Choate vegetation management project



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8. DETERMINATIONS

Relative to species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA), as amended, Biological Evaluations must arrive at 1 of 3 possible determinations: 1) “no effect” 2) “not likely to adversely affect” (which includes beneficial effects), or 3) “likely to adversely affect”. If a “not likely to adversely affect” or “likely to adversely affect” determination is made relative to a listed species, informal consultation must be initiated with US Fish and Wildlife Service under section 7 of ESA.

Relative to sensitive species, Biological Evaluations must arrive at a finding of effects on each species’ population viability. The finding must be 1of the 3 following statements: 1) “no impact”, which may include beneficial impacts, 2) “may impact individuals of a species but not likely to cause a trend to federal listing or a loss of viability”, or 3) “likely to result in a trend to federal listing or loss of viability”.

ANIMALS

Alternative 1 (No Action) would have no effect on any federally-listed animals. Alternative one may impact individuals of the following Regional Forester’s Sensitive Species:, Alasmidonta marginata, Lasmigona compressa, L. costata, Ligumia recta, Gomphus quadricolor, Ophiogomphus anomalus, Ophiogomphus howei, Somatochlora forcipata, and S.minor., but is not likely to cause a trend to federal listing or loss of viability for these species, There will be no impacts to any other Regional Forester Sensitive Species analyzed in this biological evaluation.


Alternative 2 (Modified Proposed Action) would have no effect on any federally-listed animals. This alternative may impact individuals of the following species: Accipiter gentilis, Buteo lineatus, Alasmidonta marginata, Lasmigona compressa, L. costata, Ligumia recta, Gomphus quadricolor, Ophiogomphus anomalus, Ophiogomphus howei, Somatochlora Forcipata, and S. minor, but is not likely to cause a trend to federal listing or loss of viability. There will be no impact from this alternative to any other Regional Forester Sensitive Species of animal discussed in this biological evaluation.

PLANTS

Alternative 1 would have no impact on any Regional Forester's Sensitive plants or lichens. Federally-listed threatened and endangered plants or lichens are not expected to occur within the project area.

Alternative 2 could impact individuals of seven species of plants and three species of lichens. Plant species that may be impacted are Cynoglossum boreale, Cypripedium arietinum, Orobanche uniflora, Oryzopsis canadensis, Pterospora andromeda, Pyrola asarifolia, and Vaccinium cespitosum. Lichen species that may be impacted are Cetraria aurescens, Lobaria quercizans, and Usnea longissima. For these seven species of plant and three species of lichen, Alternative 2 may impact individuals, but would not likely cause a trend to federal listing or loss of viability. For all the other listed plant and lichen species, Alternative 2 would have no impact.
If any federally proposed or listed animal or plant species are found at a later date or, if any new information relevant to potential effects of the project on these species becomes available, then the project would be stopped and the Section 7 consultation process, as per the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, would be initiated.


9. MONITORING

Monitor created snags for at least 5 years post-topping (until 5-years post-closure of sales) to see if this is an effective Project Design Criteria for removal of snags in key aspen habitat potentially used by black-backed woodpeckers and boreal owls.


Monitor goshawk reproductive efforts for at least 5 years to determine if birds are displaced by forest management activities.

Monitor effectiveness of obliteration of FR9330 and FR9335 at stopping motorized travel through goshawk nesting territory.
As no sensitive plants are known to occur in the project area, no monitoring of sensitive plant species would occur.

10. LITERATURE CITED




ANIMALS

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Adams, Raymond J. Jr. 1991. Least bittern, Ixobrychus exilis. Pages 106-107, in: Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams (eds). 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press.

Baker, R.H. 1983. Michigan Mammals. Michigan State University Press, 642 pp. Pages 89-94 only (northern myotis); Pages 112-116 only (eastern pipistrelle); Pages 50-53 only (water shrew).

Binford, L.C. 1991. Connecticut warbler, Oporornis agilis. Pages 440-441 in: Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams (eds). 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press.

Bowerman, W. 1998. Do northern goshawks nest in old growth in the upper Midwest? Abstract of a talk given at the North American Ornithological Conference, St. Louis, MO.

Brewer, R. 1991. Black tern, Chlidonias niger. Pages 226-227 in: Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams (eds). 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press.

Brewer. R. and G.A. McPeek. 1991. Bald eagle, Halieetus leucocephalus, pages 160-161 in: Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams (eds). 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press.

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Ebbers, B.C. 1991. Red-shouldered hawk, Buteo lineatus. Pages 170-171 in: Brewer, R., G.A. McPeek, and R.J. Adams (eds). 1991. The atlas of breeding birds of Michigan. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press.

Erdman, T.C., D. F. Brinker, J. J. Jacobs, J. Wilde and T.O. Meyer. 1998. Productivity, population trend and status of northern goshawks, Accipiter gentiles atricapillus, in northeastern Wisconsin. Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 112, pgs 17-27.

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Hayward, G. D and J. Verner. 1994c. Conservation Status of Great Gray Owls in the United States. Pages 202-206 in Flammulated, Boreal, and Great Gray Owls in the United States: A technical Conservation Assessment, G. D. Hayward and Jon Verner, eds. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-253.

Hayward, G. D. and J. Verner. 1994b. Conservation Status of Boreal Owls in the United States. Pages 139-146 in Flammulated, Boreal, and Great Gray Owls in the United States: A technical Conservation Assessment, G. D. Hayward and Jon Verner, eds. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-253.

Hayward, G.D. and J Verner. 1994d. Review of Technical Knowledge: Great Gray Owls. Pages 159-172 in Flammulated, Boreal, and Great Gray Owls in the United States: A technical Conservation Assessment, G. D. Hayward and Jon Verner, eds. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-253.

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PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
Brian Bogaczyk, USDA Forest Service, Ottawa National Forest, Bessemer, Michigan.
Jim Hammill, Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources, Crystal Falls, Michigan.
Don Lonsway, USDA Animal Damage Control, Ironwood, Michigan.





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