful within the military and loyal to the first principal, Chiang Kai-shek.

Answer: Whampoa Military Academy or Huangpu Military Academy


12. Originally this deity was portrayed as male, later the deity is portrayed as having attributes of both sexes in accordance with the Lotus Sutra where the deity is said to have the ability to assume any form necessary to relieve suffering. The deity also has the power to grant children. The deity she has been depicted in all female form since the 12th century. FTP, name this “patron saint” of mothers and seamen, an embodiment of compassion and kindness.

Answer: Guan Yin or Kuan Yin or Kwan-yin


13. A playwright and novelist, all of this author’s works were banned in China after the publication of Fugitives, a play set against the background of the Tiananmen Square Massacre. However, the author had already immigrated to France in 1987. His other works include Signal Alarm, Bus Stop, The Other Shore and Soul Mountain. FTP name the winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Answer: Gao Xingjian

14. This Chinese painter was notorious for his cleanliness. He washed himself several times a day and had the servants wash the trees. Although he was an owner of a large estate, he eventually gave away all of his earthly goods and became a hermit living on a boat. His dry, spare style came to be associated with a noble spirit and many later painters paid homage to his work and aspired to his lifestyle. FTP name this painter of the Yuan dynasty.

Answer: Ni Zan

15. He inherited the post of court astrologer from his father; he always claimed that his great work was only his attempt to complete the work of his father. He incurred the Emperor's wrath after he defended an unpopular army general. The emperor gave him the choice of death or castration. He chose castration and finished his book. FTP identify China's greatest historian, author of The Records of the Grand Historian.

Answer: Sima Qian or Ssuma Ch'ien


16. Built in the 7th century, it has been greatly enlarged and renovated several times. It is a massive building consisting of three floors and an open roof, all of which are filled with chapels and chambers. Countless Buddhist pilgrims visit this sacred site every year. Located in Lhasa, it is the traditional home of the Dalai Lama. FTP name this most holy temple of Tibetan Buddhism.

Answer: Jokhang Temple or Jokhong Temple


17. He was a pioneer of cultural relations between Europe and China. He published the first maps of China available to the Europeans and translated the works of Euclid into Chinese. After his arrival in China in 1583, he continued to work in China for the next 27 years until his death. He became a well-respected authority on science and math, eventually becoming the official court mathematician. FTP name this most famous Jesuit missionary to China.

Answer: Matteo Ricci

18. It consists of an upper deck and a lower deck. In the lower deck each bead is worth one, in the upper deck each bead is worth five. When a bead is counted, it is moved towards the bar that separates the two decks. FTP identify this mathematical instrument that is still widely used in China to do calculations.

Answer: abacus

19. Reorganization of the countryside was essential to fulfilling the Communist vision for China. Several stages of collectivization were implemented before the goal was to be met. FTP name these groups that were created to oversee and coordinate all aspects of rural and city life.

Answer: People’s Communes

20. He ordered the arrest of merchant Lancelot Dent. When the foreigners would not give Dent up, he ordered all foreign trade to cease. Foreigners were blockaded in their factories. After six weeks, the foreigners gave in. FTP he was considered a hero after obtaining over 20,000 chests of opium from the foreigners and washing it out to sea.

Answer: Commissioner Lin Zexu or Lin Tse-hsü


21. Gansu, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Hubei, Guangxi, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Hebei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang, Fujian. FTP these, along with Guangdong, Yunnan and Hunan, are what kind of Chinese geographic administrative unit?

Answer: province(s)


Bonuses

1. Name these great writers of the twentieth-century for 10 points each:

A. He was born to a Manchu family in Beijing at the end of the Qing [ching] dynasty. He served in government posts after the Communist Revolution, but committed suicide during the Cultural Revolution. Well-known works include the novel Rickshaw and the play Teahouse.

Answer: Lao She [lao shuh] or Lau Shaw or Shu Sheyu or Shu Qingchun (Lao She is his pen name.)

B. Often called “the Father of Modern Chinese Literature” his short story “Madman’s Diary” is considered the first short story written in vernacular modern Chinese. His best known work is perhaps “The True Story of Ah-Q.”

Answer: Lu Xun or Lu Hsun or Zhou Shuren or Chou Shu-jen (Lu Xun is his pen name.)

C. This author, born in 1904, is still living. During his youth he was inspired by the ideals of anarchism. He was persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, but survived to be honored by Deng Xiaoping. His works include the Rip trilogy: Family, Autumn, Spring and the Love trilogy: Fog, Rain, Lightning.

Answer: Ba Jin or Pa Chin or Li Feigan or Li Fei-kan (Ba Jin is his pen name.)

2. Aren't pandas cute and cuddly? Answer the following related to pandas for 10 points each.

A. This international conservation organization's logo features a panda.

Answer: WWF or World Wildlife Federation

B. This scientist is the author of The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History.

Answer: Stephen Jay Gould

C. This movie contains the line, "I wanted to put a bullet between the eyes of every panda that wouldn't screw to save its species."


Answer: Fight Club

3. Mao was always big on mass movements. Identify these for 10 points each.

A. It grew out of Party attempts to revitalize demoralized intellectuals. Mao gave a speech encouraging intellectuals to express themselves freely. Mao and Party leaders were unprepared for the amount of criticism that would be leveled against the Party.

Answer: Hundred Flowers Movement

B. In an attempt to increase production through moral incentives and mass campaigns, Mao launched one of the greatest disasters in Chinese economic history; "backyard furnaces" for making steel were only one of the crackpot ideas incorporated into this campaign.

Answer: The Great Leap Forward

C. A false diary of a soldier was held up as an example of the ideal citizen. This soldier had undying love for the revolution, for his country, for his comrades and for Chairman Mao. Give the name of the fictitious author.

Answer: Lei Feng [lay feng]

4. Within the past year there a major transition has taken place within the Chinese Communist Party. Identify these Chinese political leaders for 10 points each:

A. He stepped down as President but kept his position as chairman of the Central Military Committee.

Answer: Jiang Zemin

B. He replaced Jiang as President.

Answer: Hu Jintao

C. He replaced Zhu Rongji as Premier.

Answer: Wen Jiabao

5. Identify the two major forms of Romanizing Chinese words for 15 points each. One was developed in the People's Republic of China and the other which was developed by two English guys and is still used in Taiwan.

Answer: Pinyin and Wade-Giles


6. Lasting from 1850 to 1864, a huge rebellion broke out across southern China. For 10 points each:

A. Name that rebellion.

Answer: Taiping Rebellion or Uprising

B. Name the leader of the Taipings.

Answer: Hong Xiuquan or Hung Hsiu-ch’üan

C. Hong claimed to be the younger brother of this religious figure.

Answer: Jesus Christ
7. Identify the following about an important political and literary movement of the twentieth-century for 10 points each:

A. This movement began in 1919 and is sometimes called the “Chinese Enlightenment.” It was marked by an upsurge in nationalist feelings and interest in foreign ideals by the urban intellectual elite.

Answer: The May Fourth Movement or wu si yundong

B. The ostensible reason for the demonstration was dissatisfaction over the terms of this treaty that granted former German territories to Japan.

Answer: The Treaty of Versailles

C. This leader of the movement was an advocate of John Dewey’s ideas after studying at Columbia University. He promoted vernacular literature in the journal New Youth. He later served as ambassador to the United States.

Answer: Hu Shi or Hu Shih [who sure]

8. Identify these films by director Zhang Yimou for 10 points each:

A. In the 1920s a young woman is forced to become the fourth wife of a lord of a powerful family. Each of the wives compete for his attention and the status and power that accompanies it.

Answer: Raise the Red Lantern or Da hong deng long gao gao gua


B. Fugui is a gambler; his wife Jiazhen leaves him. After Fugui loses everything he starts to create puppet shows for a living and Jiazhen returns. China’s history from the 1940s to 1980s is told through this family’s story.

Answer: To Live or Huozhe

C. A man returns home after learning of his father’s death. His mother is insisting that all of the traditional funeral rites be observed despite difficulties. While he makes funeral arrangements Luo Yusheng reflects on his parents’ love story.

Answer: The Road Home or My Father and Mother or Wo de fu qin mu qin


9. Identify the following about the northernmost Chinese province for 10 points each:

A. The name of this province in China's far northeast translates to Black Dragon River.

Answer: Heilongjiang [hey lohng gee-iang] or Hei-lung-chiang

B. Heilongjiang was part of this Japanese puppet state that existed from 1931 to 1945.

Answer: Manchukou or Manchuguo or Manzhouguo

C. This city was an important military base for the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War, it also served as a haven for Russian refugees after the Revolution of 1917. It is Heilongjiang's largest city and capital.

Answer: Harbin or Ha'erbin or Ha-erh-pin

10. Eastern medicine is trendy now. Identify these things associated with Chinese medicine for 10 points each.

A. This is the energy that moves through all living things. It might be translated as "life energy." Disease is caused when this energy is not allowed to move freely through the body.

Answer: Qi or ch'i [chee]

B. This therapy is often used in conjunction with acupuncture, but is also used alone. It is the burning of the herb moxa on or near the skin.

Answer: Moxibustion


C. This is the practice of placing needles in the skin at specific locations to unblock the flow of qi [chee].

Answer: Acupuncture

11. Identify these Western social scientists who traveled in China in the 1920s for 10 points each.

A. She was an American feminist and a staunch advocate of birth control.

Answer: Margaret Sanger

B. This British philosopher and Nobel prize winner lectured on mathematical logic and the importance of pacifism.

Answer: Bertrand Arthur Russell

C. This Columbia University professor’s philosophy of pragmatism contributed to changes in educational practices in China.

Answer: John Dewey


12. Arts and literature flourished during the Tang dynasty. Identify these Tang dynasty poets for 10 points each:

A. He has been called the greatest poet in Chinese history. He considered himself a failure, never having success at the civil service examinations. However, he mastered all verse styles and wrote on a broad range of themes including war and suffering.

Answer: Du Fu or Tu Fu

B. This poet’s works focus on the subjects of friendship, nature and drinking. Legend says he died drunkenly trying to embrace the reflection of the moon on the Yangze River.

Answer: Li Bai or Li Bo or Li Po

C. He was a painter as well as a poet. He was a court official and many of his poems are written from the perspective of the reluctant official. He is thought to have retired to a Buddhist monastery before his death.

Answer: Wang Wei

13. 30-20-10 Name the person.

30: He had been a leader of the Tianjin student protestors of the May Fourth Movement before leaving to study in France.

20: After the founding of the People's Republic, he held the offices of Premier of the State Council and foreign minister.

10: After his death the Gang of Four banned mourning, but in April 1976 thousands of people gathered in Tian'anmen Square to mourn him. The demonstration was suppressed, but confirmed deep popular disillusionment with the Cultural Revolution.

Answer: Zhou Enlai or Chou En-lai

14. For 5 points each and an additional 5 points for all correct, list the Five Confucian Classics.

Answer:


Yi jing or I Ching or The Book of Changes

Shu jing or Shu Ching or The Book of History

Shi jing or Shih Ching or The Book of Poetry or The Book of Poems

Li ji or Li chi or The Book of Rites or Ritual or the Record of Rites

Chun qiu or Ch’un Ch’iu or The Spring and Autumn Annals
15. Identify these martial arts stars from titles for 15 points, or 10 if you need a more well-known title.

15: Supercop, Tomorrow Never Dies

10: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon

Answer: Michelle Yeoh

15: The Delta Force, Missing in Action

10: Walker, Texas Ranger

Answer: Chuck Norris
16. The Chinese were way ahead of the Europeans in science for hundreds of years. Identify the following things that the Chinese invented first for 10 points each.

A. The oldest piece of this material dates to about 100 BC and was discovered in a tomb. It is made from hemp fibers.


Answer: Paper


B. The earliest evidence of this invention comes from the first century AD. European ships had to use steering oars until they adopted it.

Answer: Rudders

C. By carefully studying the paths of comets, the Chinese discovered this phenomenon that makes comet tails always point away from the Sun.

Answer: Solar wind

17. Identify these Confucian scholars for 15 points each.

A. The basis of this “Second Sage’s” philosophy was based on the concept of benevolence and the innate goodness of people. He also devised an early form of the “social contract.”

Answer: Mencius or Mengzi or Meng-tzu

B. In contrast to Mencius, this philosopher felt that human nature was inclined to evil. He stressed the importance of rule by law with clear punishments and rewards.

Answer: Xunzi or Hsün-tzu

18. Identify the following rivers that begin in Tibet for 10 points each:

A. The port of Yangon lies at this river’s mouth. It flows south from Tibet down through Burma.

Answer: Irrawaddy River or Ayeyawady River

B. This river begins near the Indian border and flows southeast across India to join the Bramaputra in Bangladesh

Answer: Ganges River or Ganga River

C. It runs through Yunnan Province, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

Answer: Mekong River
19. Answer these related questions for 15 points each.

A. What term was given to the blending of statecraft and sport that occurred between the US and China in the early 1970s?


Answer: Ping pong diplomacy


B. In what year was the last time that China won all four Olympic gold medals in table tennis?

Answer: 2000


20. For 10 points each:

A. In 1915 the Japanese presented this ultimatum to China that would grant Japan greater territorial and economic rights in China.

Answer: The Twenty-One Demands

B. At the time the demands were presented, this man was President of China; he later accepted the offer by the Representative Assembly to become Emperor, he died a year later.

Answer: Yuan Shikai or Yüan Shih-kai

C. The Japanese demanded control of this peninsula, home of Port Arthur.

Answer: Liaodong or Kwuan-tung

21. Given the beginning and ending years of a dynasty, name it for 10 points each.

A. AD 960-1227

Answer: Song or Sung (these are the years for both the Northern and Southern dynasties.)

B. 221-207 BC

Answer: Qin or Ch'in (do not accept Qing or Ch'ing.)

C. AD 1368-1644

Answer: Ming

22. Identify these ruthless female leaders of China for 15 points each:

A. She ruled China behind the scenes for about 35 years, and then 15 as emperor during the Tang dynasty. She is the only female emperor in Chinese history.

Answer: Empress Wu Zetian

B: She began her career as an actress, but became an important political figure after her marriage to Mao Zedong. During the Cultural Revolution she was in charge of reforming the arts. She was convicted in 1981 for her activities as a member of the Gang of Four.

Answer: Jiang Qing or Chiang Ch’ing


23. Identify these Chinese musical instruments for 15 points each.

A. This is one of the most popular bowed instruments in China. It has two strings and is held vertically. It has a more nasal tone than a violin.

Answer: Erhu or Huqin

B. It is a four stringed lute with a pear-shaped body. It also has a bent neck with 30 frets. It has a history of over 2,000 years.


Answer: Pipa

24. 30-20-10 Name the novel

30: The novel takes place during the Song dynasty and tells the story of a group of 108 men and women

20: The bandits are all members of a "gallant fraternity" where only the rich are robbed and only the wicked killed, somewhat like in the story of Robin Hood.



10: Written by Shi Nai'an, this novel tells of a group of bandits residing in a boggy area.

Answer: The Outlaws of the Marsh or The Water Margin or All Men are Brothers or Shui Hu Zhuan or Shui Hu Chuan (accept reasonable English translations)


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