Choate vegetation management project



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PLANTS

Alban, D. H. and E. C. Berry. 1994. Effects of earthworm invasion on morphology, carbon, and nitrogen of a forest soil. Applied Soil Ecology 1: 243-249.

Albert, Dennis A. 1995. Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin: a working map and classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-178. Section IX: Northern Continental Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. Available: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/1998/rlandscp/rlandscp.htm (Version 03JUN98).

Berlinger, N. 2000. A bad case of worms. Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune. 21 August 2000. page A-1.

Brady, N. C. and R. R. Weil. 1999. The nature and properties of soils. pp. 138-141, 699-701. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Brinson, M. M. and J. Verhoeven. 1999. Riparian Forests. In: Hunter, M. J. (ed.). Maintaining biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. p. 278-279. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Brodo, I.. M., S. D. Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. oo. 521-522, 721-723. Yale University Press. New Haven.

Brzeskiewicz, M. 2000. Conservation Assessment for Cypripedium arietinum (Ram’s-head lady’s-slipper). pp. 7, 10, 11, 15. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Caljouw, C. 1981. Life history and management recommendations for calypso, Calypso bulbosa, in Scraggly Lake Public Lot, T7 R8 WELS. Report to Bureau of Public Lands, ME. As cited in Michigan Natural Features Inventory, 1996.

Case, F.W. 1987. Orchids of the western Great Lakes region, pp. 85-88, 201-202, 212-214. Cranbrook Institute Science Bulletin 48, revised, Bloomfield Hills, MI.

Casson, J, I. Shackleford, L. Parker, and J. Schultz. 2001. Conservation Approach for Goblin Fern, Botrychium mormo W. H. Wagner. pp. 4, 11-23. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region.

Chadde, Steve. 1999. A Forester's Field Guide to the Endangered and Threatened Plants of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. pp. 15-16, 33-34, 45-46, 71-72, 89-90, 97-98, 101-102, 107-108, 119-120, 139-140, 179-180. PocketFlora Press. Calumet, Michigan.

Chadde, Steve. 2001. Sensitive plant species of National Forests of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. PocketFlora Press. Calumet, Michigan.

Chadde, S. and G. Kudray. 2001a. Conservation Assessment Botrychium lunaria (Common moonwort). pp. 25-27. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Chadde, S. and G. Kudray. 2001b. Conservation Assessment Botrychium oneidense (Blunt-lobed grapefern). pp. 25-35. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Chadde, S. and G. Kudray. 2001c. Conservation Assessment Botrychium pallidum (Pale moonwort). pp. 20-25. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Chadde, S. and G. Kudray. 2001d. Conservation Assessment Botrychium rugulosum (Ternate grapefern). pp. 23-33. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Chapman, K. A. 1986. Michigan Natural Community Types. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Available at: http://www.dnr.state.mi.us/wildlife/Heritage/Mnfi/

Cleland, D. T., P. E. Avers, W. H. McNab, M. E. Jensen,  R. G. Bailey, T. King, and W. E. Russell. 1997. National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. In: Boyce, M. S. and A. Haney (ed.). 1997. Ecosystem Management: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Resources. Yale University Press, New Haven & London. Available: http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/gla/

Cody, W.J. and D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and fern allies of Canada, pp. 111-113, 249. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Pub. 1829/E, Ottawa, Canada.

Coffman, M. S., E. Alyanak, J. Kotar, and J. E. Ferris. 1984. Habitat classification system field guide for Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northeast Wisconsin. Section 6, pp. 14-15, 18-21, 24-25, 28-30, 40-41. Cooperative Research on Forest Soils, School of Forestry and Wood Products, Michigan Technological University.

Curtis, J. T. 1972. The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. pp. 212-213, 236. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin

Frelich, L. and K. Puettmann. 1999. In: Hunter, M. J. (ed.) 1999. Maintaining biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. pp. 504, 510. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Fryday, A., J. Fair, M. Googe, A. Johnson and E. Bunting. 2002. Checklist of Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi recorded from Michigan. Michigan State University Herbarium. Available: http://www.bpp.msu.edu/herbarium/herb_frames.html

Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. pp. 172, 470, 828. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, New York.

Hale, M.E. 1979. How to know the lichens, 2nd ed., pp. 51-52, 213-214. Brown Co., Dubuque, IA.

Higman, P.J. and M.R. Penskar. 1999. Special plant abstract for Dentaria maxima (large toothwort). Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI, 2 pp.

Johnson-Groh, C., J. Casson, J. Dobberpuhl, D. Farrar, A. Hoefferle, H. Peters, H. Wagner, F. Wagner, C. Westfield, and P. Miller. 1998. Population life history and viability working group report. In: Berlin, N., P. Miller, J. Borovansky, U. S. Seal, and O. Byers (eds.). 1998. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Goblin Fern (Botrychium mormo): Final Report. p. 24. CBSG, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Klock, G. O., R, G. Cline, and D. N. Swanston. 1984. Geology and soil. In: Wenger, K. F. 1984. Forestry Handbook, Second Edition. p. 86. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

Langmaid, K. K. 1964. Some effects of earthworm invasion in virgin podzols. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 44: 34-37.

Lormier, C. G. 1990. Chapter 14, Silviculture. In: Young, R. A. and R. L. Giese (ed.). Introduction to Forest Science, Second Edition. p. John Wiley & Sons. New York.

Michigan Compiled Laws, 1994a. Michigan Ginseng Act. Act 184 of 1994. Available: http://www.michiganlegislature.org/

Michigan Compiled Laws, 1994b. Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act. Act 451 of 1994. Part 365, Endangered Species Protection. Available: http://www.michiganlegislature.org/

Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 1996a. Special plant abstract for Calypso bulbosa (calypso orchid). MNFI, Lansing, MI, 2 pp.

Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 1996b. Special plant abstract for Panax quinquefolius (ginseng). MNFI, Lansing, MI, 3 pp.

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1999. A Guide to Minnesota's Scientific and Natural Areas. Online version queried 11/3/00. Kawishiwi Triangle. Available: http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish_and_wildlife/sna/sna01074.html

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2000. Rare Natural Features (DN_EOR). Natural Heritage Rare Features Database (Laurentian Mixed Forest Province records). Natural Heritage & Nongame Research Program. Downloaded 28 November 2000.

Mladenoff, D.J. 1990. A Pacific Northwest disjunct, Disporum hookeri, in upper Michigan. Michigan Botanist 29: 97-102.

NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. 2001. Version 1.6 . Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. Queried Cynoglossum boreale and Juglans cinerea. Available: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Accessed: 2002 ).

Newhouse, D.A. 1993. Guide to endangered, threatened, and sensitive plants of the Nicolet National Forest. Not numbered, referred to pages on the following plants: Malaxis brachypoda and Polemonium occidentale. USDA Forest Service, Nicolet NF, Wisconsin.

Ostry, M.E., M.E. Mielke, and D.D. Skilling. 1994. Butternut - strategies for managing a threatened tree. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-165. North Central Forest Experiment Stn., USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, MN.

Penskar, M.R. 1993. Draft element stewardship abstract for Botrychium hesperium. The Nature Conservancy Midwest Region, Minneapolis, MN. Available: http://www.dnr.state.mi.us/wildlife/heritage/mnfi/abstracts.htm

Penskar, M.R., S.R. Crispin, and P.J. Higman. 1997. Special plant abstract for Petasites sagittatus (arrow-leaved sweet-coltsfoot). Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI, 2 pp. Available: http://www.dnr.state.mi.us/wildlife/heritage/mnfi/abstracts.htm

PVA (Population Viability Assessment), 2000a. Species Highlighted Data Reports [Botrychium lunaria, Botrychium pallidum, Erythronium albidum, Tiarella cordifolia, Malaxis bracypoda, Salix pellita]. Unpublished. Population Viability Assessment conducted for Minnesota and Wisconsin National Forests. Maintained by the USFS Regional Office.

PVA (Population Viability Assessment), 2000b. Population Viability Assessment Work Session: Lichens [Cetraria aurescens, Lobaria quercizans, Peltigera venosa, Sticta fuliginosa, Usnea longissima]. Unpublished. Population Viability Assessment conducted for Minnesota and Wisconsin National Forests. Maintained by the USFS Regional Office. Lichen panel experts were Clifford Wetmore, Jim Bennett, Al Fryday, John W. Thomson, and Susan Will-Wolf.

Sather, N., C. Kjos, C. Mortensen, J. Gallagher, S. Mortensen, C. Leibl, B. Wolff, S. Trull, and O. Byers. 1998. Threats and Risk Working Group Report. In: Berlin, N., P. Miller, J. Borovansky, U. S. Seal, and O. Byers (eds.). 1998. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Workshop for the Goblin Fern (Botrychium mormo): Final Report. pp. 47-56. CBSG, Apple Valley, Minnesota.

Saunders, M.R. 1999. Use of vegetational characteristics and browsing patterns to predict deer damage in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) plantations. Northern journal of applied forestry 16 (2) p. 96-102. [Abstract cited.]

Seymour, R. and M. Hunter. 1999. Principles of ecological forestry. In: Hunter, M. J. (ed.) Maintaining biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Sliwa, L. and C. Wetmore. 2001. Lichens of the Ottawa National Forest Region. Unpublished. p. 6. Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota.

Smith, A. R. 1993. Thelypteridaceae. In: Morin, N. R. Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 2, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. p. 222. Oxford University Press. New York.

Smith, W. R. 1988. Vascular plants. In: Coffin, B. and L. Pfannmuller (eds). 1988. Minnesota's Endangered Flora and Fauna. p. 204. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.

Spies, T. and M. Turner. 1999. Dynamic forest mosaics. In: Hunter, M. J. (ed.). Maintaining biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems. p. 126. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Thomson, J. W. and S. Will-Wolf. 2000. Rare Lichens of Wisconsin: Suggestions for Wisconsin’s Natural Heritage Working List. Wisconsin state Herbarium. University of Wisconsin – Madison. Available: http://wiscinfo.doit.wisc.edu/herbarium/LichenINTRO.htm

Threatened Macrolichen Project (Norwegian). 1996. Online database at http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/bot-mus/lav/factshts/ Queried 11/2000 on Usnea longissima. Web page currently unavailable.

USDA Forest Service. 1986. Appendix Volume Final Environmental Impact Statement, Land and Resource Management Plan, Ottawa National Forest. pp. H-5 to H-7. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region.

USDA Forest Service. 2000a. Threatened, Endangered, and Proposed Animals. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive (TES) Species Program web page. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/index.html

USDA Forest Service. 2000b. Threatened, Endangered, and Proposed Plants. USDA Forest Service, Eastern Region, Threatened, Endangered and Sensitive (TES) Species Program web page. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/index.html

USDA Forest Service. 2000c. Regional Forester Sensitive Animals. Eastern Region, USDA Forest Service, Milwaukee, WI. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/

USDA Forest Service. 2000d. Regional Forester Sensitive Plants. Eastern Region, USDA Forest Service, Milwaukee, WI. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/

USDA Forest Service. 2002. Conservation Assessments and Approaches. USDA Forest Service Eastern Region web page. http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/index.htm

Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora Part 1, Gymnosperms and Monocots. pp. 180-181, 183, 406-407, 457-458. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora Part 2, Dicots (Saururaceae - Cornaceae). pp. 43, 56, 97, 99-100, 123, 325-326, 494-495, 597-598. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora Part 3, Dicots (Pyrolaceae - Compositae). pp. 27-30, 33-34, 46, 48, 97, 99-100, 130-131, 247-248, 258, 385, 540-541. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Wagner, W. H. and F. S. Wagner. 1993. Ophioglossaceae. In: Morin, N. R. (ed.) Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 2, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. p. 94, 97-99. Oxford University Press. New York.

Waller, D. M., W. S. Alverson, and S. Solheim. 1996. Local and regional factors influencing the regeneration of eastern hemlock. In: Mroz, G. and J. Martin. (eds.). 1996. Hemlock Ecology and Management: Proceedings of a Regional Conference on Ecology and Management of Eastern Hemlock. Department of Forestry, Michigan Technological University, Houghton. pp. 73-90. [Cited page 73].

Wetmore, C. 1988. Lichens. In: Coffin, B. and L. Pfannmuller (eds.). 1988. Minnesota's Endangered Flora and Fauna. p. 239. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis.

Wetmore, C. 2000. Proposed list of rare species in Wisconsin. Unpublished.

Wetmore, C. and A. Fryday. 2000. Proposed list of rare species in Michigan. Unpublished.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1995. Deer population goals and harvest management - environmental assessment, E. Vander Zouwen and K. Warnke, eds. Table 4, pages 153-160.

Wisconsin Vascular Plants Database. 2002. Wisconsin State Herbarium: University of Wisconsin – Madison. Available: http://wiscinfo.doit.wisc.edu/herbarium/. Queried 5 April 2002 for Amerorchis rotundifolia, Bidens discoideus, Botrychium lunaria, Cynoglossum boreale, Erythronium albidum, Geocaulon lividum, Malaxis monophyllos var. bracypoda, Muhlenbergia uniflora, Oryzopsis asperifolia, Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Polemonium occidentalis ssp. lacustre, Polygonum careyi, Pyrola asarifolia ssp. asarifolia, and Viola lanceolata var. lanceolata.



APPENDIX 1:

CRITERIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT PER FSM, R6 SUPPLEMENT 2600-90-5
Risk Analysis Matrix


Consequences

Likelihood

Overall Risk

Listed Species Calls

Sensitive Species Calls

Low

None

None

No effect

no impact*

Low

Low

None-Low

No effect

no impact

Low

Moderate

Low

NLTAA

MII

Low

High

Low

NLTAA

MII














Moderate


None

None

No effect

no impact*

Moderate

Low

Low-Moderate

NLTAA

MII

Moderate

Moderate

Moderate

LAA

MII

Moderate

High

Moderate

LAA

MII
















High

None

None

No effect

no impact*

High

Low

Moderate

NLTAA

MII

High

Moderate

High

LAA

LRT

High

High

High

LAA

LRT

Listed species calls:

NLTAA - May affect, not likely to adversely affect

LAA - May affect, likely to adversely affect

Sensitive species calls:

* in some cases could be beneficial impact

MII - may impact individuals but not likely to cause a trend to federal listing or loss of viability

LRT - likely to result in a trend to federal listing or loss of viability



CRITERIA FOR RISK ASSESSMENT PER FSM, R6 SUPPLEMENT 2600-90-5
Factor 1: Consequence of Adverse Effect from a Particular Activity
Low None, or questionable adverse effect on habitat or population.

No cumulative effects expected.


Moderate Possible adverse effects on habitat or on population. Cumulative effects possible.
High Obvious adverse effects on habitat or population. Cumulative effects probable
Factor 2: Likelihood of Adverse Effect from a Particular Activity
None Activity will not affect habitat or population (no further risk assessment needed).
Low Activity controllable by seasonal or spatial restrictions and not likely to affect habitat or populations.
Moderate Activity not completely controllable or intense administration of project needed to prevent adverse effects on habitat or population. Adverse effects may occur.
High Activity not controllable and adverse effects on habitat or populations likely to occur.




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