Civil law property final exam notes (robert godin) april 2007

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CIVIL LAW PROPERTY FINAL EXAM NOTES (ROBERT GODIN)

APRIL 2007
By Andrew Carvajal



Introduction to Civil Law Property 16

three elements 16

two persons 16

juridical personality 16

Human persons 16

Art. 1 16

Art. 6 17

Art. 7 17

Legal persons 17

Art. 298 17

Art. 301 17

Art. 316 17

(State enterprises) 17

Art. 300 18

Different kinds of persons 18

enterprises 18

Art. 1525.3 18

Art. 2683 18

Art. 2684 19

Art. 2685 19

Art. 2686 19

Partnerships 19

trusts 19

Art. 1261 19

syndicate 19

Art. 1039 19

L’objet du droit 20

Movable vs. immovable property 20

res communes 20

res nullius 20

Art. 913 20

Art. 914 20

capital:, usufruct and objects 20

La Nature du droit 20

The Civil Code 21

suppletive 22

Art. 9 22

The Preliminary Provision of the Code 23

J. E. C. Brierly \“The New Civil Code of Quebec\ 23

Preliminary Provision 23

Dore v. Verdun 24

implementation 24

The question of transition 25

Definition of Property (Les Bien) 25

biens et choses 26

Terré & Philippe Simler 26

Patrimony (Patrimoine) 27

Art. 2 27

Art. 302 27

Aubry and Rau 27

Three main principles 27

Terré and Simler 27

droits extra-patrimoniales 28

common pledge 28

Art. 2644 28

Art. 2645 28

Art. 2646 28

Art. 2647 28

Pierre Roy & Associés inc. c. Bagnoud 29

successions 29

Art. 625 29

Art. 780 29

Partnerships and patrimony 29

Roy c. Boivin Carrier 30

Art. 2221 30

fiduciary substitutions 30

family patrimony 30

Couture c. Gagnon 30

Art.1223 30

Art.414 31

Art.415 31

Art.416 31

Appropriation 32

trust 32


patrimony in crown corporations 32

Patrimonial and extra-patrimonial rights 32

Art.3 32

Art.25 33

Art.536 33

Art.35 33

Real and Personal Rights 33

Real right, jus in re, droits reeles 34

Personal right, jus in personam, droit de creence 34

Art.1519 34

The Lease: An Example 34

Art.1851 34

Art. 1854 34

Art. 1855 34

Buying a house 34

Art. 1710 and 1712 35

Art. 1710 and 1712 35

Art. 1397 35

Art. 2946 35

advanced registration 35

Art. 2966 35

Real Rights 35

3 elements of the rights of ownership 36

Art.947 36

Types of dismemberment 36

Usufruct 36

Art.1120 36

Art.1172 36

Real servitude 36

Art.1177 36

Emphyteusis 37

Art.1195 37

Pincipales modalités 37

Art.1009 37

Art.1010 37

Art.1011 38

Accessory real rights 38

Art.2644 38

Art.2645 38

Art.2646 38

Art.2647 38

Hypothec 38

Art.2660 39

Art.2661 39

Art.2647 39

Art.8 39


Art.911 40

Intellectual Property 40

s.91(2) Constitution Act 1867 40

Publication or Rights and Registration 41

Cadastre 41

parcel identification units 41

two types of systems 42

registration of deeds 42

title registration 42

Art.2941 43

Art.2935 43

Art.2936 44

Art.2971.1 44

Art.2938 44

Art.2934 44

Art.2934.1 44

Art.2982 45

Art.2943 45

Art.2944 45

Art.2963 46

Art.2964 46

Art.1455 46

Art.1038 46

Art.1039 47

Art.2968 47

Movables and Immovables 47

What is the relevance of this distinction today? 47

Art.899 48

Art.3098 48

Art.3102 48

alienation of property 48

art 1299 48

art.1305, 48

art. 1307 48

Art. 174 49

art.213 49

formalism 49

Art.2693 49

Art.2696 49

Prescription 49

Art.2918 49

Art.2919 49

Arts. 404-05 50

art. 852 50

old code 50

Art. 907 50

By nature 50

Bélair c. Ste-Rose 50

Nadeau c Rousseau 50

Horn Elevator Limited c. Domine D’Iberville Limitée 50

Cablevision (Montréal) Inc. c. Deputy Minister of Revenue of the Province of Quebec 51

By destination 51

Incorporeal immovables right 52

Corporeal rights 52

Art. 921 52

What happens under the new Code? 52

Art. 899: 53

Art 900 53

Art 901 53

Service Diron 53

rt. 903 53

S.48 of the transitory provision 54

Why was immobilization by destination removed? 54

S.48: 54


Art. 1843 55

Art. 2672 55

Art. 2796 55

Art. 571 of the Code of Civil Procedure 55

Construtek G.B. Inc. c. Laforge 56

Axor Construction c. 3099-220 Québec Inc.) 56

Ville de Montréal c. 2313-1329 Québec Inc 56

Note on the transition 56

Art. 904 56

Art. 2695 56

Art. 905 57

Art. 906 57

Art. 907 57

consumable 57

Art. 1127 57

Art. 2314 57

fungible 58

Art. 1453 58

Res communes 58

Art. 913 58

Water 58

Art. 981 58

Morin c. Morin 59

Art. 934 59

appropriated 59

Art. 914 59

Art. 935 59

Can you abandon an immovable? 59

Art. 936 60

On treasures 60

Art. 938 60

Jacques Boivin Et Gaétan Fournier C. Le Procureur Général Du Québec 60

Vacant estates 60

Art. 696 60

hors commerce 61

Art. 631 61

Art. 1212 61

Art. 3 61

Arts. 2795 and 2876 61

Public and Private Ownership - \“Domaine\ 61

Arts 911-920 and 934-946 61

Art. 915 61

How did we get into the discussion of private/public property? 62

France 62

Art. 918 62

Art. 919 62

The history of \“domaine\ 63

censirents 63

Art. 923 63

free and common soccage 64

What is pubic domain? 65

Art. 300 66

What are these special characteristics of State property? 66

Property is un-prescriptible 66

Art. 2876 66

Property in inalienable 67

Art.94.9 of the Code of Civil Procedure 67

Immunity from taxation 67

private and public domain of the State 67

duality: the municipal level 68

Les Bâtiments Kalad’art c. Construction D.R.M 68

Concrete Column Clamps Ltd. v. City of Quebec 69

J. Serrentino Construction v. Laval sur le Lac [1966] C.S. 425 69

City of Montreal v. Hill-Clark-Francis [1968] C.A. 70

Concordia Concrete Floors Ltd v. Louis Laflamme Construction Inc. [1980] 70

Ville de Sherbrooke v. Pelouse de la Capitale [1983] C.S. 758 70

Construction Socam Ltée V. Communauté Urbaine De Montréal 71

Macconerie Demers v. AMT 71

Société Des Traversiers Du Québec V. Produits D'acier Écan Inc 71

Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Marie De Trois-Rivières V. Jacques Roy 71

Art.94 of Code of Civil Procedure 71

art.94.9 of the CCP 71

Art. 911 72

Art. 947 72

Art. 952 72

4 fundamental characteristics; 73

Absolute 73

Total 73


Exclusive and individual 73

Perpetual 73

Voisinage 74

Legal servitudes 74

Real servitudes 74

Art. 1177 74

Art. 976 75

Water 75

Morin c. Morin 75

Art. 951 75

Art. 979 75

Art. 981 76

Art. 920 76

Art. 982 76

Calvé c. Gestion Serge Lafrenière inc 76

Roy c. Tring-Jonction 77

Trees 77

Art. 984 77

Art. 985 77

Art. 986 77

Access to the land of another 78

Art. 988 78

Encroachments 78

Art. 992 78

Gosselinc c. Doiron 79

Distances between buildings 79

Art. 993 79

Art. 994 79

Art. 995 79

Art. 996 79

Right of way (enclave) 79

Art. 997 80

Art. 999 80

Art. 1000 80

Whitebirth c. Martin 80

The origin of Art. 976 80

Art. 1457 81

When does this of voisinage concept come into play? 81

damage 81

regular occurrence 81

Léo Pilon c. St-Janvier Golf & Country Club Inc 81

Katz v. Reitz 82

Christopolous v. Restarurant M 82

Gourdeau c. Lettelier de St. Just 82

defences 82

Remedies 82

Calvé c. Tring-Jonction 83

S.6 of the Canadian Charter 83

s.49 of the Charter 83

Art. 1621 83

Construction 83

Art. 990 83

Art. 991 83

Katz c. Reitz 83

Art. 1465 84

Art. 1467 84

Environment Equality Act 84

Act respecting Agricultural Land and Agricultural Activities 84

Limitation to the Right of Ownership Imposed by the Public Interest 84

Two levels of expropriation in Canada 84

Reserves 85

Bill 36 85

zoning 85

Sula c. Cite de Duvernay 86

Themens v. Royer 86

TERM II 87

More on Ownership – Barnage 87

Art. 977 87

Art. 978 87

Land Survey Act 87

Art. 2996 88

Art. 789 of the CCP 88

Art. 806 of the CCP 88

Subsoil and Air Space 88

Art. 951 88

Art. 985 89

Art. 976 89

Lacroix v. R. 89

Lacroix v. The Queen 89

Mining Act 90

Acquisition of Ownership 90

Occupation and abandoned property 90

Tremblay v. Boivin 90

Art. 934 90

Art. 935 91

Conditions to be able to occupy 91

Prescription 92

Jacques Boivin Et Gaétan Fournier c. Le Procureur Général Du Québec 92

Art. 939 93

Accession 93

first type 93

Art. 948 93

Art. 949 93

Art. 910 93

second type 94

Christian Atias 94

Artificial accession 94

Art. 955 94

Art. 956 94

Art. 2671 95

Art. 957 95

Art. 1110 95

movable accession 95

Art. 971 95

Art. 975 95

Art. 2673 95

Location Fortier Inc. v. Pacheco 96

Possession 96

CARBONNIER (1995) \“Droit Civil: Les Biens\ 96

MAZEAUD, MAZEAUD et CHABAS (1984) 96

Art. 921 99

Distinction between intention and detention 99

Two elements of possession 99

Terré & Simler 100

Art. 924 100

possession utile 100

Art. 922 100

Continuity 100

Art. 925 100

Peacefulness 100

Art. 927 100

Art. 926 101

Public 101

Unequivocal 101

Good and bad faith 101

Art. 932 101

Art. 2805 101

Art. 2943 102

Morin-Gagné c. Capital Midland Walwyn inc 102

Art. 931 102

Fiducie Enfants-Marier c. 2955-9754 Québec Inc 103

Why the interest in possession and what is its impact? 103

What are the juridical consequences? How does possession operate? 103

Art. 923 104

Art. 916 104

Art. 930 104

Art. 957 104

Art. 958 105

Art. 959 105

Art. 960 105

Art. 961 105

Art. 962 105

Art. 963 106

Art. 964 106

Types of detentors 106

The role of the possessor 106

Art. 929 107

Art. 2923 107

Petatory action 107

Art. 912 107

Sivret v. Giroux 108

Prescription 108

Art. 916 108

Art. 2875 109

Art. 2921 109

Art. 2922 109

general rule is 10 years 109

Art. 2923 109

Art. 2924 109

Art. 2925 109

Art. 1162 110

Art. 1191 110

Art. 2795 110

Art. 2798 110

Art. 2799 110

Acquisitive prescription 111

Art. 2910 111

Art. 2917 111

Art. 2911 111

Terré & Simler 111

How does prescription operate now? 112

Art. 2876 112

Art. 2877 112

Art. 2904 113

Art. 2905 113

Art. 2880 113

Art. 2883 113

Art. 2884 114

Art. 2930 114

Doré v.Verdun (City) 114

Successions 114

Art. 2912 114

Art. 2914 115

Art. 2919 115

Morin-Gagné c. Capital Midland Walwyn inc 115

Art. 2928 116

Art. 2929 116

Interruption 116

Art. 2889 116

Art. 2890 116

Art. 2891 116

Art.2918 116

Art. 805 of the Code of Civil Procedure 116

Art. 806 of the Code of Civil Procedure 116

retroactive effect? 116

On retroactivity 117

Modes of Ownership – Modalités 117

Allice c. Potashner 117

Allice c. Potashner 117

Art. 1009 118

Co-ownership 118

Art. 1010 119

Droit de la famille 119

Undivided co-ownership – Indivision 120

MARLER (The Role of Real property) 120

CUMYN (L’Indivision) 120

Art. 1012 122

Art. 1013 122

Art. 1030 123

Art. 1037 123

Art. 943 123

Art. 1032 124

publication 124

Art. 1014 124

Art. 2938 125

Art. 1015 125

Art. 1016 125

Art. 1017 125

Art. 1018 126

Art. 1021 126

Art. 2679 126

Art. 1022 127

STCUM Community v. Bandera investments 127

Pension Fund for the Employees of STCUM Community v. Bandera investments 127

Art. 1023 128

In the case of Harel c. 2760-1699 Quebec Inc 128

Cadieux c. Caron 128

On administration 129

Art. 1025 129

Art. 1026 129

Art. 1027 129

Art. 1028 129

Art. 1029 129

Art. 1030 129

Art. 1031 130

Art. 1032 130

Art. 1033 130

Art. 1034 131

Art. 1037 131

Successions 131

Art. 836 131

Art. 837 132

Art. 839 132

Art. 840 132

Art. 841 132

Art. 842 132

Art. 843 132

Art. 844 132

Art. 847 133

Art. 884 133

Arts. 809 and 810 in the Code of Civil Procedure 133

Forced or Permanent/Perpetual indivision 133

Arises in three situations 133

MIGNAULT 133

Note: la copropriété permanente – permanent Co-Ownership 134

Art. 1002 134

Art. 1003 135

Art. 1004 135

Art. 1005 136

Art. 996 136

Maintenance 136

Art. 1006 136

Meneghini v. Zambito-Orazio 136

Groleau v. Scté Immobilière du Patrimoine architectural de Montreal 136

Art. 1007 137

Things destined to the perpetual services of immovables 138

Condominium – Divided Co-ownership 138

Two types of portions 138

Art. 1041 139

Art. 1042 139

Art. 1043 139

Art. 1044 139

Art. 1045 139

Art. 1046 139

Art. 1038 140

Art. 3030 140

Art. 1048 140

Destination 140

Declaration 140

Art. 1052 141

Art. 1053 141

Art. 1054 141

Art. 1056 141

Art. 1063 141

Talbot v. Guay (1992) 141

Bergeron v. Martin 142

Wilson v. Syndicat des Co-proprietaires du condo le Champlain 142

Immeubles St. Laurent v. Zrihen 143

Kilzi v. Syndicat des Co-propriétaires du 10,400 Boul. l’Acadie 144

Amselem v. Syndicat Northcrest 144

Epoux X c. Syndicat des copropriétaires les Jardins de Gorbella 144

Art. 1062 144

What are some of the changes that were adopted at the time of the reform? 145

Art. 1055 145

Voting 145

Art. 1096 145

Art. 1097 145

Art. 1090 146

Art. 1101 146

Syndicate 146

Art. 1039 146

Art. 334 147

contingency fund 147

Art. 1072 147

Art. 1073 147

Art. 1075 147

Art. 1109 148

Relative value 148

Art. 1040 149

Art. 1051 149

Art. 1064 149

Art. 1075 149

Art. 1078 150

Art. 1090 150

How is relative value established? 150

Art. 1041 150

Art. 1053 150

Art. 1068 151

Gareau v. Syndicate St. Gabriel 151

Art. 1057 152

Art. 1065 152

Art. 1070 152

Art. 1079 152

Kilzi v. Syndicat des Co-propriétaires du 10,400 Boul. l’Acadie 152

Time-sharing 152

Some provisions that have also changed 153

Art. 1092 153

Art. 1104 153

Art. 1105 153

Art. 1106 154

Art. 1107 154

Art. 1080 155

arts. 897 to 910 of the Code of Civil Procedure 155

Arts. 751 and 752 of the Code of Civil Procedure 155

Art. 752 of the CCP 155

Latent defect 155

Art. 1077 156

Art. 1081 156

Art. 1011 156

MARLER, \“The law of Real Property\ 156

QC v. Développements de Demain Inc 157

JG Cardinal 158

How would this arise? 158

how superficies can be establised 159

Art. 1110 159

Art. 1111 159

Art. 1113 159

Extinction of superficies 159

Art. 1116 160

Art. 1118 160

Code of Civil Procedure art.696 161

Morin v. Grégoire 161

Stone-Consolidated v. Pierre Desjardins Gestion Inc. 161

LaFontaine c. Grave 162

Dismemberments 162

Art. 1119 162

Usufruct 162

MIGNAULT 163

CANTIN-CUMYN, \“De l’usufruit, de l’usage et de l’habitation \» 163

Art. 1120 164

two concurrent rights at the same time 165

Art. 1125 165

Cantin-Cumyn, \“De L’Usufruit, de l’Usage et de l’Habitation\ 166

How is usufruct established? 166

Art. 1121 166

Art. 1160 166

Art. 908 167

Art. 910 167

Art. 1123 167

Art. 1130 168

Art. 1131 168

Art. 1133 168

Art. 1137 168

Art. 1138 168

How is it extinguished? 168

Art. 1162 168

Art. 1171 169

Laroque v. Beauchamps 169

Right of use 169

Art. 1172 169

Banque Nationale du Canada v. Gravel 170

Servitudes 171

Note on the Nature of the Charge which May Constitute a Servitude 171

Art. 911 172

Personal servitudes 172

A real servitude 172

Art. 1119 172

What is the exact nature of the charge imposed by a servitude? 173

Whitworth v. Martin 174

Abandonment 175

Terré et Simler - Servitude et Obligation Réelle 175

Dorion v. Les Ecclésiastiques du Séminaire de Montréal, 175

Art. 1178 176

Wasserman Stotland Bratt Grossbaum & Pinsky Inc.v. Édifice 9500 Incorporée 176

Cadieux v. Hinse & Morin 176

Hamilton v. Wall 177

Economic servitudes 177

Segal v. Ross 178

Obligations and servitudes 178

How are servitudes established? 178

Art. 1181 178

Administrative servitude 179

How is the servitude exercised? 179

Art.1177 180

Art. 1186 180

How is it terminated? 180

Art. 1191 180

Art. 1189 181

Art. 1192 181

Art. 1193 181

Art.696 of the Code of Civil Procedure 181

Emphyteusis 181

Art. 1195 182

Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada v. 137578 Canada Inc. 183




Introduction to Civil Law Property

Looking at New Civil Code adopted Dec 1991

Old code similar to French Napoleonic code
In civil law cases reflect, apply, interpret the code, unlike in common law, where they make the law

Important texts

Civil Code

Introduction aux droits des biens

Biens et proprieté

Code of Civil Procedure (many rules in here that tie closely to the civil code)


In any question dealing with property and patrimony, three elements are taken into consideration



  1. The person – sujet du droit

  2. The thing – la chose or l’object du droit

  3. The nature of the relationship between the person or the thing – la nature du droit

In legal systems we recognize two persons



  1. The human person (personne physique)

  2. The legal person (personne morale) – associations, corporations

Personalité juridique (juridical personality): The ability to become un sujet du droit


Human persons - personne physique: every human being has juridical personality; section 1 of the civil code and also the charter of human rights and freedom
  • Certain restrictions apply: art 6 every person is to exercise their civil rights in good faith


  • Art. 7 no right may be exercised to injure someone else

  • So having rights as a juridical person implies that there is a framework of how to exercise them that needs to be followed

  • So every human being, when born, has juridical personality

  • Human persons cannot lose juridical personality except through death

      • Before people could be declared civilly dead (mort civile) – this was replaced with civil degradation (in which case you couldn’t write a will etc); both of these have disappeared




Art. 1

Every human being possesses juridical personality and has the full enjoyment of civil rights.




Art. 6

Every person is bound to exercise his civil rights in good faith.



Art. 7

No right may be exercised with the intent of injuring another or in an excessive and unreasonable manner which is contrary to the requirements of good faith.

Things, including animals, have no juridical personality

Legal persons (personne morale)


  • Legal fictions, abstract non-material creations of the legal system

  • E.g. a corporation

  • The old code didn’t deal much with legal persons

  • Art 298 entitles legal person with juridical personality

  • Art 301 entitles them with full enjoyment of civil rights

  • Their rights are distinct from those of the shareholders

  • Art. 316 People who were responsible for the wrongdoing of the legal person (i.e. directors) can be held personally liable

      • People cannot use the legal person to act in bad faith

  • There is a special kind of legal person: the crown and state authority; with very special rules for the rights that it can and cannot enjoy




Art. 298

Legal persons are endowed with juridical personality.

Legal persons are established in the public interest or for a private interest.




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