Noah: This allusion to his wife "Titea" would imply that Noah had other children besides, Shem, Ham, and Japhet. The Four Masters say that he had a son named Bith.--See Note, "The Deluge," page 7.
Ireland: According to the Four Masters, "Ireland" is so called from Ir, the second son of Milesius of Spain who left any issue. It was known to the ancients by the following names: --
To the Irish as--1. Inis Ealga, or the Noble Isle. 2. Fiodh-Inis, or the Woody Island. 3. Crioch Fuinidh, the Final or most remote Country. 4. Inis-Fail, or the Island of Destiny. 5. Fodhla, learned. 6. Banba (from the Irish bandbh, a sucking pig.) 7. Eire, Eri, Eirin, and Erin, supposed by some to signify the Western Isle. 8. Muig Inis, meaning the Island of Mist or Melancholy.
To the Greeks and Romans as--9. Ierne, Ierna, Iernis, Iris, and Irin. 10. Ivernia, Ibernia, Hibernia, Juvernia, Jouvernia, Hiberia, Hiberione, and Verna. 11. Insula Sacra. 12. Ogy-gia, or the Most Ancient Land. (Plutarch, in the first century of the Christian era, calls Ireland by the name Ogy-gia; and Camden says that Ireland is justly called Ogy-gia, as the Irish, he says, can trace their history from the most remote antiquity: Hence O'Flaherty has adopted the name "Ogy-gia" for his celebrated work, in Latin, on Irish history and antiquities.) 13. Scotia. 14. Insula Sanctorum.
To the Anglo-Saxon as--15. Eire-land.
To the Danes as--16. Irlandi, and Irar.
To the Anglo-Normans as--17. Irelande.
 Colonies: According to some of the ancient Irish Chroniclers, the following were the nations that colonized Ireland:--
1. Partholan and his followers, called in Irish Muintir Phartholain, meaning "Partholan's People." 2. The Nemedians. 3. The Fomorians. 4. The Firbolgs or Firvolgians, who were also called Belgae or Belgians. 5. The Tuatha-de-Danans. 6. The Milesians or Gaels. 7. The Cruthneans or Picts. 8. The Danes and Norwegians (or Scandinavians). 9. The Anglo-Normans. 10. The Anglo-Saxons (or English). 11. The Scots from North Britain.
1. Partholan and his followers came from Scythia, and were located chiefly in Ulster at Inis-Saimer, in Donegal, and in Leinster at Ben Edair (now the Hill of Howth), in the county Dublin. After they had been in Ireland some thirty years, nearly the whole people perished by a plague; thousands of them were buried in a common tomb, in Tallaght, a place near Dublin: the name "Tallaght" meaning Tam-Laght or the Plague Sepulchre.
2. The Nemedians came from Scythia in Europe, and were located chiefly in Ulster at Ardmacha (or Armagh), and in Derry and Donegal; and in Leinster at the Hill of Uisneach, which is situated a few miles from Mullingar, in the county Westmeath.
3. Fomorians: According to the Annals of Clonmacnoise, the Fomorians (fogh: Irish, plundering; muir, the sea) were a "sept descended from Cham, son of Noah, who lived by pyracie and spoile of other nations, and were in those days very troublesome to the whole world;" and, according to O'Donovan's "Four Masters," the name "Fomorians" was that given by the ancient Irish to the inhabitants of Finland, Denmark, and Norway; but, according to Connellan, those people are considered to have come from the north of Africa, from a place called Lybia or Getulia, and to have been some of the Feiné or Phoenicians, whose descendants afterwards there founded the city of Carthage; and in Spain the cities of Gahdir or Gades (now Cadiz), and Kartabah (now Cordova). As Sidon in Phoenicia was a maritime city in the time of Joshua, and its people expert navigators; and as the Phoenicians, Sidonians, and Tyrians, in those early ages, were celebrated for their commercial intercourse with Greece, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Britain, there is nothing whatever improbable in a colony of them having sailed from Africa to Ireland: whose coming from Africa may have led to the belief that they were "descended from Cham (Ham); as their commercial intercourse with other nations may have led to their being considered "pirates." Possibly, then, the Fomorians here mentioned were the Erithneans, who were Phoenicians, and a colony of whom settled in Ireland at a very early period in the world's history. The Fomorians are represented as a race of giants, and were celebrated as having been great builders in stone. They were located principally along the coasts of Ulster and Connaught, mostly in Antrim, Derry, Donegal, Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo, and had their chief fortress (called Tor Conaing or Conang's Tower) on Tor Inis or the Island of the Tower, now known as "Tory Island," which is off the coast of Donegal; and another at the Giants' Causeway, which in Irish was called Cloghan-na-Fomoraigh or the Causeway of the Fomorians, as it was supposed to have been constructed by this people, who, from their great strength and stature, were, as above mentioned, called giants: hence the term "Giants' Causeway"--a stupendous natural curiosity of volcanic origin, situated on the sea-coast of Antrim, and consisting of a countless number of basaltic columns of immense height, which, from the regularity of their formation and arrangement, have the appearance of a vast work of art; and hence were supposed to have been constructed by giants.
After the Fomorians became masters of the country, the Nemedians (neimhedh; Irish, dirt, filth of any kind), were reduced to slavery, and compelled to pay a great annual tribute on the first day of winter--consisting of corn, cattle, milk, and other provisions; and the place where these tributes were received was named Magh Ceitne, signifying the Plain of Compulsion, and so called from these circumstances. This plain was situated between the rivers Erne and Drabhois (drabhas: Irish, dirt, nastiness), between Ballyshannon and Bundrowes, on the borders of Donegal, Leitrim, and Fermanagh, along the sea-shore.--See Connellan's "Four Masters."
Three bands of the Nemedians emigrated with their respective captains: one party wandered into the north of Europe; others made their way to Greece, where they were enslaved, and obtained the name of "Firbolgs" or bagmen, from the leathern bags which they were compelled to carry; and the third section took refuge in England, which obtained its name Britain, from their leader "Briottan Maol."--See Miss CUSACK'S "History of Ireland."
4. The Firbolgs or Firvolgians, who were also Scythians, divided Ireland amongst the five sons of their leader Dela Mac Loich: "Slainge [slane] was he by whom Teamor (or Tara) was first raised." (Four Masters). One hundred and fifty Monarchs reigned in Tara from that period until its abandonment in the reign of Diarmod, son of Fergus Cearrbheoil, who was the 133rd Monarch of Ireland, and King of Meath. The Firvolgians ruled over Connaught down to the third century, when King Cormac Mac Art, the 115th Monarch of Ireland, attacked and defeated the forces of Aodh or Hugh, son of Garadh, King of Connaught, who was the last King of the Firbolg race in Ireland; and the sovereignty of Connaught was then transferred to the Milesians of the race of Heremon--descendants of King Cormac Mac Art. The Firbolg race never after acquired any authority in Ireland, being reduced to the ranks of farmers and peasants; but they were still very numerous, and to this day a great many of the peasantry, particularly in Connaught, are considered to be of Firbolg origin.
5. The Tuatha de Danans, also of the Scythian family, invaded Ireland thirty-six years after the plantation by the Firbolgs. According to some annalists, they came originally from Persia, and to others, from Greece; and were located chiefly at Tara in Meath, at Croaghan in Connaught, and at Aileach in Donegal. The Danans being highly skilled in the arts, the Round Towers of Ireland are supposed to have been built by them. The light, gay, joyous element of the Irish character may be traced to them. They were a brave and high-spirited race, and famous for their skill in what was then termed Magic: hence, in after ages, this wonderful people were considered to have continued to live in hills or raths, as the "good people" long so commonly believed in as fairies, in Ireland. But their "magic" consisted in the exercise of the mechanical arts, of which those who had previously invaded Ireland were then ignorant. It is a remarkable fact, that weapons of warfare found in the carns or gravemounds of the Firbolgs are of an inferior kind to those found in the carns of the Tuatha-de-Danans: a proof of the superior intelligence of the latter over the former people. The inventor of the Ogham [owam] Alphabet (ogham: Irish, "an occult manner of writing used by the ancient Irish") was Ogma, father of one of the Tuatha-de-Danan Kings. In McCartin's Irish Grammar it is stated that there were no less than thirty-five different modes of writing the Ogham, which has hitherto defied the power of modern. science to unravel its mysteries. But the truth of our ancient history is strangely confirmed by the fact that the letters of this Alphabet are all denominated by the names of trees and shrubs indigenous to Ireland! According to the "Book of Leinster," it was "Cet Cuimnig, King of Munster, of the royal line of Heber, that was the first that inscribed Ozam [or Ogham] memorials in Erinn." This extract gives a clue to the period when Ogham stones were first erected, and why the most of them are to be found in the Province of Munster; for, according to the Septuagint system of chronology, that King of Munster reigned about the year 1257 before the birth of Christ!
6. The Milesians invaded Ireland one hundred and ninety-seven years later than the Tuatha de Danans; and were called Clan-na-Mile [meel], signifying the descendants of Milesius of Spain.
7. The Cruthneans or Picts were also Scythians, and, according to our ancient historians, came from Thrace soon after the arrival of the Milesians; but, not being permitted by the Milesians to remain in Ireland, they sailed to Scotland and became the possessors of that country, but tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. In after ages colonies of them came over and settled in Ulster; they were located chiefly in the territories which now form the counties of Down, Antrim, and Derry.
8. The Danes and Norwegians (or Scandinavians), a Teutonic race of Scythian origin, came to Ireland in great numbers, in the ninth and tenth centuries, and were located chiefly in Leinster and Munster, in many places along the sea-coast: their strongholds being the towns of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork, and Limerick.
9. The Anglo-Normans came to Ireland in the twelfth century, and possessed themselves of a great part of the country, under their chief leader, Richard de Clare, who was also named Strongbow. They were a Teutonic race, descended from the Normans of France, who were a mixture of Norwegians, Danes, and French, and who conquered England in the eleventh century. The English invasion of Ireland was accomplished ostensibly through the agency of Dermod MacMorough, King of Leinster; on account of his having been driven from his country by the Irish Monarch for the abduction of the wife of Tiernan O'Ruarc, Prince of Breffni. For that act, Roderick O'Connor, the Monarch of Ireland, invaded the territory of Dermod, A.D. 1167, and put him to flight King Dermod was obliged, after many defeats, to leave Ireland, in 1167; throw himself at the feet of King Henry the Second, and crave his assistance, offering to become his liegeman. Henry, on receiving Dermod's oath of allegiance, granted by letters patent a general license to all his English subjects to aid King Dermod in the recovery of his Kingdom. Dermod then engaged in his cause Richard de Clare or Strongbow, to whom he afterwards gave his daughter Eva, in marriage; and through his influence an army was raised, headed by Robert Fitzstephen, Myler Fitzhenry, Harvey de Monte Marisco, Maurice Prendergast, Maurice Fitzgerald, and others; with which, in May 1168, he landed in Bannow-bay, near Wexford, which they reduced, together with the adjoining counties-- all in the kingdom of Leinster. In 1171, Earl Strongbow landed at Waterford with a large body of followers and took possession of that city. He then joined King Dermod's forces, marched for Dublin, entered the city, and made himself master.
King Dermod died in his castle at Ferns, county Wexford, A.D. 1175, about the 65th year of his age. Of him Holingshed says--"He was a man of tall stature and of a large and great body, a valiant and bold warrior in his nation. From his continued shouting, his voice was hoarse; he rather chose to be feared than to be loved, and was a great oppressor of his nobility. To his own people he was rough and grievous and hateful unto strangers; his hand was against all men, and all men against him."
10. The Anglo-Saxons or English, also a Tuetonic race, came from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. The Britons or Welsh came in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These English colonies were located chiefly in Leinster, but also in great numbers in Munster and Connaught, and partly in Ulster.
11. The Scots, who were chiefly Celts of Irish descent, came in great numbers from the tenth to the sixteenth century, and settled in Ulster, mostly in Antrim, Down and Derry; but, on the Plantation of Ulster with British colonies, in the seventeenth century, the new settlers in that province were chiefly Scotch, who were a mixture of Celts and Saxons. Thus the seven first colonies that settled in Ireland were a mixture of Scythians, Gaels, and Phoenicians; but the four last were mostly Teutons though mixed with Celts; and a compound of all these races, in which Celtic blood is predominant, forms the present population of Ireland.
Briottan Maol: See No. 19 on "The Pedigree of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," Part I., c. vi., p. 43.
Monarchy: Mac Firbis shows that Ireland was a Monarchy, before and after Christ, for a period of 4,149 (four thousand, one hundred and forty-nine) years!
A.D. 1186: It was, no doubt, in that year, that, weary of the world and its troubles, Roderick O'Connor, the 183rd Monarch of Ireland, retired to a Monastery, where he died A.D. 1198. But, see No. 184 on the "Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland since the Milesian Conquest, and the Note "Brian O'Neill," in connection with that Number.
Shields: This shows the great antiquity of Gaelic Heraldry.
Eire: Ancient Irish historians assert that this Queen was granddaughter of Ogma, who (see ante, page 47, in Note No. 5, under "Tuatha de Danans,") invented the Ogham Alphabet; and that it is after that Queen, that Ireland is always personated by a Female figure!
Aileach Neid: This name may be derived from the Irish aileach, a stone horse or stallion, or aileachta, jewels; and Neid, the Mars of the Pagan Irish. In its time it was one of the most important fortresses in Ireland.
Inis-Fail: Thomas Moore, in his Irish Melodies, commemorates this circumstance in the "Song of Inisfail":
They came from a land beyond the sea
And now o'er the western main
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly,
From the sunny land of Spain.
"Oh, where's the isle we've seen in dreams,
Our destined home or grave?"
Thus sang they, as by the morning's beams,
They swept the Atlantic wave.
And lo! where afar o'er ocean shines
A spark of radiant green,
As though in that deep lay emerald mines,
Whose light through the wave was seen.
"'Tis Innisfail -- 'tis Innisfail!"
Rings o'er the echoing sea;
While, bending to heaven, the warriors hail
That home of the brave and free.
Then turned they unto the Eastern wave,
Where now their Day-god's eye
A look of such sunny omen gave
As lighted up sea and sky.
Nor frown was seen through sky or sea,
Nor tear o'er leaf or sod,
When first on their Isle of Destiny
Our great forefathers trod.
Three: We make the number to be 184: see p. 62,infra.
Contents page for Volume One of Irish Pedigrees